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Hon. J. S. McGrath. Hon. J. S. McGrath, for nearly six years past a member of our Board of Regents, died at home near Saltville, on November 24, 1898. From his friend, Hon. W. H. Caldwell, we gather the following facts:

decease was a shock, but his memory will ever be kept in reverence by every person who knew him. He was a lovable man, who knew not spite nor envy; consequently he quit this life friend of all. Peace abide with him, forever and forever."

The Regents in session on the Saturday following his death, adopted these resolutions as expressive of their appreciation of their associate:

Whereas, We have learned with deep sorrow of the death of our esteemed co-worker and member of the Board of Regents, Hon. J. S. McGrath; and,

WHEREAS, We shall greatly miss his counsel and aid in the great work of the Kansas State Normal School in the future; therefore,

Be It Resolved, That we extend to his bereaved family our sincere sympathy; and, with them, we mourn the loss of a good and just man, who was faithful to every trust committed to his keeping.

Ordered, that a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the Board, and a copy sent his family.

The Normal flag was hung at half-mast, and floral tokens sent by Regents and Faculty. On Monday morning at the first assembly after Thanksgiving, President Taylor in fitting words paid generous tribute to the character and services of the deceased. At the meeting of the faculty on Tuesday afternoon, the following report was adopted:

Hon. J. S. McGrath, for nearly six years a valued member of the Board of Regents of the State Normal School, died on the afternoon of November 24, 1898. In his death the School loses a wise counsellor, the members of the faculty a personal friend, the State a patriotic citizen. He was recognized by all with whom he came in contact as a man of fine sense, of generous spirit, and of sterling character. His unselfish devotion to every trust reposed in him was characteristic of his long and useful life.

Desiring to express our appreciation of his nobility of soul and of his eminent services to the School, we direct the secretary to spread the foregoing on the faculty journal and to send a copy of the same to the bereaved family with the assurance of our sense of a common loss and of our kindly sympathy in this hour of their great sorrow.

He is further instructed to assure them that the remembrance of his interest and friendship will ever stimulate us to truer endeavor.

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Hon. J. S. McGrath. “Hon. Joshua McGrath was a native of Virginia, born near Wheeling, now West Virginia, on the twenty-first day of November, 1815. His mother was the sister of Van Caldwell, who was the father of Judge Henry C. Caldwell, now on the United States circuit court bench, which relates the deceased to Judge Caldwell as his own cousin. Mr. McGrath had no school advantages, notwithstanding which he was a remarkable man, his native good sense standing instead of education. He was always a farmer, and one of the most insatiate readers of current events we ever knew. He early moved to Illinois and served in the legislature of that state, representing Kendall county many years. About twenty-five years ago he removed to Mitchell county, Kansas, where he served as a member of the board of county commissioners, and in several minor positions, and from which county he was appointed a member of the board of regents of the State Normal School. Notwithstanding his lack of education he held his position the peer of any member of the board. He was a fluent and sensible talker, and when we reflect on the disadvantages he had to contend with from early boyhood, being left as the sole support of his mother and family early in life by the death of his father, Joshua McGrath, he stands as a splendid example of an Amercan who has the grit to learn by observation and contact with the affairs of life. He was the father of five boys and one girl, the eldest of whom is Frank McGrath, the first president of the Kansas State Alliance, and who before that served two terms as sheriff of Mitchell county. The daughter, Miss Melissa, has always lived at home, as the housekeeper, counselor and manager of affairs after her mother's death many years ago. They lived on a farm in Salt Creek township,' Mitchell county, a family beloved by all who knew them. Joshua died on Thanksgiving day, three days after the seventy-third anniversary of his birthday, a short time after enjoying a hearty dinner. He had been stricken with paralysis a month before and was apparently getting along so well that great hopes of his recovery were indulged; but in a moment, when all was merry and enjoyable, he collapsed, and the happiness of the occasion was clouded suddenly with the pall of death. His

Regents' Meeting. The Board of Regents met on the morning of November 26, and disposed of a large amount of routine business, including the final passing upon the biennial report to the Governor.

The assignment of Miss Beatrice Cochran to special work in reading and rehearsals, was approved, she having decided to remain here for the year and take a line of special work which would not occupy all her time.

Resolutions, which are printed elsewhere, were passed expressing regret at the death of Regent J. S. McGrath.

McMurray's Methods in the Recitation, "The Natural Music Series,” and Taylor's "The Study of the Child,” were approved for use in their appropriate departments.

The Board adjourned to meet on the morning of December 21 to confer with the administrator of the estate of C. S. Cross concerning the Normal lands purchased of the institution some fifteen years ago and upon which payments of interest are overdue.

“Soft fall the feet of the little Christ Child,
Walking abroad when the winds are wild;
Dropping his blessing on each dear head
Where the children sleep in their snowy bed;
Shining clear in the moon's white beam,
Where the children sleep, where the children dream."

"Have a little lull in the soul if you would hear the Christmas chimes."

MANUAL TRAINING. (Concluded from page 35.]

We are thus not teaching the pupil how to make a living, but teaching him how to live. Emporia, Kansas.

F. B. ABBOTT.

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The New Elementary Arithmetic. What a beautiful book! is the exclamation made by most students and teachers after a brief examination of Professor Bailey's New Elementary Arithmetic. In arrangement, in illustrations, in typographical excellence, it is certainly unsurpassed. Professor Bailey has written the book on the theory that much of the material entering into the average elementary arithmetic is too abstract and too loosely related. He is a firm believer in the doctrine of apperception, and has arranged the lessons in such gradual and natural stages that each difficulty is practically removed before the child approaches it.

The educative value of the illustrations in the book will be recognized at once by any primary teacher. He claims to have succeeded in presenting one subject at a time and to present topics in the order of their logical sequence. The unique features of the book are, the forty-five combinations in addition as a foundation for all other cases in addition and for the cases in subtraction; the cumulative method of teaching the mnltiplication table; the teaching of decimals as common fractions whose denominators are written differently; the constant use of objects in accordance with the laboratory method; the introduction of literal quantities as a basis for reasoning upon the general rather than always upon the particular.

The success of his other books on mathematics is so well recognized that this little book will prove most welcome everywhere. While primary teachers are not fully agreed as to the best methods of presenting the elements of arithmetic, many of them have already found that the plan presented in this arithmetic insures most happy results. We congratulate the Professor as well as the American Book Company upon the general make-up of the book and upon its high character as a text.

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“While Thanksgiving has its foundation on Plymouth Rock, Christmas rests upon the Rock of Ages."-Charles Dudley Warner.

The woodworking course is planned for the last three years in grammar school and is the same as that pursued in Boston. The sixth grade work consists of fitteen models, viz: 1, flat ruler; 2, flower label; 3, match scratcher; 4, teapot stand; 5, wedge; 6, flower pin; 7, shrub label; 8, knife-polishing board; 9, flower-sot stand; 10, elliptical bread-board; 11, shelf; 12, coat-hanger; 13, blotter; 14, pen-holder; 15, corner bracket.

The course begins with an easy object which is succeeded by more and more difficult one as the pupil progresses. Each model is one that can be used at home, thereby appealing to the pupil's interest and thus his efforts are increased, his attention augmented and the best results are obtained, for it is found that the younger the youth the more a finished, useful object appeals to him.

While a useful model is important, the exercise is more important. An exercise is a specific use of a tool involving certain mental and physical effort.

The models contain from one to four new exercises, with only sufficient repetition of old exercises to cause the pupil to remember them. They are simple and artistic, containing straight, circular and freehand forms; are of different kinds of woods, and when finished represent the pupil's work.

The tools are chosen with special reference to those who are to use them and are such as are in general use.

The boys and girls who are taking the wood work have made their own working drawings, and are using them to construct the models in wood. It is planned to give them, later, blue prints to work from; thus they will be able to read another's drawing

Personals. '97. A copy of the Pacific Herald comes to our table with several very excellent articles from the pen of our old friend, J. A. Beadle. We are pleased to find him so well recognized on the coast.

'98. H. E. Griswold writes us from Newkirk, Oklahoma, that he has entered at once upon the highı school work there, and is well pleased with the surroundings and his prospects.

'on. A. L. Garlick is teaching near Gardner, New Mexico, having recently dropped his work here to take the position.

'oo. Maude Tinsley writes from Horr, Montana, that she is engaged in public school work there.

'on. Lulu B. Anderson is teaching near Clyde, Kansas. 'or. Emma Eberhard is teaching in Thompsonville, Kansas.

'95. Lillian F. Carr is now teaching in Kansas City, Kansas, schools, with her address at 1331 Tracy street, Kansas City, Missouri.

Freshie.-I always sleep with my gloves on.

It makes my hands so soft.

Normal Girl.-Indeed! And do you sleep with your hat on?

“It is a day which says 'well done to every other day that has made the world better."

Run true,

Leather ball
Rush crash

more.

FOOT-BALL.

grand-stand and a party of Literati girls marched out to them Quick kick

and decorated each with a rabbit's foot or a four-leaved clover.
Tackle fall,
Rash dash

This made a pretty spectacle and was taken advantage of by
Men fall.
By them all.

some kodak “fiends”. The girls received many cheers, also

the thanks of the football boys, who were completely surprised. Bold hold, Loud crowd

Promptly at three o'clock the game was called and the all-
Vicious maul,

Wildly bawl,
Claim vain,
Other side

school having won the toss-up, chose the kick-off. Captain
Low-down crawl.
Bitter gall.

Louthan sent the ball well down into the Literati territory. - Cooper Courier. Gramley caught the ball and made a good run, regaining about

twenty yards. W. Priest took the ball on the first down and The Literati-All-School Football Game.

went around the right end for a gain of ten yards. On the Several weeks ago the all-school boys sent the Literatis a next down Gramley took the ball around left end for five yards ormal challenge to play a game of football with them.

The

F. Priest then made a drive through right guard for a challenge was accepted, and immediately both sides began act- gain of four yards. This was followed by another good gain ive preprations for the contest. At a meeting of the all-school around right end. The Literatis continued to gain steadily boys, F. J. Balcomb was chosen manager, and J. Q. Louthan, until W. Priest scored a touch-down. He failed to kick a goal. captain. The Literatis elected C. M. Lowry manager and On the second kick off Gramley again caught the ball and reWalter Priest captain. The boys worked hard and earnestly turned it fifteen yards. The Literati again rapidly carried the under their respective managements and encouraging reports ball across the field, without letting the all-school have it, and were soon heard concerning the condition of both teams. made another touch-down by a run of Gramley's. Turkleson

Saturday, November 19, the day the game occurred, was one failed to kick goal. The all-school kicked off again and for of the greatest days in the history of Normal athletics and will the third time Gramley caught the ball. He recovered lwenty long be remembered by the students who participated. The

yards before being downed. The end runs and excellent interweather was fine and the air was bracing to just the right de- ference of the Literati team were carrying them rapidly towards gree. Everything was conducive to a good game, and long be- another touch-down, when time was called for the first half. fore the time for the game to begin the grand-stand of Mitway In this half the Literatis had made two touch-downs and the park was filled with spectators.

all-school had not touched the ball except on the kick-off.

The Literati kicked off in the last half and Reed returned the

ball five yards. Caldwell got the ball on the first down and went LITERATI!

around left end without interference for a gain of sixty yards. O MY!

He was downed by Kiger, who was playing full-back. This run inspired the all-school team with fresh courage and their playing improved. Page advanced the ball five yards by a right end play and the team nearly reached the Literati goal. The Literatis finally got the ball on downs and by hard playing carried the ball back to the all-school goal and made their third touchdown. Again they failed to kick goal. On the next kick-off the all-school downed the Literatis on their two-yard line, but were unable to hold them because of the excellent work of Gramley, W. Priest and F. Priest. Slowly the Literatis again advanced into the all-school territory. There opposition was stronger than in any part of the game because of the fine playing of Page and Caldwell. Time was called with score 15 to o in favor of the Literatis. After the game the crimson waved

everywhere and the Literati yell was heard on every hand. At 2:30 the Literati society marched into the park headed by The wildest enthusiasm was manifested by the winning society. three wagonettes artistically decorated with red bunting. Fol.

The line-up of the teams was as follows: lowing the wagonettes were the players in football costumes.

Literati.

All-School. Then came a long line of the members of the society, each dis

E. Loomis,

D. Reed, playing crimson, the society color. After encircling the

C. Turkleson, rig

Beck, ground they took their stand on the west side of the park. For

Lueck,

Somers, several mintues after their arrival nothing was to be heard ex

Piper,

r.t. Runold, cept the familiar yell of the Literatis. Shortly afterwards the

Harrison,

1. t. W.P. Reed, all-school procession appeared, led by a four-horse omnibus

A. Loomis,

Caldwell, adorned with the colors of the three societies and old gold, the

Kiger,

Balcomb, Shidler, Normal color. It was followed by the football boys and several

Botsford,

J. Reed, carriages loaded with the all-school supporters, all wearing

Gramley,

Louthan, Captain, their colors. They filed to the east side of the ground and took

W. Priest, Capt, l. h. Page, a position opposite their opponents. Soon the air was filled

F. Priest,

Dyer. with the yells of the contending societies, both feeling confi

The referee was 0. R. Vernon. Harry Holmes acted as umdent of the ability of their teams to win the contest.

pire, and Elwood Humes and R. Parker kept time and acted as The two teams then took the field for a few minutes' prac

linesmen.

L. T. H. tice. The excellent work of both was apparent to all and expectation was raised to a high pitch. Just before the game

“I have always thought of Christmas time as a good time. A was called, the Literati boys were formed in line in front of the kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasanı time."--Dickens.

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The Belles-Lettres Society. The union meeting of the Lyceum, Philomathian and BellesLettres societies was a perfect success. Albert Taylor hall was filled with hundreds of happy girls and boys anxious to enjoy the excellent program.

Miss Daisy Ott, president of the Philomathian society, presided at this meeting, assisted by Messrs. Bader, president of the Belles-Lettres, and McClurkin, president of the Lyceum. The program was full of good things. Special features were the speeches by the representatives of the three societies. Mr. Stroup, who represented the Belles, is, we think, never so happy as when before an audience, and this particular evening he created much merriment by his especial mention of the Priests, Page and Reads, who were so powerful in the football game. The only difficulty was, “we did not have enough Pages and Reads."

The girls of the three societies sang, “Wave, Old Gold," and in response to an encore, sang a selection very complimentary to the “all-school lads”. Professor Marsland gave Tennyson's Lady Clare in a most delightful manner.

At home in our hall we have had a month of pleasure and profit. Among the numbers on our programs deserving special mention, we recall readings by Mr. Brunton and Miss Van Ansdale, duet by the Misses Ise, and recitations by Miss Morrison and L. S. Weatherby.

The society is constantly adding new members to its list, and its enthusiasm is growing with the membership,

For the dramatic art contest the following Belles-Letterites were elected: Misses Wohlford and Collins, Messrs. Brunton and McGuire. A committee has selected for the contest the Greek play, Antigone by Sophocles.

Messrs. Stroup and Rolfe are the Belles-Lettres debaters in the coming contest and the members of the society are perfectly satisfied that they have chosen wisely and well. In the second debate between the Lyceum and Belles-Lettres societies, the decision of the judges was unanimous for our boys, Messrs. Stroup and Rolfe. The Lyceum society was represented by Miss Martin and Mr. Brakens.

THE STATE NORMAL DIRECTORY,

The Board of Regents. HON. M. F. KNAPPENBERGER, President..

Jewell City HON. J. S. MCGRATH, Vice President

Saltville HON. JOHN MADDEN, Secretary

.Emporia HON. S. H. DODGE, Treasurer

Beloit HON. J. H. RITCHIE.

Cherryvale HON. J. S. WINANS ..

.Manchester The Faculty. ALBERT R, TAYLOR, PH. D., President

928 Union Psychology and Philosophy of Education. JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary....

832 Merchants Director in Training. MIDDLESEX A. BAILEY, A. M.

218 West Twelfth Avenue

Mathematics. JOSEPH H. HILL, A. M.

1515 Highland Place

Latin. M'LOUISE JONES, A. M.

909 Mechanics

English, WILLIAM C. STEVENSON

.1017 Mechanics Bookkeeping and Penmanship. EMMA L. GRIDLEY......

728 Merchants

Drawing CHARLES A. BOYLE, B. M.

827 Constitution Voice, Piano, and Harmony. CORA MARSLAND, O. M.

.813 Mechanics

Elocution. MARY A. WHITNEY

.827 Market History United States. ACHSAH M. HARRIS

827 Mechanics Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. OSCAR CHRISMAN, PH. D...

.1013 Market History of Education, and Economics. DANIEL A. ELLSWORTH

..727 Merchants

Geography. L. C. WOOSTER, Ph. D.....

1017 Union Natural History. T. M. IDEN, Ph, M.

.913 Union Physics and Chemistry. MAUDIE L, STONE, S. B...

.728 Merchants Physical Training. EVA M'NALLY

.714 Merchants Associate Professor, English. ELI L. PAYNE, B. P.

1218 Neosho Associate Professor, Mathematics. MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B.M.

827 Constitution Associate Professor, Piano and Theory. ANNA L. CARLL

1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar. HATTIE E. BASSETT

724 Merchants Assistant Teacher, Elocution. ELVA E, CLARKE

.J025 Constitution

Librarian. MARTHA J. WORCESTER,

906 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, English, MAUD HAMILTON

1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Latin and Pedagogics. MARY S. TAYLOR

312 West Twelfih Aveuue Assistant Teacher, Mathematics. LOTTIE E. CRARY

1315 N. Merchants Assistant, Natural History. WILLIAM A, VAN VORIS.

1316 Market Assistant, Physics and Chemistry. ISABEL MILLIGAN

312 West Twelve Avenue Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. JENNIE WHITBECK, B. P.

.1028 Congress Assistant, Model Department. HATTIE COCHRAN

1315 North Merchants Manuscript Assistant, English. E. E. SALSER

.1028 Congress Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship. CHARLINE P. MORGAN

...617 Exchange Model Primary and Kindergarten. WILLIAM S. PICKEN

.717 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, History. FREDERICK B, ABBOTT, Ph. D.

1015 Constitution Manual Training. WILLIAM G. BUTLER

827 Mechanics Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo. E. ANNA STONE

.1315 North Merchants Second Assistant in Piano. EDWARD ELIAS..

.823 Mechanics Assisiant Teacher, German and French. ALLEN S. NEWMAN...

.1013 Merchants Office Secretary. PEARL STUCKEY ..

422 Market Stenographer. NELLIE STANLEY..

1123 Congress Assistant, Library and Office. BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER

312 Neosho Assistant, Library.

The Seven Rules of Harmony. 1. Make the sacred spirit of peace a living power in your life, and contribute all possible time, thought and money to its diffusion.

2. Never listen, without protest, to insinuations, vituperations, or unjust accusations against the members of your family or your fellow citizens.

3. Seek to understand the spirit of the national laws, and to obey those which exist; and to interest yourself fervently for the modification of all those which you consider tyrannize uselessly over any class of citizens.

4. Dedicate your thought and use your influence to develop the national and patriotic spirit, and do not criticise without purpose the administration of the family and of the nation.

5. Treat all birds and beasts, and all existences of the animal and vegetable world, with justness and gentleness. Do not destroy, save for self-preservation and for the protection of the weak. In ad, make it your object to plant, to nourish, and to propagate all that will lead to the moral or physical amelioration of the family, the home and the nation.

6. Teach your children and your dependants what you may learn with regard to justice and peace, and seek to develop in them sentiments of harmony.

7. Seek each day to utter some word, or to perform some little action, which may promote the cause of peace, whether at home or abroad.-The Universal Peace Association.

Stranger.--"Do you know a man around here with one leg named Jones?”

Doctor.—"Could you tell me the name of the other leg?”— Exchange.

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Program for Mother's Club. The Galesburg, Illinois, Mother's Club publishes the following program for the current year. We think it will prove sug. gestive to some of our readers: October 17. First year of the child's life. Care of the body,

food, clothing, exercise, etc. Training, formation of

habits. October 31. Education through play. Spontaneous and sug

gested play, toys, etc. Froebolic mother-play. November 14. Emergencies. November 28. Children's occupations. Work, helpfulness in

the home. Amusements, evenings at home, children's

parties. December 12. Imagination. Accuracy in thoughts, words,

actions. Children's lies. January 3. Common physical defects of children. Diseases,

home care, prevention of illness through proper diet, etc. January 17. Rights in the home. Father's, mother's, child's. January 31. Government in the home. Children's manners,

at table, in company, etc. February 14. The public school. Relation of parents to.

School nfluences, companions, etc. February 28. Literature for children. History, biography,

adventure, fiction, fairy tales, poetry. March 14.

Period of adolescence. Physical and mental changes. How to meet the new conditions. March 28. Foods. Lecture. April 11. Nutrition. Comparative value of foods; food for

the sick; model meals. April 25. Religious nurture. What religious conceptions, if

any, are innate? first ideas of God; children's prayers; when and how to teach the Bible; church and Sunday

school. “Why do they not give such presents every day?” said Clara.

“O, child," I said, "it is only for thirty-six hours of the three hundred and sixty-five days that all people remember that they are all brothers and sisters, and those are the hours that we call, therefore, Christmas Day.

And when they always remember it," said Bertha, “it will be a Christmas all the time."-Edward Everett Hale.

Lesson I. Text.—The illustration of a business letter form on the opposite page.

Discussion .-1. Have the accompanying letter dictated to you and write it as you would have done before seeing it. Compare, saving your copy as a “first copy."

2. Unity. Write again and compare. Does your page possess unity? Does it give the impression of disjointedness or oneness?

3. Compactness. Have you written it in the same space? If necessary, try the effect of the “boiling down” process, without sacrificing speed or movement. You can do it. Although “paper is cheap,” economy of space is economy of time in reading and also assists in a ready comprehension of thought.

4. Harmony. The "stair step" arrangement of headings and closings gives a pleasing effect. Notice that the line following extends to the right of the ending of the line preceding. This gives much more symmetry than the plan given in most books on correspondence. Note that the complimentary address begins at the left margin line and marks the paragraph indentation. The name should end at the right margin line. The left margin line is three-fourths to one and one-fourth inches from the left side of the sheet and must be kept uniform when established. The right margin line is one-eighth to onefourth of an inch from right side and should be kept as uniform as possible.

5. Punctuation. The reasons for the punctuation, as found in the letter, become apparent when sentences are written in full, as, This letter is written at the State Normal School, which is in the city of Emporia, in the state of Kansas, on March the 12th, in the year 1898. Also, This letter is addressed to Mr. A. Student, who resides at 912 State St., in the city of St. Louis, in the state of Missouri. Various marks are used after the complimentary address, as the colon (:), colon and dash (:-), etc. The punctuation of a letter is important. Few people punctuate correctly, and it is, therefore, the more important that you should do so.

6. Penmanship. For all ordinary purposes a coarse pen, jet black ink, straight penholder and good paper are essential. They who read manuscripts greatly appreciate heavy lines and jet black ink, because of much reading, weak eyes, etc. To this fact is attributable much of the popularity of vertical drawing as a means of writing. Yet it is true that very bold, large letters, like bold, large print, also weary the eye and, sympathetically, the brain. A letter of small size, made with a coarse pen and jet black ink, gives as great legibility and is far more restful to the eye than the sprawling, clumsy forms for which a misguided public has been clamoring. The movement writ. ers of the country have overshot the mark in displaying hair lines and flourished labyrinths with the bare suggestion of letters, as samples of movement writing. Movement exercises are the gymnastics of writing and, like gymnastics, are an efficient means of securing involuntary control. Their use in the form of flourishes, however, should be restricted to the distinct purpose of securing freedom of action. Unity and compactness are not inconsistent with freedom of movement, but on the contrary, are evidences of a well trained action if accompanied by speed, ease and a natural slant. Too many movement writers have the impression that looseness, double spacing and the use of twice as much paper as needed is necessary to prove the existence of movement. True, in the acquirement of lateral action the use of double spacing is of the utmost value as a movement exercise, but it is not the end desired.

7. Slant. This is of so much importance that the next article will be devoted exclusively to it, and the author will try to sing his favorite tune, “Natural and Individual Slant."

W. C. STEVENSON.

Applied Penmanship.

(From the Western Penman.) The point of view of the author of these articles is that of a teacher of teachers, whose aim in teaching penmanship is the improvement of the pupils in the public schools of his state in this much misunderstood subject. He has no ambition to display professional skill or to shoot at the stars, but believing that a good style of handwriting, one possessing the essentials named in the accompanying letter is possible to all, he will endeavor to emphasize the means to its acquirement and also to exemplify the end to which the rank and file of students of penmanship should endeavor to attain.

As the fundamental principles relating to movement and forms of letters have been presented year after year by the best teachers in the land, but like the district school in arithmetic, seldom getting farther along than fractions, and as many firstclass penmen are unable to fit the fragments into a homogeneous whole, and as the principles of modern pedagogy are demanding the wholes before the parts, the author makes bold to present these lessons in an inverse order from that usually followed. To the students who follow this series of lessons a hearty greeting is extended and it is the author's hope that all may find something helpful in the line of applying penmanship to other than ornamental purposes.

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