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to an animal. However, in the case of twenty-five who think a ghost "like a goat," the comparison is probably due to a confusion of the words "ghost" and "goat." The animals named would form quite a respectable menagerie. For example: white owl, white bear, white monkey, sheep, dog, cat, cow, horse, goat, pig, lamb, wolf, lion, camel, and so on. The children answering thus were largely in the lower grades, seventy-four of them not being over ten years old. I have a suspicion that many considered the ghost a hideous something comparable only to that animal which they most dreaded. I have interpreted all such answers to be susceptible of a physical explanation and classified accordingly.
There can be no doubt, however, that some of those that compare a ghost to a person, or an animal, have the genuine belief in ghosts. The following paper, written by a colored boy fourteen years old, in the fifth grade, is to the point:
“I would jump up and down if I saw a ghost, and scare it away."
2. “Yes, I do believe in ghosts."
4. “The first time I ever saw one was over by East lake, and I jumped up and down, but instead of me running him, he ran me home, 'i
Here is another, by a fifteen-year-old girl in the seventh grade:
“I think they are like a person,-I mean appear in the form of a person, and dressed in white. Ghosts are supposed to be people that are dead, and come back to haunt their enemies."
Another striking instance of the probable confusion of words, as well as ideas, is the statement of fifteen pupils that a ghost is like the Holy Ghost.
The prevailing color, as applied to ghosts, is, as might be expected, white; though a few, perhaps a dozen, said black.
The time of appearance was not called for directly, but so far às could be ascertained it is at night, with a few exceptions.
Source of information.—The answers to the fourth and last
44 3. From a book,
115 4. Don't know,
original sources of information taught belief in ghosts. On the other hand, the “first knowledge” may be due to an effort on the part of some one to fortify the child's mind against any such belief.
The Races.-Of no less interest is the study of the races, taken separately. While only seven per cent. of the white children admit a belief in ghosts, sixty-four per cent. of the 'colored children freely admit it. This great disparity may in some measure be accounted for, if we may be allowed to assume that it is “less respectable” to admit such a belief among white, than among colored, people.
In their conceptions of what ghosts are like, the ideas of the colored children approach the supernatural to a greater degree, than those of white children, in the ratio of sixty-nine per cent. of the former, to fifty per cent. of the latter.
Time will not permit a study in detail of the differences between boys and girls, in their attitude toward ghosts; nor of the ideas at various ages.
Suffice it to say, however, that the number of girls who would run or be more or less overcome by tear exceeds that of the boys. And, naturally, when it comes to showing fight or a desire to investigate the matter, the boys outnumber the girls.
CHART 1. MOTOR
I. 2. 2.
535 TABLE D.-WHO FIRST TOLD YOU ?
Summary:-What have we learned by this study? The most Mother,
difficult task in an inductive study like this is to make the Father,
proper inferences. Often we think we have proven something Brother or sister,
when a closer inspection or further investigation brings a very 4. Friend, or other relative, 85
different result. I will be conservative and venture upon but 5. Servant,
15 6. School friend,
two or three generalizations.
32 7. Teacher,
In the first place, we have seen what the child's motor S. Sunday school teacher,
response would be: his attempt to remove himself at once from 9. Saw one,
18 Don't know,
a presence that may result in bodily harm. Then we see his
effort to establish his claim to intellectual respectability. 445
Somehow and somewhere he has learned that it is not just the The facts brought out here indicate that the home rather thing to believe in ghosts: hence, intellectual disbelief is registhan the school is responsible for the "ghost idea.” Of the tered in a vigorous "no." In the child's effort to describe a definite sources of information, the mother is twice as guilty ghost, to picture in words what is in his mind, we see the as the father. Servants do not figure as largely as was antici. nature of his emotional response. At the critical moment his pated. The teacher is practically exonerated. By way of boasted intellectual disbelief gives way to an emotional belief. "palliation of the offense," so far as the home folks are con- So far as these papers are concerned, the "ghost idea” is cerned, let us be reminded that it does not follow that all these
(Continued on page:30)
CHARACTER STUDIES FROM LOVE'S LABOR LOST.
(Concluded from page 21.)
hardly he said to have a plot. It is a collection of incidents. The character study is incomplete and subordinate to the dialogue which is a perfect fusilade of puns, euphuisms, and alliterations.
The scene opens in Navarre in a veritable Forest of Arden. The young king, for ambitious reasons, plans to retire for study for three years, during which time he and his court pledge themselves by a solemn vow, to eat but one meal a day, to fast once a week, to sleep but three hours a day, not to wink all day, and to see no woman. Only one of the number seems to recognize the absurdity of the king's request and their vow. Berowne protests in vain. He is the only man of sense in the king's group.
The king dreaming of intellectual conquests, forgets that a famous French princess coming to Navarre on an important embassy will soon arrive, and is even now before his gates He turns to a letter from the Spanish traveller into whose mouth Shakespeare put all absurdities of euphuism. Armado writes:
"Great deputy, the Welkin's vicegerent and sole dominator of Navarre, my soul's earth's god, and budy's fostering patron.,'
Armado is the dude of Shakespeare's day, full of foppish affectations of speech and manner.
The ladies draw near to the gates of Navarre and encamp. Boyet, the courtier and diplomat attending the princess, soon gives the clue of the purpose of their journey as he remarks to the princess:
"Now, madam, summon up your dearest spirits;
Than Aquitain, a dowry for a queen.” To his words the princess replies with vivacity, but dignity, sending him to Navarre with this message:
“The daughter of the king of France,
Importunes personal conference with his grace," And then the fact is disclosed that the attendant ladies of the princess have all previously met the attendant lords of the king.
Boyet returns from the king to be followed almost immediately by the whole band of swearers of impossible vows, and here the hermit students enter into the conflict with love.
From the moment they enter, war is waged--a battle of wit, merry, sharp, provoking, and it must be confessed that the maidens have the advantage. Puns are fired like shots from a gun. Rosaline, sprightly, full of life, but a trifle bold in her repartee, takes no uncertain aim, but sends one of cupid's own darts flying straight into one masculine heart.
The distinction is nicely preserved between the wit of the princess and that of Rosaline. The princess invariably preserves a certain dignity of speech and manner. She greets the king in her official character, presenting to him the letter from her father. Like Queen Bess, she does not hesitate to take advantage of her own attractiveness to effect a certain end for her kingdom.
Shakespeare shows us little of her character, but the few touches he gives reveal a skilled diplomat and a well poised
Her delicate mission is soon accomplished to her satisfaction, but in conquering in state craft, she loses her heart. The king and his followers depart, and saucy Rosaline sizes
ne as the “merry mad-cap lord.” And Boyet, skilled in knowledge of the heart, gives the princess friendly, though
Somewhat worldly counsel as to her conduct towards the king. Whereupon the maidens rally him as an old love-monger and Cupid's grandfather.
To while away the time, the princess and her train engage in a shooting match, and at this juncture, enter Holofernes, Sir Nathaniel, Dull, and the group of pedants, and all the laughter of Shakespeare seems turned on them.
Holofernes lugs Latin into every sentence, while lolofernes admiringly exclaims, “Truly, Master Holofernes, the epithets are sweetly varied, like a scholar at the least.” Dull, stupid and opinionated, makes a fine foil for the gashing display of superficial erudition on the part of Holofernes and Nathaniel. One of the affectations of the day was an extravagant use of alliteration. It is well set forth in the speech of Holofernes, after the shooting match.
“I will somethiny affect the letter for it argues facility.
Of one sore I a hundred make by adding but one more L." Then follows the scene where the young dramatist seems to hold his sides with laughter,—the scene where the love-lorn nobles all betray their heart secret.
First enters Berowne, uttering love plaints; but seeing another approach, he conceals himself in a tree. Enter King. Hit like Berowne, to be sure, and so badly hit by Cupid's dart he has actually turned poet. Hear his sonnets to the princess! Berowne hears them and at once diagnoses the king's case. A severe case of heart disease. In the midst of the king's read ing, enter Longaville, and exit king. Another love ditty, case number three of heart failure. And as Berowne had listened to the king's love ravings, so now Berowne and the king listen to Longaville. Longaville's condition is evidently more serious, in that he has produced more wretched poetry. And Berowne pathetically remarks:
“God amend us! We are much out of the way.”
Enter Lumain, reading a love sonnét, exit Longaville. Actor, one, as on the old Grecian stage; auditors, three. But the humor reaches its climax when each of the hidden lovers reveals himself, and each discovers that the other men have discovered how many fathoms deep he is in love. The king brings about this catastrophy by stepping out to denounce his lords for their broken vows, little dreaming that every one has discovered his secret; whereupon Berowne steps forth from his hiding place, and merrily denounces the king for his hypocrisy. Though sentimental like the others, he seems to have a little more sense, and gives counsel against their unnatural seclusion from the world. The result is they plan a visit to the princess and her maidens. Disguised as Russians they approach, but not before word of their plan has reached their respective ladyloves. Boyet says to the maidens:
“Master your wits; stand in your own defense." Useless advice. Trust a bright girl's wit in a tilt with her lover. With overflowing life, skilled in many a wordy battle, these girls from the fair court of France were more than a match for their disguised wooers.
Not to be outdone, the maidens disguise themselves, and lead the lovers on to protestations of love to the wrong ladies, until it is almost a comedy of errors. To vows of devotion they protest utter disbelief, almost too convulsed with laughter to speak. The wooers depart discomfited. But-faint heart ne'er won fair lady, so they resolve collectively to try their fortunes again. Again they come, undisguised, and again the maidens have the advantage of the situation, for they discuss their Russian wooers, making them the objects of their mirth. Berowne
is the first to give up arms and surrender, acknowledging the disguise of their previous visit. When a general surrender seems imminent, the battle of words increases. The lovers vow vows without number; the maidens will hear none of them.
A most spirited Airtation is suddenly brought to a pause by a message received by the princess. At the instant, the raillery between the king and the princess changes to deep seriousness as she tells him the contents of the message—the death of her father. She speaks with deep feeling, and at once shows herself a woman of depth and tenderness.
With a quiet dignity and gentleness she speaks to the king and lords thus:
"I thank you, gracious lords,
Farewell, worthy lord !
A heavy heart bears not an humble tongue." The princess now listens gravely to the king's suit, as he urges.
“At the latest minute of the hour grant us your loves." She replies:
"A time methinks too short
To make a world-without-end bargain in.” It seems to her a hasty decision for so serious a step, so she sets him a task for a year to test his love-to retire once more to his hermit life. Then she says:
“Come challenge, challenge me by these desserts,
I will be thine! Then Rosaline, the saucy, the bold, copies her mistress, sending her lover off for a year's test. To the last word she is a coquette, but a very charming one.
So the play ends, but not in weddings, and Love's Labor is Lost.
The play throughout shows the conflict between the real and ideal, the unconventional and the conventional. It satirizes many of the affectations of the day. Its puns are the wittiest in literature.
The princess is the prototype of Portia; Rosaline, of Rosalind.
This group of women falls far below Shakespeare's later women characters in intellect, heart, and refinement. With the exception of the princess, they are all superficial society girls.
Neither are the corresponding men's characters quite up to the standard. They are just shallow enough to lose their hearts at once, easy victims for the mischievous girls. One wonders what would have become of the poor things had the French king not died. Doubtless they would have been com. pletely vanquished.
The whole play shows the utter absurdity of affected speech and manners, and an unnatural way of living.
Personals. '81. Arthur P. Davis has just returned from a year's work as hydrographer with the Nicaragua Canal investigating expedition. He was in charge of all the stream measurements, rainfall, evaporation, sediment, etc. It included an exhaustive determination of all hydrographic facts connected with the proposed canal. He is now in Washington completing his computations, and expects that his report will be published in December
'89. J. M. Rhodes is pursuiug advanced post graduate work at Columbia College, New York. His address is 225 W. 120th street.
'90. Chester Culver is completing his senior year in the law department at Harvard.
'91. Louise Tiffany is teaching in the Sabetha city schools.
'92. K. C. Davis writes from Ithaca, New York, that he is taking original work in comparative histology and cytology as his special study in Cornell University.
He thinks the library at Cornell fully equal in facilities for postgraduate work to that of the Boston or the Congressional library. About twenty thousand dollars are put into the library each year. His address is 69 Eddy street.
'93. W. H. McBride and Carrie McCarty were married on the evening of November 9. They will reside in Emporia, Mr. McBride being in the employ of one of the leading hardware firms of the city.
'94. Mary Spence has accepted a position at Kenton, Okla.
'94. Bennett Grove writes that he was elected superintendent for Harvey county by nearly eight hundred majority.
'94. Those visits of Brother Harman have not been for nought. Witness the following: Colfax B. Harman, Gertrude L. Crumb, married, Wednesday, October nineteenth, eighteen hundred ninety-eight. At home at Valley Falls, Kansas, November first.
'95. H. M. Means and Miss Maud Honnell, of Everest, Kans., were married on June 8 and have already become "old folks at home."
'95. Bert R. Betz, has bəen transferred from Wind River to the superintendency of the Siletz Boarding School at Siletz, Oregon. His salary has been increased to nine hundred dollars per year, evidence of the excellence of his work in the Indian schools. Mr. Betz was married on October 10 to Miss Minnie Fourt, of Lander, Wyoming. Mrs. Betz is a graduate of Frances Shimer Academy, at Carroll, Illinois. Siletz is within six miles of the Pacific coast and every night the braves are sulled to sleep by the beating of the surf.
'97. John S. Perry wires us that he has been elected superintendent of Wilson county by ninety-three majority. Congratulations.
'98. H. C. Griswold has accepted a position in the Newkirk, Oklahoma, high school.
'99. Miss Lena Becker has the sincere sympathy of her many friends over the recent loss of her mother.
'oo. George W. Stevenson was elected superintendent for Chase county on November 8.
'oo. John Mathers has been elected superintendent for Butler county, the only man on his ticket winning.
The School Journal Lowers Its Price. We see that this long-established weekly educational paper has decided to reduce its price from $2.50 to $2.00. It was begun in 1870 and has been a foremost advocate of many lines of progress in education, and has a well-deserved popularity. It has been something of a task during the nearly thirty years of its existence to induce teachers to take a weekly paper on education, but a change has been apparent; the normal graduates, the life diploma people, the increasing number of superintendents and principals who want to be “in the swim” and keep track of educational movements has made a demand for a week. ly paper. To meet this class The Journal has been reduced to $2.00 per annum. It will undoubtedly place many more subscribers on its list.
Dr. Oscar CHRISMAN presents a paper before the N. E. Teachers' Thanksgiving meeting at Holton.
The collection at the State Normal School on Lafayette Day for the Lafayette monument, amounted to eighteen dollars and thirteen cents.
Prof. A. T. St. Clair had a mishap Tuesday noon, while on the school grounds exercising his running powers. He came in contact with a bench, that had several buckets of water upon it. Damage was done to the buckets and the Prof's “blues." Who said the new professor wasn't a sprinter?-Independent News.
The Belles-Lettres Society. Another month has passed and with it an unusually successful series of programs. The society is experiencing a phenomenal growth, not only in new members, but in interest and earnestness. The pleasant location of the hall, and the cordial greeting extended to all who visit or join the society are conducive to enjoyment.
Last Friday night Professor Jones talked to us in her usual pleasing manner. She said the summer time always seemed to give her messages particularly for the Belles-Lettres people. When she first came to Kansas she gave to the Belles the only message the summer had given to her. She has brought us four different messages since that time and has met in this society during that time, some of the highest minded women and bravest and strongest men of the institution. She was pleased to mention in particular, the name of D. S. Landis, a former Belles-Lettres boy, who wrote the poem “The Belles” for the Kodak,
Professor Jones said, that with all our boasted civilization, with all our pride, we, as a people, lack two things; first, the high sense of honor which will keep the soul white, and second, faith in somebody and enthusiasm for something.
Mr. C. C. Rolfe came before us as a criminal, sentenced Saturday night, October 29, at nine o'clock. A criminal because of neglect of duty-the duty to get rich. He proved to us most conclusively, contrary to "Acres of Diamonds," that in the past as well as the present, the world does not give a man “just what he is worth to it."
The question for the contest debate between the Lyceum and Belles-Lettres societies, held in the Lyceum hall, was “Resolved, That the Anglo-American Alliance is a desirable body in the United States.” Messrs. Bader and Weatherby represented the Belles. ate in the evening Mr. Parker brought from the battle-field the stimulating news that we were victorious, and the Belles-Lettres hall rang with
Whickety! Whackety! Bif! Boom! Bah!
Belles-Lettres ! Belles. Lettres ! Rah! Rah! When the victors returned another demonstration took place and amid applause Mr. Weatherby said, “We have met the enemy and they are ours," while Mr. Bader opened his speech with, “The Lyceum has a clear carpet."
An especially pleasing feature of our programs during the past month was the solo whistled by Professor Marsland. Professor Butler entertained also, with most ravishing music, and very kindly responded to an encore. Mrs. Boyle accompanied Professor Butler on the piano.
President Taylor was a very welcome visitor in our hall, accompanied by J. R. Burton, of Abilene, a noted orator of the state.
The Belles have two quartettes organized now and ready for work.
The progressive spirit of our members is aroused to the highest pitch of enthusiasm at the mere mention of the coming contest in dramatic art.
Officers: Mr. Bader, president; Mr. McConkey, vice president; Mr. Weatherby, secretary.
hoc EXPLANATION OF CHART.-The figures across the top represent ages; a the left, per cents. Line "a" represents all those that would run, the num ber decreasing regularly, with one exception, from seven years up; "b' would stand still-more or less afraid; "c" would resist; “d” would inves tigate.
The study shows the peculiar working of the child's mind in the matter of contradictions. There appears to be no logical sequence. He writes “what he thinks, then he writes what he wants to think, but it does not occur to him to write what he ought to think in order to be logical.” Very few rose to the generalization that it is impossible to describe what we do not believe to exist.
The belief seems to be due to influences at home rather than at school; and books play no small part in the matter. What is the remedy ? Evidently, teach disbelief. This applies to both parent and teacher. If the child cannot be prevented from hearing tales unfolded "whose lightest word harrows up the soul,” he may at the same time be told the truth. His reading matter should be wisely selected. Instead of our teaching being mildly negative along the line of superstitions in general, and ghosts in particular, we should make it positive. We have seen that children are wofully ignorant of natural causation. Teach them that nothing just happens.
In conclusion, if it is true that man naturally has a liking for the mystical, the fanciful, a method of substitution might be warranted. This raises the whole question of the value of such fancies as Santa Klaus, nursery tales, fairy stories, and myths in general, the discussion of which is not within the province of this paper.
1 "Fear in Childhood',' by Agnes S. Holbrook, in Studies in Education, July, 1896. “Children's Superstitions," hy Clara Vostrovsky, in Studies in Education, October, 1896.
The Lyceum Society. Another month has passed away and left to us only the traces of its existence. We are concerned no more with the past, and so our attention, zeal, and ambition should be bestowed upon the present and the future. The past can be of use to us only in so far as we are able to profit by the experiences of that time.
This last month we have profited by the experiences of the
former month, and consequently have made great improvement. It is rumored that there will be a paper edited by the societies Our society programs have been better, for more time and of the school. work has been devoted to them. Professor Marsland and Pro- One of the special features of our society work is the music. fessor Butler happily entertained us one evening; the former, The trio given by the Misses Stanley, Gunn, and Woodrow, was by the mingling of the piano strains and those of whistling in an excellent selection. Miss Knappenberger played the accomthe variations of “Home, Sweet Home," and the latter with his paniment. Mr. Walter Priest favored us with “Just One Girl.” friend, the violin. A number of interesting and helpful essays This song was enjoyed by all. have been read, but when the seniors begin to expound their At the regular meeting for the election of officers, Mr. Huffknowledge in the form of long and profound orations, every man was chosen president; Miss Ise, vice president; Miss Madjunior, sophomore, freshman and sub., will be on hand with den, secretary; and Miss Rittenhouse, chorister. With such a pencil and a note book labeled, “Good points from wise stu- corps of officers we hope to raise the high standard of our dents,"
society and carry off the honors of the coming contest. Our new members are gaining as much enthusiasm as the oldest of the old, and are willing to help in any way when
The Philomathian Society. called upon. The better we become acquainted with them the
The Philomathian society has passed into the hands of the more confident are we that the “best” have flown to us, and
ladies, which fact secures successful administration of affairs that the other societies will, in time, have to conform their for five weeks. At the last election Miss Daisy Ott was chosen opinion to this, which will stand out so prominently and
president and Miss Hibner, secretary. The gentlemen not emphatically.
wishing to surrender entire control, succeeded in making Mr. We derive not only power and intellectual growth from our
Shidler sergeant-at-arms. society and its work, but also friendships and pleasures that During the past months the programs have been helpful and can be gained in no other way. Our society is a place to free enjoyable. One evening was devoted to the study of Dickens. the mind from the cares and worries of text-books, note-books,
Professor Jones gave an enjoyable talk, relating incidents in color-charts, school houses, original designs, clay models, etc., the life of the great man not familiar to the average student of and to enjoy life from another point of view. We can look
literature. On the same evening we were favored by two numback on the meetings of the Lyceum society and say:
bers given by young ladies of the Literati society, both of “There are moments in life that are never forgot, Which brighten, and brighten, as time steals away;
which were highly appreciated. At another meeting Professor They give a new charm to the happiest lot,
Abbott in an entertaining manner explained the work done and And they shine on the gloom of the loneliest day."
the objects sought in manual training. Professor Butler visThe Literati Society.
ited the society and delighted all present by dispensing strains
of sweet music from his violin. The closed meeting held in the Literati hall on the evening The work done in debate by some of our new members is of October 28, proved to be one of the most successful enter
especially gratifying. It must also be said that some of the tainments of the year. The attendance was large and the pro
best work in debate has been done by the ladies. A number gram as given was especially good. Mr. Scholl distinguished just beginning the work have already displayed such ability himself by one of his readings and was heartily encored. The
that they need not hesitate to debate with the best talent in wit indulged in by the debaters was a source of great merri
school. Prospects for strong work in debate for the remainder ment.
of the year are bright. Late in the evening Professor Butler delighted us with a vio
The outlook is good. Never before has the membership of lin solo.. Recognizing his ability we promptly recalled him and
the society entered into the work with more zeal, and never a second time we were pleasantly entertained. Recess came,
before have our new members taken hold of the work with the as it always does, and with its coming the true spirit of the Lit
earnestness of purpose they show now. Every evening spent in erati was displayed. Enthusiasm was at a high pitch. The
the hall is an evening of enjoyment and profit. Students and ladies gathered near the piano and gave the famous yell so
friends of the school always find a hearty welcome at this familiar to all the school. The other side of the house, who
society. were not going to be outdone, heartily responded, and soon all took up the chorus making the hall ring with outbursts of
The Companion for the Rest of 1898. enthusiasm. After a recess such as few societies can have, The principal attractions offered by The Youth's Companion President Oveson called the house to order. The reading given for the remaining weeks of 1898 provide a foretaste of the good by Miss Vaughn, and the essay by Miss Coffee, were both very things to follow in the new volume of 1899. To the first issue entertaining and instructive.
in November Frank R. Stockton will contribute a humorous Twenty-three new members were voted into the society, after sketch, entitled "Some of My Dogs,” and in the issue of the which began the mysterious work of this mighty session. Deep week of November roth will appear Rudyard Kippling's thrillinterest was everywhere manifest. The stillness of the hour ing story of the heroism of soldiers in the ranks, “The Burning was but the forerunner of the terrible calamity that was soon of Sarah Sands." In the seven issues to follow there will be to befall this mysterious assemblage. Gordon, Gray, Robinson,
contributions by Lord Dufferin, William D. Howells, J. E. Huffman, Gift, Engle, Finney, each in turn expounded the
Chamberlin, the American war correspondent, Mary E. Wilktruths of the one stupendous question. Eloquence was soaring
ins, Hon. Thomas B. Reed, the Marquis of Lorne, Mme. Lil
lian Nordica and I. Zangwill. Those who subscribe now for in the etherial sphere, when suddenly the lights were extin- the 1899 volume will receive every November and December guished and in the darkness the house adjourned.
issue of The Companion from the time of subscription to the At a special meeting of the Literati foot ball boys, C. M.
end of the year free, the Companion Calendar for 1899 free,
and then the entire 52 issues of The Companion to January 1, Lowry was chosen manager and Walter Priest captain. The
1900. An illustrated ann uncement of the 1899 volume and Literati-All-School challenge was accepted. The date for the sample copies will be sent free to any one addressing game has not been set, but the contesting parties will meet on
THE YOUTH'S COMPANION, the arena in about two weeks.
211 Columbus Ave.,