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Prof. S. H. Clark. "I'm as Cross as a Hornet Today; you better look out!” Indeed, and do you expect pay for acting the hornet today? Do you think it will stimulate a better spirit and better work on the part of your children loday that they know you are in danger of stinging them? Have you forgotten that boys seldom go near hornets' nests without throwing stones at them, and that even girls sometimes try it? Did you ever hear the maxim: “Like priest, like people?" Do you know how far you have fallen in the estimation of every child in the room whose love you crave by that foolish remark? Do you teach selfcontrol and yet expect your pupils to attain it in an atmosphere filled with the venom of hornets' stings? Have you never heard, that he that ruleth his own spirit is better than he that taketh a city?
A City Psychologist. Some of the papers are poking fun at Professor Royce, of Harvard, for suggesting that every board of education should employ a competent psychologist whose duty it would be to examine the children for the purpose of determining their mental condition and suggesting the kind of instruction and drill needed. By it he would discover at once the “born shorts,” the precocious, the latents, the defectives in imagination or memory, the sense-defectives, the truly incorrigible, etc., and would be able to advise with the teacher and parent. He holds that such an expert would soon prove the most valuable member of the teaching force. Our own opinion is that every superintendent and principal, if not every teacher, should possess such ability, and that the people will not be long in demanding it. No one is professionally educatcd in the best sense who lacks it.
The Teacher's Health. The Chicago board of education requires each teacher to pass a physical examination before the contract is signed. Could anything be more appropriate? There are at least two great reasons for such an examination: The work of the teacher is exhaustive and only those in good physical health should undertake it. The atmosphere in every schoolroom should be as as it is possible to make it. A sickly teacher, particularly one afflicted with exemia, or bronchial or lung troubles of any kind, may easily poison the air in a room to such an extent as to make it dangerous for the children to breathe it.
Whack! Whack! He is an carnest, hard-working teacher and often wonders why he is not securing better results. Though he was taught better, as the children march out of his room, he beats time by bringing a long pointer down on his desk with a noisy whack, whack, that grates on the ear of every sensitive child in the line and makes sufficient confusion to afford opportunity for grunts and pranks from the rougher boys and girls. He formerly used a gong, but finds this is better for marching, as it is more "stickcatto-like!” When are we to learn that (whacking sticks, gongs, and the whole tribe of tom-toms have no place in the schoolroom? A quiet tap with a pencil or counting for a few paces until the children catch the step is in far better taste and is much more effective. Occasionally it may be well to resume the tapping or the counting for a moment, but it should not be continued longer than absolutely necessary. If the line is boisterous or stamping heavily, do not add to the noise and disorder by any
of the above-named devices, but stop the line at once and let it move only as it moves quietly. A little perseverance in such a drill will soon work wonders.
The Trouble. “If your sagassity was only equal to your perspigassity,” as Mrs. Hyde often wrote to Jane, "your usefulness to the commuity would be unlimited. You see a wonder. ful lot of things, you hear as many more, and you imagine fivė times as many as you see and hear. Such insight is invaluable to the gossips, for it gives them a constant supply of delicate morsels to chew. But did you ever think that you are in miserably poor business and that you are feeding a class of social buzzards of which you are the chief among ten thousand? If you were only wise enough to use your penetration in discovering the good in your neighbors and in devising ways and means to help them reach up to a better life, instead of pulling them down, you would not only be a better teacher, but a bet. ter woman also." In which remark is much food for reflec. tion.
Babies! There is time and a place for babies, but the schoolroom is certainly not the place for them. No matter how cute and sweet-all babies are cute and sweet-a baby may be, it cannot be brought into the schoolroom without attracting the attention of the pupils and interfering with the work of the school. It frequently happens that mother wishes to spend a day with a neighbor, and, that she may be free from care, sends her two-year-old Angie with his brother Fred to visit the school teacher! Angie smiles, Angie talks, Angie tumbles off on the floor, Angie pouts, Angie wants a drink of water, Angie wants a piece of bread and sugar, Angie cries, Angie gets his fingers in the ink and rubs it on his face, Angie wants his mama! Angie! Angie- -!!! Angie visits the teacher in her dreams that night! It takes at least another whole day to overcome the distracting effects of that visitation. Yet, out of the goodness of her heart and the weakness of her courage, that teacher tells that mother at church next Sunday how much the children enjoyed having Angie with them that day and expresses the hope that he may come again. He comes! Who is to blame? Not Angie!
Shall the Boy Fight? We are surprised to see the editor of the Child Study Monthly answering this question in the affirmative. He heartily commends a mother who had cempelled her son to go and pummel a fellow from whom he had received some affront, and urges mothers to teach their boy to fight when insulted. He says that he had recently forced his own boy, “an eight-year-old, against the boy's own inclinations, to go and trounce his antagonist. He whipped him in a most creditable manner-had he not, I would have felt disgraced for life.” Sic! He says further that a mother must sometimes be willing to sit at her window and see her boys fight like a fiend in the gutter outside. “Tenderly bandage his wounds, if he comes out second best, but ask no questions, give no advice. Rather than have your boy a coward, dear mother, the next time he is involved in a righteous quarrel, stand over him and make him fight it out, even at the risk of nervous prostration and hysteria." It is a long time since we have seen such pugilistic doctrine advanced in a respectable journal and we wonder whether our brother's longing for children's gore may not have been aroused by the smell of Spanish blood. The average mother has about all she can do to keep her boys from fighting at any provocation and certainly would hardly thank anyone for adding to her difficulties. The boy who has the reputation of “never taking an insult" usually has all the fight he needs and frequently has an extra one or two on hands. If he wins, he seldom fails to become a bully and a braggart him
self. If he loses, he spends much of his time in sneaking one, or thirty-four, etc. Each sort of plant always and every. around and tormenting little fellows who only resist to their where has the leaves arranged in a certain number of vertical undoing. The term "insult" covers a multitude of offenses in rows or columns. Why? a boy's mind: The crook of a finger, an inadvertent remark, a 3. Leaf sketch or description. This should give the form, frank statement of a difficulty to a teacher, talking to another apex, base and margin of the leaf. fellow's girl, an innocent remonstrance against an unkind 4. Leaf surface. Is the leaf smooth or hairy? word, an imputation of lack of courage, etc. The boy who is 5. Leaf-scar. Describe or sketch the scar left by the fallen taught to fight and has once tasted gore, is too generally on the
leaf. alert for an insult and has no difficulty in finding one as his
6. Bundle-scars. On the leaf-scar will usually be found reputation as a fighter may be waning a little. We recall a remains of the broken sap tubes. Count the bundle-scars and winter of school in which, under such instruction as the Doctor
describe their arrangement. gives, the boys managed to fill out nearly every day with a
7. Stipule scars. Look for small scars on each side of the
leaf-scars. scrap or two.
One would "insult” another and get a whipping from the insulted. Then the “insulter's" big brother
8. Location of buds. Where are the buds with reference to would come around and thrash the "manly" vindicator; and
the leaves or leaf-scars, and how many in a cluster? Note the then this big brother would catch a dressing on his way home
presence or absence of an end bud. from the bigger brother of the other fellow who had hid in the
9. Description of buds. Give their form, surface (whether fence corner in anticipation of his coming. Periodically the smooth or hairy), color and number of scales to be seen on heads of the families involved would join in exchanging com
the outside. These scales are altered leaves so arranged as to pliments. By the way, many of our readers have probably
protect the tender parts within from wet and frost. seen that mother whom the Doctor mentions, urging on her
10. Spines or prickles. Where are they and are they modi. “noble b'y" in choice brogue and have also seen Mrs.
fied leaves, stipules, bark cells, or twigs? O'Flanigan, the sturdy mother of the other brave lad, in 11. Description of twig. Give its length, color, form and a state of wrath, approaching from the rear! No, no, "dear”
surface. To get the length, find the ring of scale-scars which Doctor, such advice as you give savors not of the Ser
determines the place of the bud of one year ago, and measure mon on the Mount, but rather of the law which died when the from this to the tip of this fall's scale bud terminating the twig. new gospel came. Is it not better to teach a child to pay no
By twig is meant this year's growth. attention to unkind remarks or slights, even to yield to a boor
12. Description of pith. Give its color, comparative size, or a bully for the time rather than have an unseemly squabble
and its condition. This last may be clear, or the pith may be with him? that it often requires more courage not to fight than
crossed by shelf-like partitions as in the black walnut. to fight? that the really manly man is he who dares to revile 13. Fruit. What is the kind of fruit, by what animals is it not again? that enemies are to be made friends by kindness
eaten, and has the tree any special device for scattering the rather than by violence? that the only time when he is justified
seeds? Is the fact that the fruit is edible a damage or a benefit in striking another is when his personal safety or that of one
to the tree? who is unable to defend himself is in danger? These boys are
14. Description of tree or vine. Give the height of the tree to be men some day. They will be very much the same kind
or the length of the vine, the shape of the top, the durability of men as they were boys. They ought to learn under moth
of the wood, and the uses of the wood. er's tutelage the better ways of righting wrongs and of show
15. Remarks. Has the tree described ever been celebrated ing their courage.
in song or story? Are there more trees in Kansas than there
were twenty years ago? What are some of the enemies of trees? Nature Studies for November.
Would there be more birds if there were more trees? Is it When one has made a collection or objects, he very naturally
advisable to largely increase the number of trees in Kansas? looks for similarities and differences, that he may readily dis
Ought there to be a grove of trees ncar every school house?
Should trees be planted for shelter and company near every tinguish one from the other. If the objects collected were
dwelling and stock lot? once parts of living plants and animals, the characteristics
Note.—To prepare properly for the tree study described noted must be those that are permanent and universal in the
above, each school room should possess, in addition to the colkinds collected, but need not be those that were essential or
lection of sections of limbs suggested in “Nature Studies for nonessential to the success of the organism in its struggle for existence. Should the object of the collector, however, be
October,” a collection of twigs and leaves. The leaves may be greater than the mere recognition of his specimens and include
preserved by pressing them in large books, or a sketch may be
made of the leaf on a card and the card tied to the twig. The a knowledge of their life histories, then he must note all classes
twigs should show two years' growth, this and last year's. By of characteristics with equal faithfulness. In the following
cutting away the bark and wood near the larger end of the specoutline, for the study of trees in their late fall condition, atten
imen for one-half an inch a place for the number of the specition is given to identification, life history, and economic
men is inade. The number written in ink should correspond importance to man. The outline will also serve as an outline
with a number written with the common name of the plant in for an essay describing each kind of tree growing in the vicin
a record book.
L. C. WOOSTER. ity of the schoolhouse, and narrating its life history.
1. Habitat. Does it like the prairie, the rocky hillside, or The Normal has recently come into possession of a most valthe moist river bottom best?
uable set of books, “The History of America," by Wm. Rob2. Phyllotaxy. Are the leaves or leaf-scars opposite or ertson, D. D., in four volumes. The history was published in alternate on the twig? If they are alternate, then in about 1805 and is the gift of Hon. Isaac Sharp, president of the board how many vertical rows are they placed ? To learn this, find of regents from 1883 to 1885. The donor has the heartfelt two leaves or leaf-scars that are in just the same vertical row. thanks of every friend of the institution. This history is very The others between are each in separate columns. The vertical scarce and eastern colleges and universities are ready to pay a rows will be found to be two, three, five, eight, thirteen, twenty- large sum for it.
THE STATE NORMAL DIRECTORY,
The Board of Regents. HON. M. F. KNAPPENBERGER, President..
Jewell City HON. J. S. MCGRATH, Vice President
Saltville HON. JOHN MADDEN, Secretary
Emporia HON. S. H. DODGE, Treasurer
Beloit HON. J. H. RITCHIE.
Cherryvale HON. J. S. WINANS
Manchester The Faculty ALBERT R, TAYLOR, Ph. D., President,
928 Union Psychology and Philosophy of Education. JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary....
832 Merchants Director in Training. MIDDLESEX A. BAILEY, A, M.
218 West Twelfth Avenue
Mathematics. JOSEPH H. HILL, A. M.
1515 Highland Place
Latin. M'LOUISE JONES, A. M.
English, WILLIAM C. STEVENSON.
..1017 Mechanics Bookkeeping and Penmanship. EMMA L. GRIDLEY..
Drawing. CHARLES A, BOYLE, B. M.
827 Constitution Voice, Piano, and Harmony. CORA MARSLAND, O. M.
Elocution. MARY A. WHITNEY
827 Market History United States. ACHSAH M. HARRIS
827 Mechanics Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. OSCAR CHRISMAN, Px. D..
1013 Market History of Education, and Economics. DANIEL A. ELLSWORTH
Geography. L. C. WOOSTER, Ph. D...
1017 Union Natural History. T. M. IDEN, Ph. M.
913 Union Physics and Chemistry. MAUDIE L. STONE, S. B...
.728 Merchants Physical Training. EVA M'NALLY
714 Merchants Associate Professor, English. ELI L. PAYNE, B. P.
1218 Neosho Associate Professor, Mathematics. MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B.M.
827 Constitution Associate Professor, Piano and Theory. ANNA L. CARLL
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar. HATTIE E. BASSETT
724 Merchants Assistant Teacher, Elocution. ELVA E. CLARKE
Librarian, MARTHA J. WORCESTER.
906 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, English. MAUD HAMILTON....
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Latin and Pedagogics. MARY S. TAYLOR
312 West Twelfih Aveuue Assistant Teacher, Mathematics. LOTTIE E, CRARY.
1815 N. Merchants Assistant, Natural History, WILLIAM A. VAN VORIS
1316 Market Assistant, Physics and Chemistry. ISABEL MILLIGAN
312 West Twelve Avenue Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. JENNIE WHITBECK, B, P.
1028 Congress Assistant, Model Department. HATTIE COCHRAN
1316 North Merchants Manuscript Assistant, English. E. E. SALSER
.1028 Congress Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship. CHARLINE P. MORGAN
...617 Exchange Model Primary and Kindergarten. WILLIAM S. PICKEN
..717 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, History. FREDERICK B. ABBOTT, Ph. D.
1015 Constitution Manual Training. WILLIAM G. BUTLER
827 Mechanics Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo. E. ANNA STONE
.1315 North Merchants Second Assistant in Piano. EDWARD ELIAS..
823 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, German and French, ALLEN S. NEWMAN...
.1013 Merchants Office Secretary. PEARL STUCKEY
422 Market Stenographer. NELLIE STANLEY..
1123 Congress Assistant, Library and Office. BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER
312 Neosho Assistant, Library,
President TAYLOR lectures on Friday afternoon of Thanks giving week before the McLean County Teachers' and School Officers' Association at Bloomington, Illinois.
We notice that the firm of Hatfield & Bentley, Wichita, has recently gained bond suits for something like two hundred thousand dollars in the United States circuit court. This firm is attaining a national reputation for successful management of bond cases.
Mr. Abbott's classes in clay modeling have made wonderful progress during the last ten weeks. The manual training classes from the model school are deeply interested in every phase of the work. A dozen new benches, with full equip. ments, have been added for the use of the department.
DURING the past month we have been favored with visits from State Superintendent Stryker and Professor Nelson, candidates for the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, on the Populist and Republican tickets respectively. Both of them made pleasant addresses, and made many friends while here.
COMPANY H is at last mustered out and the boys are delighted to be at home again. Though so pleased to be released from from the service, they are practically unanimous in saying that the experience has been of incalculable value to them. Messrs. Huey, McConkey, Shelton, Wright and Torrance, are all in school again, with others to follow.
The following are the orators selected for the preliminary oratorical contest: Messrs. Gift and Gray, Literati; Messrs. Daniels and Wood, Belles-Lettres; Mr. Ward and Mrs. Vickrey, Lyceum; Miss Mary Ott and Mr. H. Clark, Philomathian; Messrs. Reed (Philomathian) and Wolf (Lyceum), Misses Patterson (Literati) and Balcomb (Lyceum).
Our Professor D. A. Ellsworth has become controlling editor in the Osage City Free Press, and we fear will incline to devote his entire time to the paper after the close of this present year. Professor Ellsworth has many elements of the successful journalist in his composition, and will undoubtedly make a popular paper. His writings, both poetry and prose, have already given him an enviable reputation.
Have you secured a copy of the Kodak? Over nine hundred copies have been sold and the supply will soon be exhausted. It would take several pages of the Monthly to tell the good things that have been said about this beautiful annual. It makes a most handsome piece for the center table in any parlor. Orders may be sent to Miss Hattie Cochran, Emporia, Kan., or to the office of the State Normal School. Price, $1.25.
Mr. W. G. Butler, the new teacher of stringed instruments, was for a long time a student of John C. Bostelman, of the Corning, N. Y., Conservatory
The course in violin consists of studies by Weiss, Danela, Mazas, Sehradieck, David and Kreutzer, and solo, duetts and trios by the masters. Special attention is given to the orchestra and ensemble playing. The instruction is adapted to meet the individual requirements of the pupil. Tone, technic and style are made important factors. You are invited to visit his studio, room 77.
PRESIDENT TAYLOR has announced the following persons as members of the cornmittee from the National Council of Education to investigate the relation of the libraries to the public schools: J. C. Dana, Springfield, Massachusetts; Frank Hutchins, Madison, Wisconsin; Charles McMurray, Normal, Illinois ; Sherman Williams, Glen Falls, New York; M'Louise Jones, Emporia, Kansas. The work has already been outlined and arsigned to sub-committees, soon to be appointed. Professor Jones will report on normal schools and their relation to libraries.
The Status of Educational Method. Professor J. N. W'ilkinson delivered an address before the students of the State Normal School, November 2, in the reg. ular series of faculty lectures. His subject was: “The Status of Educational Method." The delivery of the address was without notes and occupied exactly the fifty minutes allotted to this purpose. We give below a brief statement of the principal points.
A special study of methods is not ordinarily regarded as necessary for teaching. Most of those who teach in the schools of our country are without any satisfactory training for the work. The examination for a certificate is supposed to cover method, but candidates seldom fail on that subject. The questions are in such form that the examiners can give a passing grade to almost any answer.
Most of the teachers follow largely the methods that have come down from those with whom they studied. They do not comprehend; they are no more able to use them skillfully than would one be able to perform a surgical operation who has himself been the subject of such an operation.
Obtaining methods by imitation must, in the very nature of things, be a failure. Pupils who seek to catch from one who instructs them in academic subjects the secret of his success in teaching these subjects, will miss the secret if the subjects are being properly taught. Good teaching will center their thoughts on the subject itself so attentively that they have no time to think of how they are being taught. The characteristic processes which they will remember are not likely to be of general application, and are, indeed, more likely to be erroneous methods which are really against the teacher's success rather than the cause of it.
Many of the notions that have come down from tradition are of questionable propriety. There is, for instance, a general tradition that children must be busied in some way, and the teacher who is guided by that tradition only is as likely to seek to employ the children in profitless and monotonous work as in any other kind. The traditions as to school government include •corporal punishment on the one hand and rewards of merit on the other, as means of securing good discipline.
The subjects taught in school and the ways of teaching are largely matters of tradition. The teacher seeks, for instance, to worry the pupils with all he ever learned about arithmetic, and he regards the subjects of the old time drill as quite sutlicient. He gives them Troy weight and apothecaries' weight, when he might with better reason let them memorize the widths of different kinds of wall paper and carpet, and thus be ready to solve problems that are of much more general use. The traditional method of teaching the alphabet is used in more schools today than is any other, although for a quarter
of a century all who have earnestly sought the best method have condemned the process of merely naming the letters in order until the names are associated with the letters by continuous repetition. This is an illustration of the force of tradition against all that can be presented by all the methods known to the reformer.
The conditions of modern civilization and the necessity of the division of labor naturally modify the methods of school organization and teaching. The old custom of entrusting the school to a town committee of the best men has given place to a board of examiners for certificates, a school board composed of many committees, a system of school supervision, and a plan of departmental teaching. The schools are made responsible for a variety of subjects, such as physical training, manual training sewing, cooking, and perhaps the Spanish language, and the teacher is compelled to resort to a system of examinations, grading and graduation, in order to adapt the school to these demands.
The great number and variety of studies introduced into the schools will afford abundant justification for the attempts now being made to unify the studies by some process of correlation. A course of instruction must be shaped so that the different studies taken by the same pupil at the same time shall have such connection with each other as will make the work have sufllcient unity to enable the pupil to comprehend the bearing of each study upon every other. Only by some such method as this shall we enable pupils to keep a continuous interest through all the various topics which each day presents for their consideration.
Most of the so-called books of methods that have been introduced to teachers in the last half century are simply catalogues of devices that have been used, seen or imagined by the anthors. The teacher who does not hunderstand the philosophy underlying such methods is liable to apply them to the detriment of the pupils and the general disadvantage of the school. The most helpful phase of educational method is the philosophical tendency of those who are leading in the study of this subject. We are no longer restricting our philosophy to the dry psychology widely divorced from method, but we are finding in physiological psychology and in such practical measures as child study, data to guide us in the choice of methods. It is worth more to know what parents want for their children, and how it can be made acceptable to the children themselves, than it is to seek to give instruction in the fashion suggested by the philosopher's study of his own mind. The tendency is at present to seek an underlying law which accounts for the varying phenomena shown by the best methods. Some of our best thinkers at the present time are seeking to find in the purpose of the pupil's life the guiding principle for the selection of subjects and the choice of methods. In their opinion the needs of the civilization into which he is born determine what shall be taught to him, and how he shall be taught. Whether the great end shall be utility or character or some other highest good, may be a question of ethics, but when that end is determined, light is thrown upon the whole path of education. While we shall have our contentions as to the application of these methods, and shall still have enough confusion as to when teaching shall be concrete and when abstract, when analytic and when synthetic, when by the oral method and when by the textbook, when by inductive process and when by deductive, we shall find that there are certain general processes which explain this apparent diversity.
The means available for learning methods are very diverse, but the state normal school offers advantages over all others. The teachers' institute, even with the required four weeks per
year, gives an average of professional instruction amounting to about eight weeks in the career of each teacher in the state. Educationtional associations and school journals are valuable chiefly to promote good fellowship and enthusiasm. Pedagogical departments in colleges and universities give a most elaborate system of theory, but lack the opportunity of illustrating what is taught, and they do not correct the conclusions of their philosophy by actual work with the children themselves. It is the mission of the normal school to make educational method its chief teaching, to found this method upon the most thorough and genuine philosophy known, to correct proposed methods, and establish beyond question methods that are good through the only reliable test, the observing and the use of the methods in actual work with the pupil of the grades for which they are designed in the schools.
Children and Ghosts.
SUPT. L. A, LOWTHER,
1088 In the first two items fear is a large element in determining the character of the motor activity aroused. Putting these two items together, we have eight hundred seventy-five, or eighty per cent., who have more or less emotional belief in ghosts. Combining all other items, as representing various degrees of non-belief or indifference, we have two hundred thirteen, or twenty per cent.
Strangely out of keeping with the above are the answers to the second question, “Do you believe in ghosts ?” Of the one thousand eighty-eight answers, only ninety-nine said "yes;” nine hundred eighty-nine answered “no." In other words, while ninety-one per cent. insist that they do not believe in ghosts, the results on the first question show that eighty per cent. would run, or be afraid, or in some way disclose a state of mind not wholly tranquil. This illustrates in a striking manner the peculiar working of the child mind, falling unconsciously into endless contradictions and illogical statements. The claim of nine hundred eighty-nine to intellectual respectability compelled them to answer "no." Yet, assuming that the two hundred thirteen who would resist, investigate, do nothing, etc., were consistent non-believers (which was not always the case), there remain seven hundred seventy-six of those who answered “no," who outline a course of action. wholly at variance with non-belief.
The answers to the third question, “What are ghosts like ?" also discount the large negative answer to the second question. Paradoxically enough, seven hundred sixty-nine children attempt some description of what most of them affirm does not exist. The results are shown in
TABLE B.-CONCEPTION OF GHOSTS,
15 3. A white figure,
37 4. A shadow, cloud, etc.,
16 5. Like an angel, or a fairy,
7 6. Like a devil, a goblin, a witch, etc.,
27 7. A headless figure, 8. Like a skeleton,
75 9. Like a dead body,
15–469 Like a person with or without a sheet around him, 185 Like ar, animal,
97 Miscellaneous, 13. Don't know, no idea,
104 14. Unanswered, or unclassifiable,
215 It seems reasonable to infer that all pupils whose answers to the third question are included in items one to nine inclusive, of Table B, have a feeling that a ghost is something out of the natural order of things, approaching the supernatural or spiritual. There are four hundred sixty-nine of this class, being fifty-tour per cent. of the number attempting to answer the third question.
Many of those who think a ghost "like a person,” evidently have the idea that it is some one trying to frighten them, that is, the apparition may be explained by natural causes. This feeling is summed up in one characteristic answer: "A ghost is simply (when seen) a foolish person endeavoring to scare
It is usually dressed in white to look more unearthly."
It is hard to account for the large number comparing a ghost
The original aim of this study, if it can be said to have had an aim, was simply to discover whether or not children believe in ghosts, and if so to what extent; to ascertain whether such belief plays any conspicuous part in their lives, and if possible, suggest a remedy. In the preparation of this paper many valuable suggestions were derived from a brief paper on the same subject by Miss Louise Maitland, in Studies in Education."
The following questions were submitted to the children in the grades, from the first to the eighth inclusive:
What would you do if you saw a ghost ?
Do you believe in ghosts? 3. What are ghosts like ?
4. When and where did you first hear of ghosts? Who told you ?
One thousand and eighty-eight papers were collected and examined. Of this number, four hundred forty-eight papers were written by white boys; five hundreu forty-three by white girls; sixty-two by colored boys; and thirty-five by colored girls.
After reading the variety of answers to the first question, one was convinced that there was nothing new or different left to be done, even if twice the number of papers had been called for. Some of the typical answers were: “I would run;" "run and scream;' “climb a tree;" "get under a bed;" "slip away;" “stand still;" “pretend not to see it;" "shiver;" "shut my eyes;" "fall;" "faint," "hold my breath ;'' “be afraid ;'' "pet it;" "fight it;" “kill it;" get a rock;" "get a gun;'! “examine it;" "do nothing;" etc. One colored boy, by whose side I happened to be standing while he was writing, asked me how to spell“death.” I noticed something very serious in his face;. glancing over his shoulder, I observed that he was laboriously writing, “I would run myself to death." Evidently he was never more in earnest in his life. In collating, these answers were classified under seven heads:
Would run; that is, the personal reaction aroused in one of getting out of the way.
Would stand still; answers varying from standing still merely, to a condition of semi-paralysis due to fear. 3. Would resist; from a mild form of bravado represented by the expression, “running at it,” to a bolder resolution to “kill it.” 4. Would investigate; all forms of reconnoitering to ascertain the exact nature of the apparition. 5. Would do nothing. 6. Don't know. 7. There is no such thing as a ghost, hence, impossible to see one.
Tabulating these results, we have:
1 Studies in Education, Angust, 1896.