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Personals. '89. We are greatly grieved to learn of the death of Mrs. Carrie Woods Phillips on May 1. She was taking a course in the Deaconess' Training School in Chicago, and on the evening of April 27 received fatal injuries from a street car. She was a devoted Christian woman promising much usefulness in whatever field she labored. She was married to Mr. Phillips about five years ago, who lost his life by accidental shooting just ten days after their marriage. This is indeed a sad story for a home that promised so much.

'92. Gurney Binford and Elizabeth J. Schneider, of Richmond, Indiana, were united in the holy bonds of matrimony on June 14. They will soon be at home to their friends in Tokio, Japan.

'92. Norton County High School organizes with Prof. H. M. Culter as principal. He will be assisted by T. B. Moore, '88, and Laura Branson, '96. The people of Norton county are to be congratulated as well as these friends who are to serve them.

'93-'99. Miss Beatrice Cochran and Mr. W. H. Daniels surprised their friends by entering into the bonds of holy wedlock on the morning of June 20, the Rev. J. H. Hill officiating. They spend a few weeks in Western Kansas and then locate temporarily at the bride's home in Plymouth, Kansas.

They have the best wishes of hosts of friends hereabout.

'94. We are in receipt of wedding cards announcing the marriage of T. B. Henry to Ellen Pugh. They will be at home at Independence after September 1.

'96. A. T. Mills favors the editor and his friends with an invitation to commencement at the University of Michigan. He completes the course in the literary department in the University this year.

'97. C. E. Krehbiel sailed June i for Germany on the "Frederick der Grosse." He will spend the summer in Bre

comer's shoulder, and failing to see what he wanted asked: “How is he?” “Who?" said the Englishman. “Why, Kipling, the last news said he was getting better, didn't it?' The owner of the paper shared the news of the “extra's" bulletin, to the relief of the inquirer. "Oh, he oughter've been poet lawyrit instead of that mushy Alfred Austin," continued the conductor, with a note of disgust. While Mr. Kipling lay ill at the Grenoble Hotel a hack drove rapidly to the door without a fare. The driver jumped from his seat, ran into the hotel, and read the latest bulletin, remarking to a bystander that he had promised to get the last news for the boys at the stable. Office-boys discussed over their lunch the pathological probabilities of this particular case of pneumonia, and brakemen leaned out from their platforms to pass the latest advices to incoming brethren. Clerks and business men on the way to the office did not talk of the grippe and the weather, but of the sick man's progress. Churches, not only in the great cities close at hand, but in far-away corners of the country, offered up prayers for his recovery, and made the “Recessional” a part of their service. Doubtless Mr. Kipling would prize such manifestations in his roughly deprecating way more than the earnest words of the Kaiser's cablegram, or the continual stream of anxious calls and inquiries from the people of his own craft and the other best minds of England and America, who would be certain to appreciate the loss that threatened.–From "Kipling in America,” in the American Monthly Review of Reviews for April.

Certain Cure for Insomnia. "Insomnia is a self-inflicted curse through the violation of Nature's laws," writes Edward B. Warman in the June Ladies' Home Journal. "The cause may be over-anxiety, planning for the morrow, thinking and worrying over the yesterdays and todays, but no opiate can remove the cause, even though it may bring sleep. If the cause is merely mental overwork it may be quickly removed by relieving the brain of the excess of blood. Physical exercise is a panacea for about every ailment which human flesh is heir to. Therefore, stand erect, and rise slowly from the heels; descend slowly. Do this from forty to fitty times until you feel the congestion in the muscles of the leg. Almost instant relief follows, and sleep is soon induced. For those who are averse to a little work I would recommend, instead, a bowl of very hot milk (without so much as a wafer) immediately before retiring. The hotter the milk the better for the purpose. This will prove a better sleep-producer than all the opiates known to medical science. It brings about an increased activity of the blood vessels of the stomach, causing slight temporary congestion, which relieves the blood vessels of the brain. The hot milk is also quite strengthening to the stomach."


'97. Miss Clara Vaudrey was married to Mr. Osborne Blenkarn, at Eureka, Kansas, on the morning of June 21. The happy couple will reside at 1717 West street, Topeka. Mr. Blenkarn graduates at Washburn College next year.

Interest in Kipling's Illness. Last month an eminent Englishman, leaving the Lucania, boarded one of the degenerate horse-cars struggling through the brutal mud and confusion of the West Side track along the piers. Not finding a seat, he stood on the rear platform and glanced over an "extra" pushed into his hands by an enterprising newsboy, to learn what had been going on during his week out of the world. The shabby conductor craned over the new

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The territory surrendered was about one-tenth of the area of Cuba and contained the two fine harbors of Santiago and Guantanamo. Upon July 17 the formal ceremony of surrendering the city was carried out and General Shafter took charge of Santiago de Cuba and the American flag waved in the city where not quite twenty-five years before Captain Fry and the brave crew of the Virginius had been shot to death.

The surrender of Santiago was speedily followed by an expedition under General Miles, head of the United States armies, to seize and hold Porto Rico,-next to Cuba, Spain's most valued possession in the West Indies. Having disembarked at Ponce on August 1, the expedition admirably planned, was driving the feebly resisting Spanish forces ahead of it across the island toward the capitol, San Juan, when news of the signing of a peace protocol stopped hostilities. Porto Rico, practically ours by the force of arms, became ours by the terms of the protocol and subsequent treaty of peace.


II. August 12, 1898, a protocol was concluded between Spain and the United States. Spain was represented by M. Cambon, the French Ambassador at Washington, and the United States by Secretary of State, William R. Day. The protocol, a forerunner of peace, comprised six articles, in substance as follows:

Article 1.- -Spain will renounce all sovereignty over Cuba.

Art. 2.—Spain will cede to the United States Porto Rico, all other Spanish possessions in the Antilles, and one island of the Ladrones, chosen by the United States.

Art. 3.–The United States will occupy the city and bay of San Juan de Porto Rico and port of Manila until the treaty of peace, which shall determine the control and form of government of the Philippines.

Art. 4.-Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Porto Rico, and other islands of the Antilles. Within ten days of signing protocol, each government will appoint commissioners who shall meet at Havana within thirty days from signing the protocol to agree upon details of the evacuation of Cuba. In the same manner a similar commission shall be appointed and meet at San Juan de Porto Rico to consider details of the evacuation of Porto Rico.

Art. 5.-Spain and the United States shall appoint five commissioners to meet in Paris, October 1, 1898, to conclude a treaty of peace, which shall be ratified according to the constitutional laws of each country.

Art. 6.-Hostilities shall cease when protocol is signed and each government shall give orders to that effect.

This protocol was immediately followed by the proclamation of President McKinley, August 12, which declared a suspension of hostilities and ordered the same to be observed by all military and naval commanders of the United States' forces.

Early in June, 1898, report had it that the European courts were much concerned about opening up negotiations for peace. It could hardly be hoped that the Pope would take the initiative. In July rumors were afloat that Spain was ready for peace, but feared a revolution at home. The Bank of Spain was unable to cash its own notes; and the pressure of European comment was becoming apparent. As per article 5 of the protocol, the United States appointed the following Peace Commissioners: Judge William R. Day, president of the commission, Senator Cushman K. Davis, Senator William P. Frye, Senator George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid, editor of the New York Tribune. Spain appointed Senor Don Montero Rios, president of the commission, Senor Don Buenaventura Abarzuza, Senor Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Vilbaurrutia, Senor Don Jose Garnica, and General Rafail Cerrero. Their sessions opened in Paris, October 1, in two salons in the Galerie des Fetes. In these same rooms, forty years ago, met the Congress of Paris, and a few years ago the Bering Sea Commis

sion. The sessions were secret. Separate rooms were used for separate sittings. Two policemen guarded the commission's safe night and day.

The American commissioners stated their case frankly and declined to modify the provisions. The arrival of General Merritt in Paris placed much definite, needed information at the disposal of the American representatives. The first great difficulty arose over the Cuban debt. Spain insisted upon its assumption by the United States, and the United States positively refused. Only after the seventh session did Spain give up that point. Thus did the United States prove that she did not intend to assume sovereignty over Cuba. The second great difficulty arose in connection with the Philippines. United States must assume the Philippine debt and pay for the islands besides. The United States refused, and November 4 submitted a proposition as follows: First, to assume control of the islands; second, to assume such part of the debt as was incur. red in the improvement of the islands. Spain refused the first part of this proposition, claiming that her sovereignty there was not surrendered by the protocol. But the United States commissioners were firm. They presented a formal note to the Spanish commissioners, November 21, requesting a definite answer November 28. They refused to arbitrate; demanded the Philippines; offered twenty million dollars for the islands; promised an “open door”'; agreed to waive all claims for indemnity by both countries. November 28 the Spanish yielded. These vital points settled, the treaty was drafted and the commissioners signed it December 10. Senor Rios filed a protest against violence done by the United States to private securities in the territory surrendered; against giving up the Philippines; against the United States' version of the Maine disaster; and against the position of Spaniards remaining in Cuba.

January 4 President McKinley transmitted to the Senate the text of the treaty with much related material, such as credentials of commissioners, protocols, diplomatic correspondence upon the subject, General Merritt's recommendations, and other information upon the Philippines. Senator Frye presented the treaty. It is composed of seventeen articles, in substance as follows:

1. Spain will evacuate Cuba. United States will preserve peace under international law,

2. Spain will cede to the United States Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, also Guam in the Ladrones.

3. Spain will cede to the United States the Philippines. United States will pay twenty million dollars for them.

4. United States will maintain an "open door” to Spain in the Philippines for ten years.

5. United States will return Spanish prisoners at Manila.

6. Spain will release and return prisoners in territory surrendered.

7. All claims for indemnity are mutually released.

8. Spain will relinquish all claims to property belonging to public domain.

9. Spanish subjects, desiring to remain in territory surrendered, may remain Spanish subjects by a declaration to that effect.

Religious freedom will be granted.
Court regulations to meet special cases.

Rules for pending judicial proceedings.
13. Spanish copyrights and patents will be respected.

14. Spain may establish consular ports in relinquished territory.

15. The same commercial regulations for vessels of the two countries will be observed for ten years.

16. United States' obligations last only during United States' occupancy of Cuba; succeeding government shall assume the





17. This treaty shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States and by her Majesty, the Queen Regent of Spain. The exchange of ratifications shall be at Washington within six months thereafter.

The debate in the Senate was spirited. Those in favor of ratification included Senators Foraker, Teller and Lodge; the opposition, Senators Hoar, Hale, Gorman, and Caffery. The news of the Filipino outbreak at Manila settled all further dispute and the treaty was ratified February 6 by a vote of 57 to 27—just one vote more than the necessary two-thirds vote. It was signed by the President February 10. The Senate later passed the McEnery resolution in which it was declared to be the sense of the Senate not to make the Filipinos United States citizens, nor the Philippines American soil, but to work toward their independence. Queen Regent Christina of Spain signed the treaty March 17. The exchange of ratifications took place in Washington at 3 p. m., April 11, 1899.

These ceremonies were witnessed by many distinguished persons—members of the cabinet and governmental officials. After the preliminaries of greetings, at 3:28 p. m., M. Cambon, the French Ambassador, signed the protocol of exchange in behalf of Spain, and Secretary Hay for the United States. The protocol was in French. The President then handed the American copy of the treaty to M. Cambon, at the same time receiving from him the Spanish copy. “Mr. Ambassador," said President McKinley, “I will issue my proclamation at once.” The Spanish copy of the treaty was engrossed on parchment in old English script, in double columns, Spanish and English, bound in red morocco, and embossed in gold. The United States copy was a model of simplicity and neatness. The text, in double columns, English and Spanish, surrounded by a a narrow border of the national colors, was bound in dark blue morocco with the great seal of the United States upon its face and a decorative design in gilt.

The proclamation issued by President McKinley following the exchange of ratifications of the treaty was “10 the end that the same and every detail and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof." The President then appointed Mr. Bellamy Storer, our present minister to Belgium, as our minister to Spain. The Duke of Arcos, late minister to Mexico, who married Miss Virginia Lowery of Washington, has been appointed Spanish minister to the United States. The United States consuls who served in Spain before the war, will return to their former posts.

September 17, 1898, a commission was appointed “to examine into the conduct of the Commissary, Quartermaster, and Medical Bureaus of the War Department, during the war and into the extent and cause and treatment of sickness in the field and in camps.” The commission consisted of Col. James A. Sexton, E. P. Howell, G. M. Dodge, U. S. Woodbury, James A. Beaver, Charles Denby, P. S. Conner, Generals Wilson and McCook.

Tbeir demands were for testimony from all available sources. “Things appeared better than reported by rumor and complaint.” “Lacks” were admitted, but were “unavoidable.” Individual rustling was often the only means of overcoming the lack. The commission reported no evidence of dishonest conduct in the War Department; but that needed reforms should be instituted to avoid friction. Out of this investigation grew the famous Miles-Eagan controversy. General Miles cited complaints about the refrigerated or "embalmed” beef supplied to the soldiers, saying “there was a pretense that it was sent as an experiment.” General Eagan, assuming this to be a personal thrust, presented a written document to the commis. sion in which he answered General Miles, using most violent

and offensive language. Commission refused to record the document and returned it with a note of censure to General Eagan. Later, General Eagan again presented it to the commission, expurgated and accompanied by a note of apology, with an attempt at justification. Such a rupture as this could not have occurred had General Eagan felt accountable in any measure to General Miles. This indicates the existing relations between the War Department and the army. It resulted in the Army Reorganization Bill.

General Eagan was charged with conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman and was tried before a court martial. Their verdict was guilty and dismissal from the service. Prerident McKinley commuted it to suspension from rank and duty for six years, with full pay, minus allowances for rations, etc.

A military commission to investigate beef charges was then appointed by the President. It was composed of Generals Wade, Gillespie, Davis and Colonel Davis. General Miles was allowed an attorney. The commission met in Washington February 20. President McKinley then submitted to the court a list of questions, the finding of definite answers to which should constitute the work of the court. After hearing testimony pro and con in Washington, they visited Chicago and other cities to investigate personally methods used by the various packing houses. General Miles later attempted to show that “canned” beef was really the worse. Testimony in general favored "refrigerated” beef, but "canned” beef was “nauseating,” “unfit for food,” “foul-smelling," "sickening and weakening," "bury the meat or bury the soldiers, so we buried the meat." April 5 the Yale chemist, in the government employ, testified that no chemicals had been found and that it was his judgment that the tropical heat caused the trouble. The Wade Court of Inquiry closed its investigations and signed its report April 29. This document of about thirty thousand words, was taken to the War Department, where it was sealed in an envelope, forwarded at once to the White House, and forthwith sent to the President in New York. Though not yet made public, the report is generally thought, first, to find that General Miles' charges conce

ncerning refrigerated beef are unsustained; that the canned and the refrigerated beef was the beef of commerce, good when delivered, but was affected by the tropical heat; that canned beef is not a suitable steady ration; that no chemicals were used to "embalın" the beef; and that dependence upon beef on the hoof would have been impracticable; second, to criticise General Miles and other officers for delinquency in the duty of bringing these complaints to the War Department when they were first entered. If this forecast of the report be true, the War Department has been vindicated and the light in which it leaves the “General commanding” is not the most enviable.

February 1, 1899, the stars and stripes were raised over Fort Santa Cruz, which commands the chief harbor, San Luis d' Apra, in the island of Guam. Commander Taussig of the United States gunboat Bennington was made governor. Guam is the largest and southernmost island of the Ladrone group. It is twenty-seven miles long and eight miles wide. Its rich soil produces coffee and cocoa. Its native population is about 10,000.

The Filipino insurrection against American authority is the result of a misguided, over-ambitious leadership. When the United States became a party in the Philippine situation, as she did by the battle of Manila and later by the surrender of the city, she found the Filipinos under the leadership of Aguinaldo, claiming that they were a republic independent of the sovereignty of Spain or of the United States. At no time whatsoever has the United States recognized the Filipinos

either as allies or belligerents. In September, 1898, Aguinaldo April 4 the American commissioners issued a proclamationasked all foreign nations, except the United States, to recognize "a greater document than this has not appeared since the Decthe Filipino republic. In October a representative presented a laration of Independence," says an authority. The whole copy of their constitution to President McKinley. December 1500 words bespeaks American sovereignty in the Philippine 10 the treaty was signed by which Spain transferred her sov- islands but promises all things good in religion, education, eignty in the Philippines to the United States, which condition justice, rights and government for the Filipinos. Spanish, Aguinaldo insisted was impossible since the Spanish sovereign- Tagalo, and English versions of it were spread broadcast. At ty was superseded already by the independent republic. Jan- the same time the Filipino Junta issued a proclamation claimuary 5 President McKinley directed General Otis to issue a ing to have received information of mysterious intrigues for a proclamation as to the extension of American sovereignty over, union of the Vatican and American officials to re-establish the and friendship for, the Filipinos, and ordered a military occu- former ascendancy of the church in the Philippines. April 8 pation of all ceded territory. It was answered by Aguinaldo it was reported, that the insurgent army deposed Aguinaldo declaring himself "military governor" in the Philippines and and chose General Di Luna as their leader. Neither the fall declaring for absolute independence. January 28 the Philip- of the capital, nor the proclamation of the Commissioners had pine commission was appointed by President McKinley, com- the desired effect, and our force again engaged the insurgents at posed of Admiral Dewey, General Otis, Professor Worcester of

Quingua, April 23, at Calumpit, April 26, and at Apalit, April Michigan University, Colonel Denby, former minister to China,

27, from which point they retreated to San Fernando to preand President Schurman of Cornell. Their function was ad- pare for another stand. General Luna then took steps to agree visory and informative; they are expected to complete their

upon some
terms of peace.

The United States signified work by September at the latest. About this time Senor Agon

its determination to accept nothing short of unconditional and cillo, Aguinaldo's representative, arrived in Washington to in- absolute surrender. Our forces then took San Fernando, and sist that Spain had no sovereignty to transfer and to protest drove the insurgents out of Bacolor, Balinag, Ildefonso, San against American interference. The Filipino Junto in London

Miguel, San Isidro, and San Luis. Aguinaldo then asked perthreatened to suspend all relations with the United States

mission to send a Commission of Filipinos to confer with the unless Agoncillo were recognized at Washington. Spain evi- American Commission. This was done and Senor Gonzaga, denced anxiety to precipitate hostilities between the United

President of the Filipino delegation seemed pleased with the States and the Filipinos, and as the insurgents then held Iloilo form of government proposed by the United States. The Filiand were encamped in a threatening attitude before Manila, pino delegation has returned to Aguinaldo and we await results. hostilities seemed imminent. Saturday evening, February 4, The American losses have been slight when compared with the break came by act of the Filipinos, but they were repulsed. those of the enemy. Kansas has given of her sons, Captain February 7 the Americans captured the waterworks east of

Elliott, Colonel Egbert, Lieutenant Alford, Lieutenant Manila, a most fortunate thing for the city and army. Agui. McTaggart, Private Curran Craig, Private William Sullivan, naldo then disregarded the constitution of his government and and others. The navy suffered its first reverse April 12, declared war. Since then, engagement after engagement has in the capture of Lieutenant Gilmore and fourteen sailors of brought new honors to American arms.

the “Yorktown” while they were attempting the rescue of some After the battle of Caloocan, February 10, the fåll of Iloilo, Spanish prisoners on the east coast of Luzon. The United February 11, Aguinaldo issued an order for the burning of

States has refused to permit Spain to buy the release of SpanManila and the extermination of the Americans, April 21. ish prisoners in the hands of Aguinaldo-about 6000 in allGeneral Otis immediately ordered all the inhabitants of Manila

thus preventing him from receiving this pecuniary aid. to remain indoors from 7 p. m. until daylight. This attitude February 16, 1899, President McKinley was the guest of honor of the insurgents coupled with one or two diplomatic conditions at a banquet given in Boston by the Home Market Club. Upon was followed by Admiral Dewey's requesting the presence of the the conclusion of the dinner, two addresses of welcome to the battleship Oregon at Manila “for political reasons." After President were given by Governor Wolcott and by Mayor this the plan of the Americans to capture Aguinaldo or to Quincy, to which President McKinley responded in substance: force him to surrender and so put down the insurrection, was “The year 1898 has added new glory to American arms, and a sought to be accomplished by two moves—first, the establish- new chapter to American history. The year 18y9, sees mighty ment of a line of positions from Manila eastward to the coast, problems before this republic for solution. They are the thus cutting Luzon into two sections; second, the pursuit of result of the evolution of events which no man could control. Aguinaldo to the north. The first was accomplished by the Every effort to avoid war failed, it was the war of the undivided battle of Pasig, March 15, the occupation of Lagoon Bay nation. The Philippines, like Cuba and Porto Rico, were March 20, and the fall of Santa Cruz April 8. The object of intrusted to our hands by the war, and to that great trust, the second move was not so easily accomplished. Although under the providence of God, and in the name of human Aguinaldo was now limited to the resonrces and men of the progress and civilization, we are committed. It is a trust we northern part of the island, he made a number of defiant have not sought; it is not a trust from which we will flinch. stands. After the battle of Malabon, the attempt to surround We will support Dewey and Otis in upholding our flag where Aguinaldo by moving northeast to Novalishes failed because he it now floats, the symbol and assurance of liberty and justice. escaped before our forces were in position. Pressing farther Who can fix the limits of war? Congress can declare war, but north, the battle of Bulacon followed, and on March 31 General a higher power decrees its bounds and fixes its relations and MacArthur's division captured Malolos, Aguinaldo's capitol. responsibilities, and these can only be measured when the last In the meantime the Island of Negros had sent a commission gun is fired and the verdict embodied in the stipulations of to Manila to acknowledge United States sovereignty, refusing peace. to acknowledge Aguinaldo; a United States vessel had taken Although views may differ as to the relations to exist between possession of the Island of Cebu; the Oregon had arrived; the Philippines and the United States, all agree that they should General Lawton had arrived to aid General Otis; and Dewey not be restored to Spain, and to have permitted them to be had raised his Admiral's flag at Manila on the fourth of March. given to any other power would have created serious interna

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tional complications. The treaty gave them to the United States. Could we have required less and done our duty? After freeing them from Spain, could we have left them without government, and without power to protect life and property, or to perform the international obligations essential to an independent state? Could we have left them in a state of anarchy, and justified our consciences? Could we have done that in the sight of God or man?

In doing all that has been done, we needed no one's consent because we were seeking the highest welfare of these peoples and so were obeying a higher moral obligation-fulfilling a duty approved by conscience and civilization. The war is ended. The nation itself has ratified the treaty. The best and yet the hardest thing to do, is yet to be done. We cannot shirk grave responsibilities although it is not always given us to know why they are thrust upon us. The future of the Philippines is now in the hands of the American people. The whole subject is now with Congress and Congress is the voice, the conscience, the judgment of the American people. Upon their judgment and conscience can we not rely? I believe in them, I trust them. I know of no better or safer human tribunal than the people.

Until Congress shall uirect, the executive can only possess and hold the Philippines, making them know that we are all friends, and that their good is our aim, but that it cannot be accomplished until our authority is acknowledged and unquestioned. This government means a self-government for them. No imperial designs lurk in the American mind. They are alien to American sentiment, thought, and purpose. Our priceless principles undergo no change under a tropical sun. They go with the fiat:

“Why read ye not the changeless truth,

The free can conquer but to save !" If we can benefit these remote peoples, who will object, who will not rejoice in our heroism and humanity? I have no light or knowledge not common to my countrymen. I cannot bound my vision by the blood-stained trenches around Manila, but by the broad range of future years, when that group of islands shall have become the glory of the tropical seas, a land of plenty, a people devoted to peace, in touch with all nations, enjoying the blessings of freedom, civil and religious liberty, and of education; and whose children for ages shall bless the American republic because it emancipated and redeemed their fatherland and set them in the pathway of the world's best civilization."

Mr. McKinley was followed by Postmaster-General Smith, in whose speech occurred this sentence: “Lincoln emancipated 4,000,000 of beings; McKinley has lifted 10,000,000 into new light and freedom, and the devoted President *** is keeping touch with the popular heart as he fulfills his lofty mission of taking the flag of American liberty where Lincoln has left it pure and stainless, and carrying it forward to wider sway and influence in the world.” June 6, 1899.


Just Out. A new trigonometry with tables, by Phillips & Strong. This book is the most complete and thorough book of its kind yet published. It is excellently bound, made of first-class paper, and is printed with beautiful type.

The clearness of the figures and the arrangement of the contents can not be excelled. In addition to the tables found in ordinary books of this kind, this work contains a table of Naperian logarithms, squares and square roots of numbers, and a table of constants. No teacher of mathematics should be without this book. Address,


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