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The Spanish-American War. (The course in history for the institutes this summer includes a lesson on the Spanish-American war. The following brief sketch will be found worth preserving by every teacher. It was prepared by Miss M. A. Whitney, teacher of United States History, and Mr. W. S. Picken, assistant teacher of history at the State Normal School. Most of it is reprinted from the May number in order to meet the demands of the later institutes.
I. The fairest of Spain's island possessions, Cuba was likewise one of the earliest locations for a Spanish colony. Columbus lived long enough to see a permanent settlement planted upon the island and Las Casas in his accounts of the inhuman treatment to which the Indians of the West Indies were subjected, gave to the world a reasonable portrayal of the policy of oppression or extermination which everywhere distinguished ths Spaniards as colonial rulers.
From the first, Cuba groaned under the Spanish colonial policy,-a policy which always meant the enrichment of the home government or of native-born Spanish officials at the expense and suffering of the colonists.
For a century the island was the base from which expeditions of conquering Spaniards over-ran surrounding tropical Amer ica. For another century it was from her harbors that fleets laden with the spoils of conquests in the New World sailed for the homeland and then followed a long period during which she witnessed the efforts of French and English navies for supremacy in the West Indian seas. English speaking people of the North American continent became interested in Cuba in an especial way when, in 1762, toward the close of the French and Indian War, Havana fell into English hands after efforts of unparalleled bravery and hardship upon the part of the English soldiers and sailors. Spain's estimate of the value of the island's control may be readily inferred from the alacrity with which in 1763 she exchanged the Floridas for Havana.
Despite the selfishness and cruelty of Spanish rule it was not until the opening years of the present century that elements of friction and rebellion appeared. Indeed it would seem that the malevolence of the Spanish colonial policy, baMed by the successful insurrections of Spain's continental posessions in the New World, did not concentrate itself upon Cuba until at the end of the first quarter of the century the Pearl of the Antilles remained the only considerable American colony subject to Spanish rule. In 1825 the Captain-General of the island was invested “with the whole extent of power granted to the Governors of besieged towns.". This was martial law control and from the day of its inauguration until the island was wrested last year from Spanish hands, was virtually the only control that Cuba knew. From time to time, in response to the more or less successful efforts of desperate insurrectionists Spain promised measures of reform, but all promises were made apparently only to be broken and the iron hand never relaxed its grasp
From the time of Thomas Jefferson's administration the United States has been keenly alive to the consequences of the island's misgovernment in the hands of Spain and has perforce been compelled to consider the possibility of its ownership falling into her own or other hands as a legitimate consequence of such misgovernment. Indeed, Jefferson, as early as 1807, penned these words: “Napolcon will give his consent without difficulty to our receiving the Floridas, and with some difficulty possibly Cuba.” In 1823 Monroe referred to Cuba as a possible addition to the United States, and shortly afterward John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay advocated its annexation as indispensable to the integrity of the Union.
In 1845 the Spanish government rejected with scorn the proposition of the United States to purchase the island for one hundred million dollars, declaring that she would rather “see it sunk in the sea.” “To part with Cuba would be to part with national honor" was her answer to another proposition a little later.
The United States, in 1852, refused to agree to join England and France in guaranteeing Cuba to Spain because its ownership "might be essential to our own safety."
The Ostend Manifesto of 1854 was an open advocacy for the conquest of the island on the ground that this country could “never enjoy repose, nor possess reliable security, as long as Cuba is not embraced within its boundaries."
The year 1826 witnessed Cuba's first revolt. The uprising was crushed and its two leaders were executed. Shortly after occurred the “Conspiracy of the Black Eagle," another attempt to throw off the Spanish yoke. Like the first effort, it too was unsuccessful and the parties engaging in it were imprisoned, banished or executed.
In 1844 another iusurrection occurred, with a story similar to the former struggles, and in 1850 the Lopez expedition from New Orleans landed on the island, the first of a series of illstarred filibustering movements participated in by American sympathizers of the Cuban patriots. Three hundred men comprised the expedition and they were carried by the steamer Pampero. W. S. Crittenden, a graduate of West Point and a hero of the Mexican War, though still almost a youth, was second in command. Having landed, the party separated into two divisions, one remaining at the seacoast under Crittenden's charge, the other, the main body, under Lopez, pressing on into the interior.
Both divisions were captured. Crittenden and fifty of his men were shot, -the brave American refusing to kneel with his back to the firing party in accordance with the Spanish usage, but standing with his face toward his executioners. Lopez was garroted, forty-nine of his command were shot and one hundred six of them sent to Spain in chains—the first large consignment of political prisoners from Cuba. The Lopez incident created intense excitement in the United States, particularly because of interest in the heroic and promising Crittenden.
In 1855, as a result of further insurrectionary efforts, Ramon Pinto was put to death and many other patriots were driven from the island. A period of quiet now ensued during which time the Cubans endeavored by fullest obedience and by peaceful methods to obtain some slight measure of justice and self-government. Every effort failed and conditions grew worse.
In 1869 the insurrection under Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, “The Ten Years' War" as it was known, broke out. during the progress of the “Ten Years' War” that the “Virginius" massacre occurred. On October 7, 1873, Captain Joseph Fry, commanding the Virginius, a ship built in England for blockade running during the Civil War in the United States, took aboard his vessel a large consignment of war material to be delivered to the rebel forces in Cuba. The Virginius was overtaken by the Spanish gunboat Tornado and her captain and crew carried to the port of Santiago de Cuba.
Captain Fry and some fifty of his officers and crew were summarily tried and shot on November 7, just a month after the ship had sailed from Port au Prince. Ninety three additional men were under sentence of death and were saved from that fate only by the interposition of Captain Sir Lampton Lorraine, of the British steamer Niobe, who had brought his ship at full speed from Jamaica and who with his guns trained upon the city made a peremptory demand upon the Spanish authorities'that the massacre should stop.
For a time it seemed that the administration of President Grant would be forced into war with Spain as a result of the feeling stirred up in the United States when the news of the Virginius massacre became generally known. The good sense of the American people at last woke to the fact that Captain Fry and his crew had engaged in an unlawful enterprise, and that while their fate was greatly to be deplored it was not to be avenged. The influence of the barbarities characterizing the war brought about an ultimatum from President Grant to the Spanish government looking toward the annexation of the island by America unless the war should speedily be brought to a close. Spain at once responded by promises to the revolutionists of the most liberal concessions, and the war ended by the treaty of Zanjon.
Had Spain honestly kept the pledges she made in this treaty there had been an end of Cuban insurrections. But as Henry Cabot Lodge says: "Spain unhesitatingly violated the agreement. With a cynical disregard of good faith, her promise of amnesty was only partially kept, and she imprisoned or executed many who had been engaged in the insurgent cause, while the promised reforms were either totally neglected or carried out by some mockery which had neither reality nor value.”
Bloodshed and oppression, increased abuses of an already almost intolerable government, at last resulted in the opening of the recent Cuban revolt, when in February, 1895, Jose Marti landed in Eastern Cuba.
A year later General Martinez Campos, with a record of failure against the inroads of the insurgents, was compelled to resign the Govenor-Generalship and was succeeded by Valeriano Weyler.
Weyler's “concentration” policy followed as a war measure, and before the end of 1897 all Cuba controlled by Spanish forces contained thousands of starving non-combatants, dying under conditions so pitiable and so horrifying that President McKinley had not dared to transmit to Congress, in spite of the latter's repeated demands, the consular reports which pictured the situation.
At the opening of 1898 our government had received permission from Spain to feed the starving “reconcentrados” and tons of food supplies raised by the charity of the American people were being hurried by train and ship load to Cuba. The movement excited Spanish suspicion and jealousy. The question of the safety of Americans in Havana was such as to cause uneasiness and President McKinley decided to send the battleship Maine to that port. On January 5 she anchored in Havana harbor, received by the Spanish authorities as the representative of a friendly power. On the evening of February 15 the Maine was blown up and totally destroyed with the loss of two hundred fifty-four of her officers and crew.
For forty days the American people awaited in grim silence the report of a Board of Inquiry appointed to investigate the cause of the disaster, Congress, however, appropriating without a dissenting vote $50,000,000 for national defense.
The vital part of the finding of the Board of Inquiry was that the disaster could have been caused "only by the explosion of a mine situated under the bottom of the ship,” and “was not in any respect due to fault or negligence on the part of any of the officers or members of the crew of the vessel.”
The report was transmitted to Congress by the President without comment. Congress, backed by an overwhelming majority of the American people, soon determined upon two things,—that there must be atonement for the Maine and that the war and the destruction of the reconcentrados must cease even if it meant the end of Spanish rule in Cuba.
On April 11 a long-looked for message from the President, delayed by the need of getting American citizens out of Havana before the storm broke, was presented in both houses of Congress. On the seventh Mr. McKinley had had occasion to answer the representatives of Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Russia and Italy who in the name of their respec. tive governments, had presented "a pressing appeal to the feel. ings of humanity and moderation of the President and of the American people, in their existing differences with Spain." He said: “The government of the United States appreciates the humanitarian and disinterested character of the communica. tion now made on behalf of the powers named, and for its part is confident that equal appreciation will be shown for its own earnest and unselfish endeavors to fulfil a duty to humanity by ending a situation the indefinite prolongation of which has become insufferable."
When the message following this declared that “In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization and in behalf of endangered American interests which give us the right and duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop," and asked Congress to “empower the president to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba *
* * * and to use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these purposes," the world knew that the issue was fully joined and that Spain must yield to the demands of America or appeal to the arbitrament of war.
Four days after the President's message was received Congress passed "resolutions asserting (1) that the people of Cuba are and of a right ought to be free and independent; (2) that it is the duty of the United States to demand the withdrawal of Spain from the island; (3) that the President is authorized to compel Spain's withdrawal; and (4) that the United States has no intention to absorb Cuba, but it is determined to leave the government and control of the island to its people.'"
The President's ultimatum, transmitting the action to Congress, was cabled to the American minister at Madrid, upon April 20. Before it could be presented, the Spanish government, informed from other sources as to what Congress had done, and considering it tantamount to a declaration of war, dissolved diplomatic relations by giving to General Woodford his passports.
On April 22 a blockade of the principal ports of Cuba was proclaimed by the President. The next day was issued a call for 125,000 volunteer soldiers to enlist for two years unless sooner discharged. The same day the gunboat Nashville captured a Spanish merchantman, the Buena Ventura, a capture followed in a very few weeks by the taking of a large number of prizes from the Spanish merchant marine.
On April 25 Congress passed a brief bill stating that “war has existed since the twenty-first day of April between the United States of America and the kingdom of Spain."
The first action participated in by an American fleet was a bombardment of some earthworks near Mantanzas by three war ships under command of Commodore W. T. Sampson, on April 27-a bombardment which caused a Spanish loss, as reported in Havana and Madrid, of "one mule.”
The next day the Asiatic fleet, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, started from Mirs Bay near Hong Kong, China, upon a six hundred twenty mile trip to the Philippine Islands in obedience to a dispatch received but three days before from the Secretary of War. The instructions in the message were brief and pointed: “DEWEY, ASIATIC SQUADRON:
War has commenced between the United States and Spain. Proceed at once to Phillippine Islands. Commence operations at once, particularly against Spanish fleet. You must capture vessels or destroy. Use utmost endeavors.
LONG." Nearing the islands it was decided to enter the bay at Manila where it was expected that the Spanish naval forces of the region would be found. The entrance to the bay was made at night, the Spanish forts and batteries at the mouth of the bay making but slight resistance. The early morning of May 1 found the fleets of the Spanish and Americans opposed off the shore of Cavite, the Spanish naval station south-east of the city of Manila. The Spanish fleet was manned by a total of 1796 men under command of Admiral Montojo, and consisted of seven cruisers and gunboats mounting 124 guns of all kinds. Dewey's ships taking part in the action included four cruisers,--the Olympia, the Baltimore, the Boston and the Raleigh; and the gunboats Concord and Petrel—the whole carrying 121 guns. The American ships were manned by 1678 men. The American armament included cannon of larger caliber than any carried by the Spanish fleet, but the latter was anchored under the protection of the guns of Cavite, receiving substantial assistance therefrom during the engagement which followed. The action commenced about half-past five o'clock in the morning and ended about one o'clock that afternoon,including a stop of nearly three hours, ostensibly for breakfast and rest for the American sailors, a stop afterward explained as based upon a need to overhaul and take stock of ammunition which it was feared was falling short.
The outcome of the battle is told in the delayed dispatch received from Commodore Dewey via Hong-Kong on the seventh of May:
“MANILA, May 1.-Squadron arrived at Manila at daybreak this morn. ing. Immediately engaged the enemy and destroyed the following Spanish vessels: Reina Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa, Isla de Luzon, Isla de Cuba, General Lezo, Marques del Duera, Cano, Velasco, Isla de Mindanao, a transport and water battery at Cavite. The squadron is uninjured, and only a few men are slightly wounded. Only means of telegraphing is to American consul at Hong-Kong. I shall communicate with him.
A dispatch dated May 4 but received the same day added information:
!"* * I control Manila bay completely and can take city (Manila) at any time. * * Spanish loss not fully known, but very heavy. assisting in protecting Spanish sick and wounded.”
Later detailed information placed the total Spanish loss in killed and wounded at 634, including those in the shore batteries and forts at Cavite.
Commodore Dewey received the thanks of Congress and a sword of honor, while his comrades were voted medals commemorative of the great victory which astonished the world and so gloriously justified America's pride in her navy.
Soon after the victory at Manila troops under General Wesley Merritt were sent from the Pacific coast to aid Commodore Dewey in capturing and holding the city of Manila and adjacent territory. A joint attack by the fleet and army resulted in the surrender of the city August 13.
The Republic of Hawaii had sought annexation to the United States from the time of its organization in 1893. Sentiment in the United States had been so divided upon the question that every effort to bring about annexation had failed. Upon the outbreak of hostilities the Hawaiian government refused to declare neutrality, in conformity with the example of other foreign nations, but practically proclaimed herself an ally of the United States even in the face of strong pressure from representatives of European governments in Honolulu. It was as serted that President Dole had sent a long communication to President McKinley before the end of April offering to transfer the islands to the United States for the purposes of its war with Spain, and to furnish American ships of war in the Pacific wa ters with coal, supplies and ammunition.
The success of our fleet in the East and the strategic import ance of Hawaii, coupled with the feeling that the little Repub
lic ought to be fully protected from the possible consequences of her open advocacy of the cause of the United States, encouraged the friends of annexation to accomplish their purpose by the passage of a joint resolution.
Accordingly, upon May 4, Mr. Newlands, of Nevada, introduced a resolution declaring the islands and their dependencies “hereby annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and subject to the sovereign dominion thereof," and specifying details for carrying out such declaration.
On May 12 the House Committee on Foreign Affairs adopted the Newlar.d's resolution by a vote of ten to four. Their report was placed before the House on June 11 and adopted on the fifteenth, the vote standing 209 to 91. The Senate held the resolution up until July 6, when it finally passed that body by a vote of 42 to 21. The following day President McKinley signed it and the United States became the owner of her first considerable possession not upon the American continent.
In the meantime the war was hastening to momentous events in American waters. The blockade of Cuban ports, entrusted to the North Atlantic squadron under Com. Sampson, continued. What was termed the “flying squadron” was placed under the command of Com. W. S. Schley with its station at Fortress Monroe. To the “flying squadron” was assigned the duty of guarding the Atlantic seaports from possible attack by Spanish fleets sent against them, always being held in readi. ness, however, to cooperate with Sampson's fleet.
At the time of the destruction of the Maine, the battleship Oregon, built upon the Pacific coast and then upon the Pacific coast station, was ordered to the Atlantic seacoast to replace the lost vessel. Her voyage around the continent was in progress at the outbreak of hostilities.
Upon April 29 the Spanish feet under Admiral Cervera started from the Canary Islands for American waters. Much uncertainty existed as to his course and intentions and it was a matter of deep concern to America as to the possibility of his intercepting and capturing or destroying the Oregon. The battleship reached Jupiter inlet off the Florida coast, however, on May 24 without having encountered Cervera. The latter reached Martinique on May 12. For a time he eluded the American fleets in his efforts to reach Havana or some port easily accessible by laud from the latter city, but finally put into harbor of Santiago to coal ships. Before he could finish and put to sea, the division of the American fleet under Commodore Schley appeared before the harbor's entrance and reinforced by Commodore Sampson's squadron securely blockaded him in the harbor.
As soon as the blockade of Cervera's fleet was accomplished it was considered that it might be made more effective by sink. ing a ship in the narrow mouth of the harbor. The execution of the plan was entrusted to Lieutenant Hobson. A collier ship, the Merrimac, manned with a volunteer crew of six men, was committed to his charge and in the early hours before daylight on the morning of June 3, he steamed into the narrow part of the channel and sank her. The act was accomplished under a rain of projectiles from the Spanish forts at the harbor's mouth. It was one of the bravest deeds recorded in history.
Hobson and his men escaped serious injury, two being only slightly wounded. They were all captured and held prisoners by the Spaniards, being treated with marked kindness. Admiral Cervera sent messengers under a flag of truce to inform the blockading fleet of their escape from serious harm. The object intended by the sinking of the Merrimac was not accomplished, as the tide swung her past the position desired and still left an open channel from the harbor.
Upon May 30 General Shafter, in command of an army of invasion, mobilized at Tampa, Florida, had received the following order: “Go with your force to capture garrison at Santiago, and assist in capturing garrison and fleet." On June 8 the army was embarking on transports to carry out the order, but was recalled on a false rumor that Spanish war vessels had been sighted. A delay of six days occurred, and then under the convoy of battleships the army; numbering a total of 16,887 officers and men, started for Cuba, the largest expedition sent by sea in the history of the United States and the largest sent anywhere aboard transports since the Crimean War. On the 22 of June the major part of the force was successfully landed at the port of Baiquiri, twelve miles east of the entrance to Santiago bay and about the same distance south-east of the city of Santiago. The next day the advance upon the city began.
The first serious resistance to the advance was met at La Guasima, some four miles northwest of Baiquiri. Here upon the morning of June 24, parts of three regiments of the regular army and of Colonel Roosevelt's regiment of “Rough Riders", in all nine hundred and twenty-four men, attacked intrenched Spanish forces and after an hour's sharp fighting drove them from their position. The American losses in killed and wounded were sixty-eight, of which over forty were “Rough Riders.” The Spanish loss was probably far greater.
After La Guasima the American forces pushed forward, the Spanish retreating toward Santiago until on the 29th General Shafter reported in a dispatch to Washington that his advance pickets were within a mile and a half of the city without further serious opposition, and that he was expecting, with the cooperation of Cuban forces under General Garcia, operating north of Santiago, soon to have the place completely invested.
On July 1, the American forces began a combined attack upon the outlying defenses of the city,-an attack which involved two splendid operations, the batt.e of ElCaney upon the army's right, and the storming of San Juan hill, in front of the center.
The object of the attack at El Caney was to crush the Spanish lines at a point near the city and capture heights from which Santiago could be bombarded if necessary. The action began before seven o'clock in the morning and it was not until four o'clock in the afternoon that the Spanish were overcome. A recent vriter says: “The defense of El Caney was the best and bravest bit of fighting that the Spaniards did in the whole
*** For more than ten hours General Vera del Rey's five hundred men kept at bay ten times their number of American soldiers."
The American losses were nearly five hundred in killed and wounded. Of the five hundred and twenty Spanish soldiers defending ElCaney three hundred were killed and wounded, one hundred and twenty were captured, and the remnant escaped into Santiago. The heights of San Juan, almost in front of the American center, and the strongest of Santiago's outer line of defences, had been fortified by intrenchments that in the hands of more determined forces than the Spaniards, would have been impregnable. A graphic and well authenticated account of the action says: “The story of the assault, in brief, was that the cavalry division-armed, it should be remembered, with carbines which had no bayonets-charged up San Juan hill, drove the enemy from the top, descended the further slope, and then, in line with Kent's division moved onward against the main Spanish division on the ridge of Fort San Juan. The charge was not a swift rush of cheering regiments, sweeping forward in serried ranks, as the popular fancy has pictured it. It was a climb up a steep slope that arose about
one hundred forty feet above the river, and the assailants were irregular and scanty masses of men, now halting to fire, now rushing on, breaking down the wire entanglements, or vaulting them, and pushing onward and upward to the Spanish trenches." The Spanish defense of San Juan was not so stubborn as at El Caney. They fled from their trenches as the Americans topped the hill without waiting for a hand to hand fight. So great was their demoralization that they might have been followed by the American soldiers without further serious resistance right into the city of Santiago. The latter had fought for eight hours, however, under a blazing tropical sun and were in no condition for a further advance at once. San Juan cost the Americans over one thousand men, killed, wounded and missing.
Two days after El Caney and San Juan, on Sunday morning, July 3, Admiral Cervera tried to escape from Santiago harbor past the blockading fleet. The details of that Sabbath morn ing's action seem almost past belief. The Spanish vessels headed to the west, keeping close to the coast, and kept up a running fight until every one of them was destroyed! First the cruiser Maria Teresa was disabled, and, burning, headed for the shore; then the two torpedo boats were destroyed within five miles of the harbor's mouth.
In swift succession the cruisers Almiranto, Oquendo and the Viscaya were also beached, helpless and ruined hulks, loaded with a multitude of dead and dying sailors. The Christobal Colon, the fastest of the Spanish feet, for several hours kept ahead of her pursuers but was finally compelled to give up her flight at a point some fifty miles west of Santiago. Her crew surrendered but sank the vessel before the Americans could man and save her.
The Spanish loss was some three hundred killed, half that number wounded and over one thousand six hundred prisoners. The Americans lost one man, killed, and had two wounded. The American ships sustained only the most trifling injuries. The day that Cervera's fleet was destroyed General Shafter demanded the surrender of Santiago under pain of bombardment.
Upon the Spanish commander's refusal to surrender, General Shafter postponed the bombardment long enough to allow non-combatants to leave the city,-a postponement lengthened to July 11 by fruitless negotiations upon the part of the Spanish looking to an evacuation of the city. The fleet then bombarded the town without inflicting serious damage.
Negotiations were again opened and upon July 14th, Gen. Shafter was able to telegraph to Washington that the Spanish commander, General Toral, would surrender not only Santiago, but “all of eastern Cuba from Acerraderos on the south to Sagua la Tamana on the north, via Palma, with practically the Fourth Army Corps."
Not until two days later, however, were the details of the surrender finally settled. The stipulations were: (1) The refugees from Santiago who had left the city upon notice the approaching bombardment were to return; (2) Americans were to patrol roads leading from city; (3) the American hospital corps were to care for sick and wounded Spanish soldiers; (4) all Spanish troops in the province of Santiago except the ten thousand at Holguin were to come to the city to surrender; (5) the guns and defenses of Santiago were to be delivered up in good condition; (6) the Americans were to have full use of the Juragua Railroad; (7) Spanish troops were to surrender their arms; (8) all Spaniards were to be conveyed to Spain and to take with them portable church property; and (9) Spaniards were to cooperate with their captors in destroying the harbor mines.
In the afternoon the Grand Army Posts of the city assembled in Albert Taylor hall, and Hon. I. E. Lambert, of Emporia, delivered an eloquent address, followed by Professor Mary A. Whitney, of the department of United States History. The daily Republican pronounces her address as one of the most beautiful and effective ever given on such an occasion and urges its publication in full.
The Regents' Meeting. The regents were in session several days and disposed of an unusually large amount of routine matters.
The vacancy in the chair of mathematics was filled by the promotion of Associate Professor Eli L. Payne, B. P., to that position and the election of Prof. G. W. Ellis, A. M., of Tecumseh, Nebraska, to the associate professorship. The salary of the former was fixed at $ 1500 and of the latter at $1200. Professor Payne has been assistant and associate for nine years past. He is thoroughly familiar with every detail of the department and is one of the most popular instructors in the institution. As a teacher of mathematics he has few superiors anywhere. He has completed every course in the school, including the post-graduate course for the degree of bachelor of pedagogy. He has also completed an extensive course in higher mathematics, etc., etc.
Professor Ellis is a graduate of Hamilton College, was for nine years professor of mathematics and Latin in the State Normal School of Nebraska, and has had several years experience in public school work. He is highly commended for the position by the leading educators of Nebraska and New York. He is about forty-five years of age and has a family of five children. His impulses are in the line of our work here and he will be given a cordial welcome into the Normal fraternity.
They purchased Mrs. Patterson's house and lot north-east of the State Normal building, thus adding a large square to the beautiful grounds belonging to the school. The janitor will enter his new home early in July.
The contract for erecting the new boiler house was awarded to D. L. Thomas, of this city. The building was located on the north side of the Patterson square, in the ravine. The purchase of this square relieved the board of the necessity of going nearly two hundred feet further for the boiler house site and saved several hundred dollars extra expense. The building, with its stately smoke stack, will be a great ornament to the campus. The cost of the boiler house complete, ready to start the fires in the furnaces, will be about twelve thousand dollars. The contract for building the new safe vault was also awarded to D. L. Thomas.
C. W. Squires, the architect who had prepared the plans for the new boiler house, was appointed superintendent of the work.
A new carpet was ordered for the president's and regents' rooms, and a variety of repairs ordered.
All of her friends will regret to learn that Miss Beatrice Cochran is mourning the loss of her father, who died recently at his home at Plymouth, Kansas. She has the sincere sympathy of us all.
Miss Edith WILKINSON, of the Music department, gave her first evening recital on Saturday evening, June 3. She gave a delightful program and shows rare musical promise. She was assisted by the Euridice Club.
Miss Belle MILLIGAN, critic teacher in the model intermediate, is convalescing at her home in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. She writes that she is improving rapidly and that she expects to be ready for her work with the opening of the new year.
We notice the name of our Prof. W. C. Stevenson on the program for the Department of Business Education, N. E. A., at Los Angeles, for a paper on “The Advent of the Commercial High School.” Professor Stevenson is also secretary of the department.
Rev. Arthur JORDAN writes from Nyack, New York, that he is engaged in evangelical work and is also general agent for the Globe Publishing Company. He has had quite an interesting experience since he left here and writes a most entertaining letter.
The American Review of Reviews continues to grow in interest with each succeeding month. The June number is full of good things for everybody. If you wish to keep up with the times and be in touch with all of the great world movements as well as with national affairs, subscribe for the Review of Reviews.
Prof. L. C. Wooster gave the faculty lecture for May. He spoke on the educational value of the natural sciences and made a most eloquent and impassioned plea for a closer acquaintance with nature and its wonders. It was a model in comprehensiveness, in diction, and in rhetorical style. The occasional flashes of humor added relish to the lecture as a whole and few will forget the many valuable suggestions made.
Decoration Day. On Decoration Day, the morning hour was devoted to reminiscences and memorial services by the Volunteer boys of the Twenty-second Kansas. Captain Stevenson presided and interesting remarks were made by Jason Austin, Luke Torrance, Albert Sommers, John Seal and Henry Amyx. Touching references were made to their dead comrades, Clifford T. Rhinehart, Rutherford B. Parks, and to Curran C. Craig and Lieutenant William A. McTaggart of the the Twentieth Kansas.
The bronze tablet on the west wall, placed there some months since by the faculty in memory of C. T. Rhinehart and R. B. Parks, is a reproduction of a famous battle panel on the tomb of Francis I, at St. Denis. It is called "The Battle of The Giants" and represents the battle between Francis I, King of France, and Maximillian at Marignano on September 14 and 15, 1515. The panel is an exact reproduction and consequently has great historical as well as decorative value. Francis I was born 1492 A. D., and after a brilliant and successful career, died in 1547
WESTWARD HO! N. E. A. If the traveler, tourist or business man is westward bound this year he must not fail to travel via the Rio Grande WestERN RAILWAY—“Great Salt Lake Route.” It is the only transcontinental line passing directly through Salt Lake City, and in addition to the glimpse it affords of the Temple City, the Great Salt Lake and picturesque Salt Lake and Utah Valley, it offers choice of three distinct routes through the mountains and the most magnificent scenery in the world. The rates authorized for the N. E. A. to the Pacific Coast will apply over the Rio Grande Western Railway.
On all the Pacific Coast tickets stopovers are granted at Denver, Colorado Springs, Manitou, Leadville, Glenwood Springs, Salt Lake City, Ogden, and other points of interest. Double daily train service and through Pullman and Tourist sleeping cars between Denver and San Francisco and Portland. Through ordinary sleepers Chicago to Los Angeles and Portland. Perfect Dining Car service.
For illustrated pamphlets descriptive of the “Great Salt Lake Route," write E. COPLAND, General Agent, Owings Building, Chicago, or F. A. Wadleigh, General Passenger Agent, Salt Lake City.