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"THE STUDY OF THE CHILD."
The Study of the Child.—A Brief Treatise on the Psychology of the Child. By A. R. Taylor, Ph. D., Emporia, Kansas. 215 pp. Price, $1.25. To Kansas Teacher's Reading Circle, 70 cents. New York and Chicago; 1). Appleton & Co
"President Taylor's Study of the Child is something quite different from the conventional book on child-study. It is not an inventory of child-actions, child-words, and child-ideas and feelings, nicely expressed in tables and summaries and left with little attempt at interpretation or synthesis—a monument to their author's interest, in fact—but it is just what the secondary title expresses, a brief treatise on the psychology of the child. It is strongly marked by the method and spirit of the objective psychology, and could not have been written without the new insight from that quarter, but it also recognizes the fact that, at the bottom, psychology is an introspective science. The matter of the book is well chosen, the plan easy and natural, and the style clear, while the more abstract parts are well set off by concrete examples."—Dr. B. A. Hinsdale, in The Dial.
"For twenty years the subject of child-study has been growng into prominence in all parts of the country. Nothing has aroused such interest among teachers. The greatest addition to our knowledge of it is found in The Study of the Child, No. 43 of Appleton's International Education Series. This is a most sound and wholesome book in child-study, and should be in the hands of every teacher and parent in the land. The author, A. R. Taylor, Ph. D., President of the State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas, has proved himself well qualified for the task of bringing this subject within the comprehension of the average teacher and parent. Technical terms and scientific formulas have been avoided as much as possible. The aim has evidently been to assist teachers to a closer relationship to those they teach. Commencing with the senses, through which the child wakes to conscious life, our author passes on to consciousness and apperception. The chapters on 'Symbolism,' 'Language,' 'The Feelings,' 'The Will and Its Functions,' 'The Intellect and Its Functions,' will, we feel sure, prove especially acceptable. But, when we come to the discussion of 'Self,' 'Habit,' 'Character,' 'Manners and Morals, the book rises to the highest point of its usefulness. The price of the book is $1.25 and may be had direct from us, or from the publishers. We most heartily recommend it."—The Canadian Teacher.
The author says: "Every chapter in this book is an attempt to organize the knowledge already possessed by those who know little or nothing of scientific psychology, and to assist them to inquiries which will give a clearer apprehension of the nature and possibilities of the child." The avowed purpose of this book, "to assist in dignifying and systematizing childstudy," is reason enough for its existence. The vast amount of aimless, silly child-study that has been attempted since organization was made for this purpose, calls for protest and for the thoughtful consideration of well-balanced minds that can discuss a popular subject and keep it within the realms of facts and reason.—Primary Education.
The forty-third volume of the International Education Series is a fresh and carefully written treatise on "The Study of the Child," by A. R. Taylor, President of the State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. We find much to praise in this unassuming volume, which has a distinct value of its own among the many excellent works on the subject that have appeared in late years. Its spirit is well indicated in the remark of a lady, given in the introduction, who, in explaining the work of a certain church, said, "It is people we are after, not things." President Taylor is after the child him
self, rather than the things he is to be taught. He studies his delicate organs of sense, so easily injured by ignorance or neglect, the dawning of his consciousness, his first attempts at language, the unfolding of his emotions, intellect, and will, with fine insight and trained sympathy. His book, placed in the hands of mothers of young children, would do much to awaken in them an intelligent understanding of the complicated and sensitive organisms with which they have to deal, and to lead them to a clearer comprehension of the watchful and patient tenderness so imperatively required of them, if they hope to do justice to the little ones given to their care. A specially valuable chapter is that on "Normals and Abnormals," addressed to teachers as well as to parents, and strongly calling attention to the absolute necessity that all persons intrusted with the care and culture of children should familiarize themselves with the peculiarities of each child's physical, mental, and moral nature, and treat it as its individual needs demand. Only thus, by painstaking, personal study and unfailing, resourceful sympathy, can either parent or teacher ever help the child to reach the stature of the highest manhood, for which God created him.—The Christian Advocate, New York, October 13, 1898.
"The Study of the Child" is one of the most carefully prepared volumes on this modern subject of child-study that we have seen. Doctor Harris, in his "Editor's Preface," characterizes it as "sound and wholesome," and the reader or student will find it fully deserving of this characterization. While thoroughly scientific, the author is at the same time clear and simple in his style. No one who deals with child life can read this volume without forming higher ideals of his vocation. No pedagogical library will be complete without it.—Education, Boston.
I have read The Study of the Child carefully and find it exceedingly helpful and suggestive. It is now going the rounds of the Mother's Club.—Mrs. E. H. Chapin, President Mother's Club, Galesburg, Illinois.
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Vol XL EMPORIA, KANSAS, DECEMBER, 1898. No. 3
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rianual Training at the State Normal School.
Manual training is a properly ordered system of physical activities for the purpose of developing the individual, physically, mentally and morally, thus preparing him for right living. It includes those branches in which the hand performs a part. It is a branch of a system, not a system by itself, and to be the most efficient must be co-ordinated with the other parts of the system.
But a short time ago the boys and girls in our large cities studied exclusively from books. Often it happened that the father was closely occupied in his business or employed in some mercantile or manufacturing business so had no reason to construct home conveniences; the boy thus had no chance to use his hands and the father no time or inclination. The result was a large increase in clerks and assistants. Since manual training has been introduced the boy has "learned by doing," and has had a taste for some Industrial work cultivated. As Dr. Woodward has said, "Put the whole boy to school."
Why is it that our country-bred boys make successful men? The farmer's boy is provided with an industrial training of the best kind in and around his home. He has a large field for the immediate application of knowledge acquired at school, and the school lessons are more readily understood by the pupil having in daily life to deal directly with natural forces and laws. How often we hear one, who has left school and faced the realities of practical work, say, "O, how I would study, could I go back to school!" This suggests the Importance of introducing into the elementary public schools of cities some industrial training.
Among the general class of pupils to be educated will be some who are strong in perception, apt in manipulation, and correct in the interpretation of phenomena, but who are not good at memorizing or rehearsing the opinions and statements of others, or who, by diffidence, slowness of speech, or awkwardness of mental conformation, are unfitted for mental gymnastics. Not only do they, at the best, get little pleasure from their work, and receive little commendation from the teacher, but in a great majority of cases they are stamped blockheads at the start, and have their whole school life changed to bitterness and shame. And yet it not infrequently happens that the boy who is so regarded because he cannot master an artificial system of grammatical analysis is not worth a cent for giving a list of the kings of England, does not know and does not care what are the principal productions of Borneo, has a better pair of eyes, a better pair of hands, and, even by the standards of the merchant, the manufacturer, and the railroad president, a better head than his teacher.
The introduction of practice in the mechanic arts would strike a responsive chord in the hearts of all such boys; it would at once give them something to do in which they could excel; it would quicken their interest in the school; it would save their self-respect; to many of them it would open a door into a practical life.
While the aims of manual training are general, there are different materials used in different cases. Clay is used for the development of the sense of touch and idea of form. The course embraces the type forms, geometrical borders, geometrical tiles, nature work, original design, as used in the primary and grammar grades, followed by copying casts and objects, and plaster casting.
Venetian iron work is made while the iron is cold. It cultivates the artistic sense of beauty of curves and can be the source of much originality.
The wood carving course embraces geometrical borders and floral designs as applied to useful objects.
Cardboard work consists of the construction of plain geo[Continued on page 43. J
Nature Studies for December.
This section of strata in the upper coal measures was made in large part by the geology class of the State Normal School, and may easily be duplicated by geology classes in the high schools of the State.
The section extends nearly east and west and shows a dip towards the west of about twenty feet to the mile.
A section running north from Cemetery Hill shows a dip to the north of fifty feet to the mile, so the maximum dip is probably in the north-northwest direction, and about sixty feet to the mile.
The value of such a section to the student is in the revelation it brings to him of the truth of a statement he has read and not half believed, that the rivers have made their own valleys in the surface of the earth, and that the layers of limestone, sandstone and shale which now outcrop on the slopes of hills, once extended without break in the crust of the earth.
While instruments for obtaining elevations are very helpful in making such a section, they are not essential, for railroad and river levels may be successfully used, or the trained eye may detect direction of dip.
The chief difficulty will come when the pupils attempt to find a stratum of limestone on a slope a mile away from another slope on which it outcrops, or a statum of sandstone or of shale. But to the geologist this is the most interesting work of all. He uses character, thickness and fossils of the strata as helps in identification.
Our Emporia limestones lie in the midst of a series of sandstones or of arenaceous (sandy) shales, with one or two thin beds of coal interstratified.
A similar series of Jstrata is exposed in the river bluffs at Eureka, fifty miles south of Emporia, and at Madison, midway. If this identification is correct, the high dip to the north at Emporia is local. Indeed, the same strata outcrop, at about the same level, four miles north of the city with the Neosho
river midway and at the bottom of a synclinal trough. The trough, however, must dip as a whole towards the source of the river, or to the north-northwest.
After making several sections, and connecting these sections with the series of strata found in deep wells in adjoining regions, one may easily get a very accurate idea of what lies some hundreds of feet beneath him.
For example, the strata exposed at Emporia lie beneath the very valuable building stone exposed at Strong City, are at about the same horizon with the strata containing coal at Osage City, Madison, and Eureka, and overlie the strata which hold petroleum and natural gas at lola and Cherryvale.
Applying the information obtained in sinking the "Gas Well" at Madison to the problem at Emporia, we learn that the gas and oil strata underlie the city at a depth of one thousand five hundred to one thousand nine hundred feet. No one, from surface indications at Emporia, not even an oil and gas expert, can tell whether these strata beneath us hold oil or gas, but the testimony of the wells at Topeka, Madison, and Wichita, is against the existence of oil and gas beneath Lyon county.
The above are given to show a few of the deductions that may be made from correlations of strata.
L. C. Wooster.
The Philomathian Society.
The Philomathian society is enjoying a period of prosperity. The programs during the past month have been exceptionally good and the audiences have been large and appreciative.
On the Friday evening before Thanksgiving the hall was crowded" as it had never been crowded before, by friends of the society eager to enjoy the Thanksgiving program. Professor Marsland pictured to the society many scenes and places in New England, where the Thanksgiving was proclaimed. Many members of the society, in short sentences recounted the things for which they were thankful. Music, tableaux, and impersonations suitable to the occasion filled out a most enjoyable evening.