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Nature Studies for February.

Few subjects interest young and old more than questions concerning the weather, and few subjects have more foolish traditions connected with them.

A careful study of the map at the head of this article together with daily observations on the wind and temperature ought to give a fair knowledge of the progress of storms.

Let us consider first the map.

The anticyclone is a great area of dry, cold air fed from above; and the highest barometer is at its center, indicating greatest pressure on the earth at that locality.

The cyclone is the great area, frequently three hundred to eight hundred miles in diameter, holding moist, warm air, fed from the sides and rising near the center into the higher regions of the atmosphere. At the center of the cyclone the barometer is lowest. There are likely to be thunderstorms and tornadoes in the southeast quarter of the cyclone, and this is also the region of the heaviest fall of warm rain.

Should the cyclone and anticyclone be situated with reference to each other, as shown on the map, over the plains and Rocky Mountains, a blizzard or astorm of cold rain is likely to be formed between them; should they be situated as represented over the eastern third of the United States, warm, dry weather will continue for a few days.

The cyclones and anticyclones move uniformly towards the east across the United States in two belts. But as these belts shift to the north in summer and to the south in winter, one belt and only the margin of the other are at those seasons found in the United States. But to this entire generalization there are numerous exceptions and modifications.

The cyclones may or may not bring rain. Their supply of moist air is derived from the Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic. After crossing the mountains they can give little rain till warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico is drawn into the southeastern quarter of the great whirl. As this air rises, much of the moisture is condensed and falls as rain. In Kansas these rains are largely local, but a more continuous rain storm is likely to come when this air has passed around to the northwest and mingled with the cool air from the anti cyclones.

The cyclones and anticyclones require about one week for the trip from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and hence move as a whole with about the speed of an express train.

Before these cyclones and anticyclones were studied scientifically, it was believed that rain storms came from the east, as the wind usually blew from that quarter before the storm and a westerly wind carried it away. The short arrows on the map show how this might all be true with reference to the wind, and false with reference to the storm as a whole.

A few questions followed by a study of the weather in connection with our map may make the truth of this article more evident.

1. Do the very high clouds always move in the same direction as the wind at the surface?

2. Before a tornado, what is the direction of the wind?

3. Why does a north or a west wind, in the course of a day or two, bring clear and cool or cold weather?

4. Why should St. Louis have rain before Cincinnati, and Cincinnati before New York, if storms come from the east?

5. Why do we have three days cold weather and three or four days warm weather?

6. Why should one rainy Saturday be followed by several others?

7. Why should South Dakota and Nebraska have more blizzards than North Dakota?

8. What is the difference between a cyclone and a tornado?

9. Why does eastern Kansas have more rain than western Kansas?

10. Why do stoves draw better when it is clear weather?

11. How can the moon bring storms when it crosses the United States from east to west, and the storms move in the opposite direction?

12. Are hot winds derived from cyclones or anticyclones?

L. C. Wooster.

Lolela E. Malaby, (Mrs. Stephen Bradley) is now at home to her friends at Agenda, Kansas. We are pleased to weleome her back to the Sunflower State and hope her home life may be even more pleasant than her school life has been.

THE STATE NORMAL DIRECTORY.
The Board of Regents.

HON. M. F. KNAPPENBERGKR, President Jewell City

HON. J. S. McGRATH, Vice President Saltville

HON. JOHN MADDEN, Secretary Emporia

HON. S. H. DODGE. Treasurer Beloit

HON. J. H. RITCHIE Cherrvvale

HON. J. S. WINANS Manchester

The Faculty.

ALBERT R. TAYLOR, Ph. D., President 928 Union

Psychology and Philosophy of Education.

JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary 832 Merchants

Director in Training.

MIDDLESEX A. BAILEY, A. M 218 West Twelfth Avenue

Mathematics.

JOSEPH H. HILL, A. M 1615 Highland Place

Latin.

M'LOUISE JONES, A. M 909 Mechanics

English.

WILLIAM C. STEVENSON 1017 Mechanics

Bookkeeping and Penmanship.

EMMA L. GRIDLEY 728 Merchants

Drawing.

CHARLES A. BOYLE, B. M 827 Constitution

Voice, Piano, and Harmony.

CORA MARSLAND, O. M 813 Mechanics

Elocution.

MARY A. WHITNEY 827 Market

History United States.

ACHSAH M. HARRIS 827 Mechanics

Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate.

OSCAR CHRISMAN, Ph. D 1013 Market

History of Education, and Economics.

DANIEL A. ELLSWORTH 727 Merchants

Geography.

L. C. WOOSTER, Ph. D 1017 Union

Natural History.

T. M. IDEN, Ph. M 913 Union

Physics and Chemistry.

MAUDIE L. STONE, S. B 728 Merchants

Physical Training.

EVA M'NALLY 7H Merchants

Associate Professor, English.

ELI L. PAYNE, B. P 1218 Neosho

Associate Professor, Mathematics.

MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B. M 827 Constitution

Associate Professor, Piano and Theory.

ANNA L. CARLL 1C02 Market

Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar.

HATTIE E. BASSETT 724 Merchants

Assistant Teacher, Elocution.

EI.VA E. CLARKE 1025 Constitution

Librarian.

MARTHA J. WORCESTER 906 Mechanics

Assistant Teacher, English.

MAUD HAMILTON 1002 Market

Assistant Teacher, Latin and Pedagogics.

MARY S. TAYLOR 312 West Twelfih Aveuue

Assistant Teacher, Mathematics.

LOTTIE E. CRARY 1315 N. Merchants

Assistant, Natural History.

WILLIAM A. VAN VORIS 1316 Market

Assistant, Physics and Chemistry.

ISABEL MILLIGAN 312 West Twelve Avenue

Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate.

JENNIE WHITBECK, B. P 1028 Congress

Assistant, Model Department.

HATTIE COCHRAN 1315 North Merchants

Manuscript Assistant, English.

E. E. SALSER 1028 Congress

Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship.

CHARLINE P. MORGAN 617 Exchange

Model Primary and Kindergarten.

WILLIAM S. PICKEN . 717 Mechanics

Assistant Teacher, History.

FREDERICK B. ABBOTT, Ph. D . 1015 Constitution

Manual Training.

WILLIAM G. BUTLER 827 Mechanics

Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo.

E. ANNA STONE 1315 North Merchants

Second Assistant in Piano.

EDWARD ELIAS 823 Mechanics

Assistant Teacher, German and French.

ALLEN S. NEWMAN 1013 Merchants

Office Secretary.

PEARL STUCKEY 422 Market

Stenographer.

NELLIE STANLEY. 1123 Congress

Assistant, Library and Office.

BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER 312 Neosho

Assistant, Library.

The New Education.

Edmond Desmoulins in a new book, entitled "L' Education Nouvelle," shows the way to national regeneration. According to Desmoulins, the entire educational system of France must be revolutionized, as the industrial superiority of the AngloSaxon nations is due chiefly to the scientific and practical methods of training the young for their duties and functions in life.

Both the theories and the program which he lays down in announcing the formation of a new school under his direction near Paris, may be summarised as follows: "The schools must be established in villages or on private estates, not in cities. Each school must have several acres of land, a farm, domestic animals, and everything pertaining to an agricultural vocation. It must be situated near a forest, a river, or a lake, and open fields. Teacher and pupils must live in the institution. All of the teacher's time must be devoted to the school and he must live with the pupils,and constantly watch over them, not in the spirit of an official, not for the purpose of restricting freedom, but to educate them in the full sense of the term. He is to participate in all their occupations and doings, in their studies as well as their recreations, which would establish simple, natural, free relations between teachers and pupils. He must also be competent to teach the sports characteristic of the nation. If a teacher is married, his wife is to be provided with employment in the school.

As for the studies, the all-important principle should be no -work except during school hours. The system to be pursued in the class rooms should be this: First of all, the teacher examines the pupils in the lessons of the previous day. After this review, as thorough as possible, the next lesson is explained, at once followed by questions from the teacher, the object being to determine how far the pupils have assimilated the lesson. Misunderstanding is thus removed. This being over, the pupils are to write a resume of what they have learned, and the teacher reads and corrects the notes, answers questions, etc. This completes the lesson for the day, nothing more being done.

Plenty of physical exercise, such as manual training, healthy recreation, dramatic and musical entertainments, is to be taken. Female as well as male teachers are to be employed. Art is to be a conspicuous feature in the curriculum. The pupils are taught drawing, painting, sculpture, and music. Both classical and modern languages are taught in a living and practical way. Grammar is taught along with the vocabulary and pupils are made to converse in the languages studied. They are to be taken to England and Germany to perfect their knowledge in these languages, and to form an idea of the life and institutions of foreign countries. The age for entrance is fixed at fourteen. The fee is 2,260 francs (about $450) a year, which covers everything, travel included, except dress. All formalism must be set aside.

There are to be six classes in the school; a year is prescribed for each. The first three years are devoted to general courses, obligatory upon all. The fourth class and the remaining grades are divided into departments: literary, scientific, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and colonial. At the end of the third year the pupil chooses his special line for further study. It is supposed that a graduate of this new school will know all that an intelligent man needs to know, and will be trained to enter a professional school or a business career."

This new educational system ;s supposed to combine all the advantages of the present French, German, and English methods, and to make neither visionaries and unpractical scholars, nor officials, but men fit for any liberal or commercial vocation.

E. Elias.

THE PHILOMATHIAN SOCIETY.

[Concluded from page 75.

The regular routine of work on the program was pleasantly changed on the evening of January 20, by a laughable farce given by several members of the society who were willing to do a little extra work in order that they might add to the pleasure of the evening.

At the first meeting of this term the program was entirely in the hands of the boys, and while they are by no means the principal part of the society, they gave a program full of interest and mirth from the beginning to the end. The young ladies promise to surpass this successful effort of the boys at our next meeting.

The Lyceum Society.

Another term has begun and with it has come not only new students, but also students of former years. We are glad to welcome all to the school but especially glad are we to receive so many of these into our own society. They realize that the Lyceum society provides excellent opportunities and chances for developing the powers and capabilities which they possess, but which for lack of proper influences, have never been developed to the fullest extent. The Lyceum society makes the gaining of strength and power to each and every member, the principal characteristic of its work. Our members take full charge of the programs, and now those, who last fall thought they could take no part, number with our best debaters, speakers, and workers. Each member helps the other, and in everything and at all times we see and feel this spirit of harmony and of helpfulness.

With the new year our hopes and enthusiasm have increased abundantly and we are to be daunted in no undertaking. Since holidays our programs have been particularly good. A few weeks ago, Blind William delighted us with two instrumental solos and a vocal one. So often it is true that the blind keep the most perfect time and put into their music the deepest thought, and Blind William was no exception.

Last Friday evening the program was entirely in the hands of the girls and they certainly proved it a success. Anticipating the excellent program, the room and corridor were full to overflowing—standing room was even scarce. Several novelties were given which added much spice. Miss Campbell gave an exercise in club swinging which plainly showed she was an adept with the clubs. Shadow pictures, representing titles of books were shown, and at the last a farce, written by W. D. Howell, was given. The boys were much astonished and it remains to be seen whether their program will excel, equal, or fall beneath the girls'.

By a unanimous vote it was decided to send Mr. W. A. Ward to Iowa. This shows the appreciation of the Lyceum society for Mr. Ward and his earnest effort in the late contest.

Our present officers are, Mr. Wolf, president; Mr. Gordon, vice president; Miss Kittie Taylor, secretary; Mr. Wilcox, treasurer. These are all enthusiastic workers, and during their term the success of the Lyceum society is assured.

The Belles-Lettres Society.

As promised in the last Mon Thly, the Belles-Lettres girls entertained the boys of the society and their friends one evening during the month. The invitation was given on the Thursday before, and the Belles-Lettres hall was crowded, standing room being at a premium. The first number was a duet by the Misses Edgeworth, who responded to an encore with "The Pharisee and Sadducee." In fact, all the numbers of the evening were received with the warmest expressions of appreciation.

The Misses Ring and the Ross sisters entertained most delightfully with guitai' duets and Miss Erving with a vocal solo. Several excellent essays were read.

Miss Morrison, our Antigone in Dramatic Art, recited in her usual pleasing manner.

Misses Watkins, Ross, Clark, Steele, and Knauss recited to a delighted and responsive audience.

Many excellent debates have been listened to in our hall this year. Mr. Daniel has been chosen to support Mr. Stroup in the approaching contest in debate.

Members ot the debate committee until the close of the term are Mr. McClure, Miss Addie Wilkinson, Mr. Brunton.

The president appointed a program committee for the same period consisting of Misses Challender and Ross, Messrs. Seal, Kelsey and Weatherby.

At the last meeting of the oratorical association E. S. Weatherby, of our society, was elected as a delegate to the inter-state contest. Mr. Weatherby is president of the oratorical association and by his clear-headed management of the last meeting of the association, proved himself worthy of the election and will be an excellent representative of the K. S. N. S. in the Iowa meeting. The Belles Lettres regret the loss of an excellent worker, Miss Eva Campbell. She left for Colorado in response to a summons to the bedside of a dying mother.

At our last meeting Mr. Roy Weatherby was elected as society correspondent to the Oven.

The Literati Society.

The delegates were booked, the combination completed, and as a result the Literati delegate to Iowa is a minus quantity. However, the majority did not travel over paths strewn with flowers tor every once in awhile they would run against a "sticker."

Soon after the Oratorical Association was called to order, the motion to proceed to the election of delegates to Iowa, carried. Nominations were in order and each of the three societies named a man. Summers was booked to close the nominations because he has a voice like the roaring of many waters. Stroup was chosen to make an eloquent speech and seconded the motion, because of his» portly appearance and commanding manner. In the mean time a dozen voices clamored for recognition by the chair. The motion to adjourn was ruled out of order. Mr. Gray protested against the closing of nominations, and, by a unanimous vote of the Association, was invited to the front to read what he could find in "Roberts' Rules of Order" on the closing of nominations. This as was found afterwards, was one of the "stickers." It was with great pleasure that Mr. Gray stepped to the front and began to read. He attempted to sho.v how nominations were made, but the chair declared him out of order. This ruling made matters worse and a discussion arose. It lasted about an hour, and during that time the question of adjournment came up several times but was ruled out of order.

The minority seeing that they had but little chance to elect a delegate, decided not to continue the discussion any longer, and the delegates nominated were soon elected

This delegation will be a good representation of the Normal since, including the orator from the Literati society, each society will be represented.

By a unanimous vote of the society, it was decided to give a special program in Albert Taylor Hall. The time has not been set as yet, but the program will be given in about three or four weeks Our hall is not large enough to accommodate all our friends at the regular meetings, so on this special occasion we expect to give one of the best programs ever given from the rostrum and will necessarily need more room. All come and have a good time.

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From the Albums in the Department of Bookkeeping and Penmanship.

"That country is greatest and most glorious in which there are the greatest number of happy firesides."—Galusha A. Graw, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania and the oldest member in either house.

"The true test of civilzation is not the census, not the size of cities, not the crops; no, but the kind of men the country turns out."—Lyman J. Gage, Secretary of the Treasury.

"Ideas are arrows, and the body is the bow that sends them home. The mind aims, the body fires."—Newell Dwight Hili.is.

"A great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the serenity of solitude. Happy is he who has a sanctuary in his own soul. He who is virtuous is wise; and he who is wise is good , and he who is good is happy."—P. A. Barnholdt, United States Consul, Riga, Russia.

"Whatever the law declares must be accepted in payment of all debts and dues, public and private, is money. The value or purchasing power of each dollar depends upon the number of dollars in circulation as compared with property for sale. Other things remaining the same, increasing the supply of money tends to raise prices and decreasing the supply of money tends to lower them."—Wm. M. Stewart, United States Senator from Nevada.

Emerson E. White, the noted Author and Teacher.

"The universe is governed by law. In the economy of nature, in the providence of God, nothiug is lost. Forms forever change, the universe remains. Forever and forever, life passes into death, and forever and forever, death gives back life. Every organized body in space contains within itself the germs of its own dissolution; and all disorganization supplies the sustenance for new organizations. All organized life feeds on other organized life, but life, life, life abides for aye and aye." —David Overmyer.

"The education of the future will be based on a better knowledge of the nature and needs of childhood and youth."—G. Stanley Hall.

"We may be sure that cheerful beliefs about the unseen world, framed in full harmony with the beauty of the visible universe, and with the sweetness of domestic affections and joys, and held in company with kindred and friends, will illuminate the dark places on the pathway of earthly life, and lighten all the road."—Charles W. Eliot, President Harvard University.

"Charity is bred in misery; the contented are too often contemptuous."—H. C. Chatfield-taylor.

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Good manners cannot be learned in a moment. There are certain forms which society has agreed people must conform to if they wish to appear well bred, and these are often not at all what the natural inclination would prompt one to do under the circumstances. Children must be taught these conventions, and we must not be surprised if they are sometimes slow in learning them, nor despair if, after much teaching, they at times relapse into native barbarism. Patient perseverance i* training them will at last produce the desired result. The constant repetition that seems so irksome, combined with the silent force of daily example, will effect the end in view—a well-bred child.—February Ladies1 Home Journal.

A College girl, on being asked if she liked cod-fish balls, said she never had attended any.

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