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EMPORIA, KANSAS, OCTOBER, 1898.
BY MARY A. WHITNEY.
understanding of human government. Fitful and intermittent Wh-sh-t!
at times have been its manifestations. Anon as it grapples The wind hugs high,
with the mightiest questions known to human society, affecting The wind hugs low,
all classes, peoples, and times, we call it, Revolution. As it A furry of dust, A flurry of snow,
deals with questions of more limited scope and application, we Sunshine!
call it, Rebellion. As it is found working in the questions of the His-s-t!
day, so quietly and yet so steadily as scarcely to be noted by The cricket sings,
easy-going, live-for-today, surface-thinking man, we call it, The spider weaves,
Politics. By virtue of this political struggle, the Revolution, A skurry of birds,
the Rebellion, and the every day Politics, there have been A skurry of leaves,Golden-rod!
evolved a few great fundamental principles of government.
Two facts have been self-evident since the world was. Society
is man's natural state, and government is a necessity. But not The pheasant thrums,
so self-evident has been the answer to the question: By whom A rattle of hoofs,
shall the government of that society be administered? A rattle of drums,
Before the christian era, mankind was given to peopling the October!
earth and subduing it. Since the christian era, because Christ
came among men, that he might teach them how to live and THE POLITICAL CONTEST-A STUDY.
dwell together, mankind has been preparing to solve that all
important problem: By whom shall the government of society The political contest is the life-perpetuating, life-directing be administered? For centuries the attempt was made upon force of nations. By it are erroneous principles uprooted and the principle of the "Divine right of kings to rule.” No satiscorrect ones substituted; narrow views are widened; crooked factory results were attained and men's minds, struggling for 'paths made straight; national policies formed; scattered ener- light, were directed toward it. Man, now able to understand gies forged into one powerful strength and turned from inef- and utilize the forces of nature, and knowing how to appreciate fectiveness into a moulding force which shall operate to all government, was to have revealed to him, through the natural time. By it are peoples gathered into nations and kingdoms processes of evolution, the principles of self-government; and erected: monarchies overthrown and republics founded; de- since government by “Divine right of kings” and by the conmocracies are shaken to their very foundations, purged of vis- sent of the governed” are diametrically opposed, the one princious and degenerating tendencies and brought into a fuller ciple must be eradicated and the other established. In the knowledge of the purposes and ends of government.
process of the ages, while the shifting scenes of European civThrough many a twelve-month and many a storm appears the ilization were bringing into power now one peoples and now giant oak of the forest—the handi-work of nature. After years another, while states were building, kingdoms rising, and govof human toil, based upon the accumulated results of centuries ernments evolving, a great nation was in the process of formaof Dame Nature's work, there rides upon the ocean-wave, that tion-a nation which should be rent with civil strife, but should mystery of power, for commerce, peace, or war-the twen- give to the world one of the greatest behests within the power tieth-century battleship-the handiwork of nature and man. of human agencies to bestow. At length the fullness of time At the close of the span of a life time, tull of toil, bitter arrived. It is during the history of that century of struggle experiences, and long and deep thinking, there is given to the between the English people and the Stuart kings, that we see world a gem of thought, an epic, or a tragedy-the handiwork the final gathering of those forces which were to reveal to the of nature, and man, and God. Three forces, three creations, world a new principle. three results. The force of nature alone produced the oak- The English Revolutions of 1649 and 1688, proved that from an object, of its own inherent qualities, totally incapable of that date English kings must recognize a new factor in the affecting human society. The forces of nature plus human problem of English government- the English Parliament. agencies produced the ship-an object able to modify existing “Divine right to rule" was thus replaced by “Parliamentary conditions of human society. Human agencies reinforced by right to control.” Absolute and unlimited extent of governnature and breathed upon by Divine inspiration produce the ment was curtailed by the consent of the representatives of the poem, or the tragedy-a creation capable of revolutionizing re- governed. Had James II been less of a bigot and more of a lations in human society. Since no force is at its best except in statesman, he might have read the signs of the times, noted the such a unity, the true political contest is the manifest union of errors of the early Stuarts, appreciated the spirit of the comthe forces nature, man, and ideal or God. Man strengthened monwealth period, profited by the unsatisfactory reign of and enriched by the abundance of his material things, guided Charles II, and stayed somewhat the storm which was gathering by his largest knowledge and loftiest aspirations, struggles about his head. At the time of his coronation, he seemed to with his brother similarly endowed and guided, and there manifest a mild, yielding spirit, which, however, soon became result those influences which determine the destinies of peo- extremely overbearing and exacting. Believing most thoroughples.
ly in his own kingship's rights, he proceeded to the indiscrimFrom the time of the foundations of the earth, this natural inate violation of previous guarantees and constitutional proforce on its human side has been used of the Divine One to hibitions. The attempt to restore the ancient Catholic power, the leading out of the nations of the earth to a more perfect the appointment of a new ecclesiastical commission, the attack upon the churches and universities, the Declarations of Indul- opinion as to representation and taxation; yet a difference gence, the proroging and final dissolving of Parliament, and sufficient to produce friction, and that friction produced the the Bloody Assizes, mark the overthrow of the “Divine right greatest of political controversies. The demand for “No taxaof kings” and the establishment of parliamentary rights. tion without representation" changed to “No legislation except Since that day, in England “no political minister, even, has by the colonies," and America was prepared to stand by that been able to retain his office six months, in opposition to the demand. Behind it were the almost limitless resources of a sense of the Commons."
great continent, the English devotion to truth and principle, Great as was this struggle, important as was the principle it and the prophetic vision of larger national possibilities. It established, far-reaching as were its results, this same people in was the new-world, English institutions balanced against the the next century were to pass through a political struggle which old; the eignteenth century balanced against the seventeenth; finds no equal in all history. A handful of English people the spirit of free inquiry balanced against monarchy; free crossed the trackless Atlantic and the new-world civilization institutions and self-government balanced against imperialism; was begun. This handful grew to hundreds; the hundreds to the people balanced against the King. The American Revoluthousands; the thousands to three million. The territorial tion of 1776 was the final step in the answering of the question : occupation increased to a stretch of country from the Atlantic
“By whom shall the government of society be administered?” westward to the “Father of Waters;" and from the timber- It established the principle of "the Divine right of the people to covered, snow-bound regions of the North to the sun-bathed, rule." magnolia-scented climes of the South.
Within this region Upon this basis the American government was founded dwelt a people like unto their kin-folk across the ocean-flesh and the American people entered into their heritage of great of their flesh; spirit of their spirit--with the same ideas and national possibilities. Soon political thought was again distendencies, and the same general notions of government. But turbed. Since this is a government of the people, for the peoconditions in America were somewhat different from condi- ple and by the people — “Who are the people?” Those who tions in England. In America, nature had bestowed with lav- administer government, or the entire governed body? Is the ish hand, riches more than sufficient to satisfy the daily needs governed body one unit or a composition of units? Is the govof any race of human beings. In earth and sea and sky, in erned body composed of the classes or the masses? Are the mountains and rivers and climate, man found the ministering masses composed of every age, sex, race and condition of servagents to his necessities. America was well nigh self-support- itude? The Declaration of 1776 and the Constitution were ing. In England, natural resources were less varied and in less clear upon that point, and yet because of that very clearness abundance. In America, there was no strong, outside, mon- arose the political query. Answers differed. The thinkers of archal influence tending to prejudice and to crystallize the time were at variance. For a decade or more the position political thought in favor of monarchical institutions. In Eng- had been maintained: “This is a government of the strongest land, every outside influence tended in that direction. Despot- kind of centralized powers, for the classes, by a political party." ic Spain, patriarchal France, and the other strong centrallized The largest political development demanded an answer differgovernments of central and eastern Europe, exerted an influ- ent in all points. It was due to the strong, clear thinking and ence upon the modified monarchy of England which was a determined action of Jefferson, that the political struggle with powerful factor in the shaping of her national policies. In this question finally shaped itself and reached somewhat defiAmerica, there were just enough foes from without and within nite conclusions. It is to the history of this contest that we to unite her people and to cause them to seek diligently for direct our attention for a few moments. and to consider carefully only those things which were for her The years 1785-9 had found Jefferson as our minister plenihighest general welfare. In England, the absence of these potentiary to France. It was in those years, the most critical elements and the presence of internal disagreement, were pro- in our history, that the Constitution was drafted, discussed, and ductive of disunity and rash and injudicious actions. In adopted. Thus the idea of a strong, central government based America, English institutions, unhampered by precedent, free upon the doctrine of separation of powers was brought into from monarchical influence, and aided by the spirit of free American politics, to be bitterly assailed or firmly upheld, inquiry, had room and opportunity to develop. In England, according as men saw in it the destruction or preservation of these same institutions, fettered by custom, guided by preju- their newly acquired rights. The master minds of the country dice, and dominated by a dogmatic spirit, made slower prog. took issue upon it and the records show us the hostility it ress toward their destined ends. With growth there must be engendered. Among those who feared the centralized governchange. More rapid growth implies more rapid change. This ment, yet approved the separation of powers, was Jefferson. spirit of free inquiry, this rapid growth in ideas of government, Under date of September, 1787, he wrote to John Adams: “* * * and this necessary change in institutions in America found no the first principle of good government is certainly a distribution exact counterpart in England. It is to America, then, we turn, of its powers into executive, judicial, and legislative.” In 1789 to note that evolution of English institutions which should he returned to America and accepted a portfolio in the first reveal to the world another of the great principles of govern- cabinet. This brought him in touch with all the departments ment. To England, parliamentary rule meant popular partic- of government, but it is in his later attitude toward the judiciipation in national legislation and in control of national reve- ary that his views upon government and the people are most
To America it meant no such participation. The Eng. clearly outlined. lish claimed their institutions as peculiarly and exclusively Until 1800, he evidenced the warmest spirit of friendliness adapted to their own country. The Americans viewed them as toward the judiciary. He would have been pleased to have common property and easily adaptable to conditions in Amer- them invested with the veto power upon legislation in place of ica. Parliament considered the colonies as the creatures of having that power remain in the executive hands. His confi. their own hand and subject to their direct and complete con- dence in their learning and integrity placed them above the trol. The Americans considered themselves the direct sub- influence of “the depraved ardor of domineering citizens or jects of the King, and hence entitled to enjoy all the rights the voice of he populace.” Hence, he would seek to “ make and privileges of all English citizens--a mere difference of that body most respectable by every possible means, to-wit.,
al governments: “
The late alteration of the federal judiciary by the abolition of the offices of the sixteen circuit judges and the recent change in our state constitution by the establishment of universal suffrage, and the further alteration that it contemplated in our state judiciary, will, if adopted, in my judgment, take away all security for property and personal liberty. The independence of the national judiciary is already shaken to its foundation, and the virtue of the people alone can restore it.
Our republican constitution will sink into mobocracy,
the worst of all possible governments.
The modern doctrines by our late reformers, that all men in a state of society are entitled to equal liberty and equal rights, have brought this mighty mischief upon us; and I fear that it will rapidly progress until peace and order, freedom and property, shall be destroyed."
(To be continued.}
firm tenure in office, competent saleries, and reduction of their numbers."
Many maintain that the year 1800 witnessed as great a political revolution as was that of 1776. Jefferson's attack upon the judiciary meant that this being a government of the people denied the right of too strong a centralized government; for the people meant in accord with the needs of the masses; and by the people meant participation by more than one political party, and subject to the control of the masses. It was a strug. gle between Federalism and Republicanism; between consolidation of power directed toward interests of certain classes and manipulated by the same, continued, strongly intrenched political power against more equally distributed and balanced powers used in the interests of the masses and used by the direct representatives of those masses. In short, it was the struggle of the nation to realize a truer interpretation of the people.
Upon assuming the position of president, in 1801, Jefferson lost no time in indicating his purpose--Federalism must be annihilated. The judiciary was the last stronghold, and this at once became the object of his hatred and most virulent attacks. December, 1801, he wrote to John Dickinson: “My great anxiety at present is to avail ourselves of our ascendancy to establish good principles and good practices; to fortify Republicanism behind as many barriers as possible, that the outworks may give time to rally and save the citadel should that again be in danger. On their part, they have retired into the judiciary as a stronghold. There the remains of Federalism are to be preserved and fed from the treasury, and from that battery all the works of Republicanism are to be beaten down and erased. By a fraudulent use of the Constitution which has made judges irremovable, they have multiplied useless judges merely to strengthen their phalanx."
The Judiciary Act of 1801, creating new courts, new judg. ships, and new salaried officials, with all the resulting appointments made by Mr. Adams, was indeed a bold stroke. Even the place of Chief Justice was filled upon the eve of the new administration, and thus was Marshall ushered in-one of the strongest Federalists of Virginia. Jefferson declared this to be an outrage on decency and immediately advocated the repeal of the law, taking the stand that the work of the judiciary was not sufficient to merit the existence of so large a number of courts. January 8, 1801, Senator Breckenridge moved the repeal of the act. The contention was bitter. The bill passed the Senate February 3 and the House March 3, and the new circuit courts and attendant officers were struck from the government roll. This was followed by a law by which sittings of the supreme court were suspended until February, 1803. This was to prevent the possibility of Chief Justice Marshall having the opportunity to declare the repeal unconstitutional. This, the first attack upon the judiciary, was successful. From then it proved no difficult task to see in the judiciary, a growing despotism, a power to be feared, and justly opposed for the national benefit. To Mrs. Adams he writes:
the opinion which gives to the judges the right to decide what laws are constitutional, and what not, not only for themselves in their own sphere of action, but for legislative and judicial also, in their spheres, would make the judiciary a despotic branch.” Events now appear in rapid succession which develop the president's position. March, 1804, Chief Justice Marshall rendered his famous decision in the Marbury vs. Madison case. In this decision Jefferson again saw the further tendency of the judiciary to encroach upon popular rights. The president's attitude as viewed by his opponents may be seen best in the words of Justice Chase, when two months later he addressed the grand jury in Balti more upon the democratic tendencies af their local and nation
The Belles-Lettres Society. Mr. McGowen, president; Miss Wohlford, vice preeident; Miss Enfield, secretary; Mr. Stroup, treasurer.
The hazy, variable weather brings with it the consciousness that the real
“Summer's a step behind us,
Is an angel at the door.” As the summer recedes the school year advances and with it the usual increase of responsibility in society work. The Belles-Lettres society, although sadly missing strong members who have taken up the burdens of life in new fields, or are resting, rejoice in the presence of such strong members as Miss Worcester, of essay fame, Mr. McConkey, our soldier boy who has enlivened one evening of this year with with stories of soldier life in camp, Mr. Stroup, president of the graduating class, and our orators, Messrs. Daniels and Woods.
We miss many who have helped advance the interests of the Belles-Lettres, as our peerless Allan St. Clair, Misses Kelson and Hall of dramatic art fame, A. B. Powell, who sang and worked tirelessly, and many others.
A number of the old members have returned; many new ones are joining our ranks, and the Belles-Lettres hand-shake and word of welcome are as heartfelt as of yore. Where could one find greater inspiration for self-improvement than in this cheerful circle? Here we find pleasant companionship, contact with a variety of resourceful intellects, a good-natured strife to keep pace with sister societies, all of which conspires to incite us to self-culture. These influences develop within us keenness of observation and reasoning; they impress upon us that society is the campus of the home, and that we must regularly and watchfully exercise therein if we would have our talents well developed and balanced.
If in the past any of our members have not been taking advantage of these stepping stones toward self-improvement, we hope they will resolve to shake off this lethargy and persistently use their talents for the society, and make stronger resolutions to “do or die" every time these words greet them:
Hurrah! Hurrah! Zip! Boom! Bah!
Mr. Long has been appointed band leader. He is taking special work in music with Professor Boyle and is one of the best band leaders in Kansas. The boys are delighted with his first month's instruction.
Nature Work for October. At the meeting of the Board of Regents on September 20, the In beginning our studies of nature this fall, I would again following named persons were elected to positions in the fac- emphasize the importance of making a collection. Young ulty: Miss Charline P. Morgan, of Leavenworth, kindergart- people, as well as those older, become fascinated in making ner; Superintendent W. S. Picken, of lola, assistant teacher in collections of coins, stamps, buttons, books, insects, fossils, history; Professor F. B. Abbott, of Boston, teacher of manual stones, autographs, eggs, tobacco tags, marbles, wood of trees, training and assistant in drawing; and Professor Cora Mars- leaves, Aowers, paper dolls, picture cards, bits of silk dresses, land, teacher of elocution and oratory in place of Professor ancient China, and even old boots and shoes. Without Hoaglin, who was given leave of absence for one year.
attempting to find why people become deeply interested in Mr. Picken graduated from the State Normal School with making a collection, nor to ascertain why the usefulness of the the class of '87. He served as private secretary for President things collected is decidedly a secondary consideration, let us Taylor during the last two years of the time in which.he devise ways and means for using this universal tendency in the completed the Latin course. Since graduation he has served development of the powers of the child. Nearly all naturalists as superintendent of schools at Dorrance, Eureka, and Iola. were started in their work by a suggestion from some friend or He has raised these schools to a high state of advancement, book, that they make a collection. Many pupils in our schools and ranks as one of the best school men in the state. As an hare already made a beginning in this work, and all that they institute conductor, there are few more popular men. During need is direction and encouragement. It is suggested: the past few years he has completed courses in American His- First. That neighboring schools or rooms collect the same tory under Professors Blackmar and Hodder, of the University sort of objects-fossils, for example. of Kansas, and in American Literature under Professor Hop- Second. That the superintendent be invited to decide which kins of the same institution. He has recently completed a two school or room has the largest, neatest and best arranged colyears' course in Universal History under the direction of the lection. University of Chicago. He has also completed studies in other Third. That the children be encouraged to invent names lines, which will add greatly to his efficiency as an instructor. for the specimens. The names for the larger groups may be
Miss Charline P. Morgan was elected to succeed Miss Mont- suggested by the teacher. gomery as kindergartner. Miss Morgan was educated at In a similar way make a collection of different kinds of wood. Antioch College, Cook County Normal, and the Kindergarten Take limbs two or three inches in diameter and saw them into Training School at St. Louis. She taught for several years in lengths of four inches, leaving bark on. Then label them the city schools of Leavenworth and Kansas City. For the neatly and show the collection to visitors. past four years she has been in charge of the kindergarten
L. C. Wooster. training classes in the Omaha city schools, and during the last
The Friends' University. two years was supervisor of the kindergartners of the entire city. She has had additional work in child study under G. Many of our readers are aware that Mr. James M. Davis, of Stanley Hall, and kindergarten work under Miss Wheelock at St. Louis, purchased the Garfield University, at Wichita, last Martha's Vineyard.
spring, and donated it to the Friends' church; also, that exMr. Abbott was educated in the Providence, R. I., high State Superintendent Edmund Stanley has been elected to the school, in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in presidency of the new university. During the summer months the Rhode Island State Normal School. He has taken much busy hands were hard at work putting the building in shape for work in special lines, having completed a course in sloyd under the opening day. On the morning of September 21 it was dedHerr Solomon in Sweden. He is well versed in clay modeling, icated to higher education in Kansas. A large and enthusiastic wood carving, wood working, etc. Mr. Abbott has had several audience was present. The Wichita Eagle speaks in terms of years' experience as a teacher. During the last three years he warmest praise of President Stanley's inaugural address. We has taught manual training in the Boston city schools, and has quote passages from it elsewhere. The new university opens had charge of evening drawing and clay classes during much with flattering prospects and we predict a most successful of the time.
administration under the direction of President Stanley. His Professor Marsland has been teaching in Olivet College, high ideals of scholarship and of manhood, combined with his Olivet, Michigan, most of the time since leaving the Normal. wide experience as a superintendent and teacher, fit him most She was a most efficient and popular instructor while here, and happily for the presidency of such an institution. her return for the year is very gratifying to her many friends. Among the members of the faculty we notice Doctor Hoss,
All of them are busily at work in their departments as though a former president of the State Normal School, Prof. Bevan they had been with us for years. Everybody is pleased at the Binford, a graduate of the State Normal School and more good fortune of the regents in securing such satisfactory addi- recently a graduate of Earlham College, at Richmond, Indiana, tions to the faculty.
and other men and women of experience and reputation. We
give a most cordial welcome to the new organizatio:. and hope The following battalion boys are known to fill official posi- that the new life it has put into the great building may attract tions in the United States volunteer forces in the war against hundreds of ambitious young men and women from all parts Spain: Arthur D. Orendorff, first sergeant, Company H., Twen- of the Sunflower state. ty-second Kansas; Bert R. Smith, second sergeant; Henry Amyx, George Lucas, and Fred Stevenson, corporals in the Mark Cubbison returns to public school work as principal same regiment; Charles R. Oakford is a sergeant in a Wash
of the Bronson, Kansas, schools for the current year. ingten regiment; Charles Calkins is a captain, and A. F.
The mid-term classes at the State Normal School will be Watson a second lieutenant in the Twenty-first Kansas. formed on November 15, the examinations beginning the day Many former members of the battalion were privates in the before. If you desire catalogues and circulars, write at once ranks,
to the President.