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Nature Studies for February. Few subjects interest young and old more than questions concerning the weather, and few subjects have more foolish traditions connected with them.
A careful study of the map at the head of this article together with daily observations on the wind and temperature ought to give a fair knowledge of the progress of storms.
Let us consider first the map.
The anticyclone is a great area of dry, cold air fed from above; and the highest barometer is at its center, indicating greatest pressure on the earth at that locality.
The cyclone is the great area, frequently three hundred to eight hundred miles in diameter, holding moist, warm air, fed from the sides and rising near the center into the higher regions of the atmosphere. At the center of the cyclone the barometer is lowest. There are likely to be thunderstorms and tornadoes in the southeast quarter of the cyclone, and this is also the region of the heaviest fall of warm rain.
Should the cyclone and anticyclone be situated with reference to each other, as shown on the map, over the plains and Rocky Mountains, a blizzard or a storm of cold rain is likely to be formed between them; should they be situated as represented over the eastern third of the United States, warm, dry weather will continue for a few days.
The cyclones and anticyclones move uniformly towards the east across the United States in two belts. But as these belts shift to the north in summer and to the south in winter, one belt and only the margin of the other are at those seasons found in the United States. But to this entire generalization there are numerous exceptions and modifications.
The cyclones may or may not bring rain. Their supply of moist air is derived from the Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic. After crossing the mountains they can give little rain till warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico is drawn into the southeastern quarter of the great whirl. As this air rises, much of the moisture is condensed and falls as rain. In Kansas these rains are largely local, but a more cont ous rain storm is likely to come when this air has passed around to the northwest and mingled with the cool air from the anti cyclones.
The cyclones and anticyclones require about one week for the trip from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and hence move as a whole with about the speed of an express train.
Before these cyclones and anticyclones were studied scientifically, it was believed that rain storms came from the east, as the wind usually blew from that quarter before the storm and a westerly wind carried it away. The short arrows on the map show how this might all be true with reference to the wind, and false with reference to the storm as a whole.
A few questions followed by a study of the weather in connection with our map may make the truth of this article more evident.
Do the very high clouds always move in the same direction as the wind at the surface?
Before a tornado, what is the direction of the wind? 3. Why does a north or a west wind, in the course of a day or two, bring clear and cool or cold weather?
4. Why should St. Louis have rain before Cincinnati, and Cincinnati before New York, if storms come from the east?
5. Why do we have three days cold weather and three or four days warm weather?
6. Why should one rainy Saturday be followed by several others?
7. Why should South Dakota and Nebraska have more blizzards than North Dakota?
S. What is the difference between a cyclone and a tornado?
9. Why does eastern Kansas have more rain than western Kansas?
Why do stoves draw better when it is clear weather?
How can the moon bring storms when it crosses the United States from east to west, and the storms move in the opposite direction? Are hot winds derived from cyclones or anticyclones?
L. C. WOOSTER.
Lolela E. Malaby, (Mrs. Stephen Bradley) is now at home to her friends at Agenda, Kansas. We are pleased weleome her back to the Sunflower State and hope her home life may be even more pleasant than her school life has been.
The Faculty. ALBERT R. TAYLOR, Ph. D., President
928 Union Psychology and Philosophy of Education. JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary....
832 Merchants Director in Training. MIDDLESEX A, BAILEY, A, M.
218 West Twelfth Avenue
Mathematics. JOSEPH H. HILL, A, M.
1515 Highland Place
Latin. M'LOUISE JONES, A, M.
English. WILLIAM C. STEVENSON
.1017 Mechanics Bookkeeping and Penmanship. EMMA L. GRIDLEY......
Drawing. CHARLES A. BOYLE, B. M.
827 Constitution Voice, Piano, and Harmony. CORA MARSLAND, O. M.
Elocution, MARY A. WHITNEY
.827 Market History United States. ACHSAH M. HARRIS.
827 Mechanics Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. OSCAR CHRISMAN, PH. D..
1013 Market History of Education, and Economics. DANIEL A. ELLSWORTH
Geography. L. C. WOOSTER, Ph. D.....
.1017 Union Natural History. T. M. IDEN, Ph, M..
.913 Union Physics and Chemistry. MAUDIE L, STONE, S. B...
.728 Merchants Physical Training. EVA M'NALLY
.714 Merchants Associate Professor, English. ELI L. PAYNE, B. P.
1218 Neosho Associate Professor, Mathematics. MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B. M.
827 Constitution Associate Professor, Piano and Theory. ANNA L. CARLL
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar. HATTIE E. BASSETT
724 Merchants Assistant Teacher, Elocution. EIVA E. CLARKE
Librarian. MARTHA J. WORCESTER
906 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, English, MAUD HAMILTON
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Latin and Pedagogics. MARY S. TAYLOR
312 West Twelfih Aveuue Assistant Teacher, Mathematics. LOTTIE E, CRARY
1315 N. Merchants Assistant, Natural History. WILLIAM A. VAN VORIS..
1316 Market Assistant, Physics and Chemistry. ISABEL MILLIGAN
312 West Twelve Avenue Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate, JENNIE WHITBECK, B. P.
1028 Congress Assistant, Model Department. HATTIE COCHRAN
1315 North Merchants Manuscript Assistant, English, E. E. SALSER
.1028 Congress Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship. CHARLINE P. MORGAN
617 Exchange Model Primary and Kindergarten. WILLIAM S. PICKEN
.........717 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, History. FREDERICK B, ABBOTT, Ph. D.
1015 Constitution Manual Training. WILLIAM G. BUTLER
S27 Mechanics Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo. E. ANNA STONE
1315 North Merchants Second Assistant in Piano, EDWARD ELIAS..
823 Mechanics Assisiant Teacher, German and French, ALLEN S. NEWMAN...
1013 Merchants Office Secretary. PEARL STUCKEY..
422 Market Stenographer NELLIE STANLEY..
1123 Congress Assistant, Library and Office. BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER ..
312 Neosho Assistant, Library.
The New Education. Edmond Desmoulins in a new book, entitled “L' Education Nouvelle,” shows the way to national regeneration. According to Desmoulins, the entire educational system of France must be revolutionized, as the industrial superiority of the AngloSaxon nations is due chiefly to the scientific and practical methods of training the young for their duties and functions in life.
Both the theories and the program which he lays down in announcing the formation of a new school under his direction near Paris, may be summarized as follows: “The schools must be established in villages or on private estates, not in cities. Each school must have several acres of land, a farm, domestic animals, and everything pertaining to an agricultural vocation. It must be situated near a forest, a river, or a lake, and open fields. Teacher and pupils must live in the institution. All of the teacher's time must be devoted to the school and he must live with the pupils,and constantly watch over them, not in the spirit of an official, not for the purpose of restricting freedom, but to educate them in the full sense of the term. He is to participate in all their occupations and doings, in their studies as well as their recreations, which would establish simple, natural, free relations between teachers and pupils. He must also be competent to teach the sports characteristic of the nation. If a teacher is married, his wife is to be provided with employment in the school.
As for the studies, the all-important principle should be no work except during school hours. The system to be pursued in the class rooms should be this: First of all, the teacher examines the pupils in the lessons of the previous day. After this review, as thorough as possible, the next lesson is explained, at once followed by questions from the teacher, the object being to determine how far the pupils have assimilated the lesson. Misunderstanding is thus removed. This being over, the pupils are to write a resume of what they have learned, and the teacher reads and corrects the notes, answers questions, etc. This completes the lesson for the day, nothing more being done.
Plenty of physical exercise, such as manual training, healthy recreation, dramatic and musical entertainments, is to be taken. Female as well as male teachers are to be employed. Art is to be a conspicuous feature in the curriculum. The pupils are taught drawing, painting, sculpture, and music. Both classical and modern languages are taught in a living and practical way. Grammar is taught along with the vocabulary and pupils are made to converse in the languages studied. They are to be taken to England and Germany to perfect their knowledge in these languages, and to form an idea of the life and institutions of foreign countries. The age for entrance is fixed at fourteen. The fee is 2,260 francs (about $450) a year, which covers everything, travel included, except dress. All formalism must be set aside.
There are to be six classes in the school;a year is prescribed for each. The first three years are devoted to general courses, obligatory upon all. The fourth class and the remaining grades are divided into departments : literary, scientific, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and colonial. At the end of the third year the pupil chooses his special line for further study. It is supposed that a graduate of this new school will know all that an intelligent man needs to know, and will be trained to enter a professional school or a business career.”
This new educational system is supposed to combine all the advantages of the present French, German, and English methods, and to make neither visionaries and unpractical scholars, nor officials, but men fit for any liberal or commercial vocation.
THE PHILOMATHIAN SOCIETY.
The Misses Ring and the Ross sisters entertained most (Concluded from page 75.
delightfully with guitar duets and Miss Erving with a vocal
solo. Several excellent essays were read. The regular routine of work on the program was pleasantly
Miss Morrison, our Antigone in Dramatic Art, recited in her changed on the evening of January 20, by a laughable farce
usual pleasing manner. given by several members of the society who were willing to do
Misses Watkins, Ross, Clark, Steele, and Knauss recited to a a little extra work in order that they might add to the pleasure
delighted and responsive audience. of the evening.
Many excellent debates have been listened to in our hall this At the first meeting of this term the program was entirely in the hands of the boys, and while they are by no means the
year. Mr. Daniel has been chosen to support Mr. Stroup in principal part of the society, they gave a program full of inter
the approaching contest in debate. est and mirth from the beginning to the end.
Members of the debate committee until the close of the term ladies promise to surpass this successful effort of the boys at are Mr. McClure, Miss Addie Wilkinson, Mr. Brunton. our next meeting.
The president appointed a program committee for the same The Lyceum Society.
period consisting of Misses Challender and Ross, Messrs. Seal,
Kelsey and Weatherby. Another term has begun and with it has come not only new
At the last meeting of the oratorical association E. S. Weathstudents, but also students of former years. We are glad to
erby, of our society, was elected as a delegate to the inter-state welcome all to the school but especially glad are we to receive
contest. Mr. Weatherby is president of the oratorical assoso many of these into our own society. They realize that the
ciation and by his clear-headed management of the last meetLyceum society provides excellent opportunities and chances
ing of the association, proved himself worthy of the election for developing the powers and capabilities which they possess,
and will be an excellent representative of the K. S. N. S. in but which for lack of proper influences, have never been devel
the lowa meeting. The Belles Lettres regret the loss of an oped to the fullest extent. The Lyceum society makes the
excellent worker, Miss Eva Campbell. She left for Colorado gaining of strength and power to each and every member, the in response to a summons to the bedside of a dying mother. principal characteristic of its work. Our members take full At our last meeting Mr. Roy Weatherby was elected as soci. charge of the programs, and now those, who last fall thought
ety correspondent to the Oven. they could take no part, number with our best debaters, speak
The Literati Society. ers, and workers. Each member helps the other, and in everything and at all times we see and feel this spirit of harmony The delegates were booked, the combination completed, and and of helpfulness.
as a result the Literati delegate to Iowa is a minus quantity. With the new year our hopes and enthusiasm have increased However, the majority did not travel over paths strewn with abundantly and we are to be daunted in no undertaking.
flowers for every once in awhile they would run against a Since holidays our programs have been particularly good. A "sticker." few weeks ago, Blind William delighted us with two instrumen- Soon after the Oratorical Association was called to order, tal solos and a vocal one. So often it is true that the blind the motion to proceed to the election of delegates to Iowa, keep the most perfect time and put into their music the deepest carried. Nominations were in order and each of the three thought, and Blind William was no exception.
societies named a man. Summers was booked to close the Last Friday evening the program was entirely in the hands nominations because he has a voice like the roaring of many of the girls and they certainly proved it a success. Anticipat- waters. Stroup was chosen to make an eloquent speech and ing the excellent program, the room and corridor were full to seconded the motion, because of his portly appearance and overflowing-standing room was even scarce. Several novel- commanding manner. In the mean time a dozen voices clamties were given which added much spice. Miss Campbell gave ored for recognition by the chair. The motion to adjourn was an exercise in club swinging which plainly showed she was an ruled out of order. Mr. Gray protested against the closing of adept with the clubs. Shadow pictures, representing titles of nominations, and, by a unanimous vote of the Association, was books were shown, and at the last a farce, written by W. D. invited to the front to read what he could find in “Roberts' Howell, was given. The boys were much astonished and it Rules of Order" on the closing of nominations. This as was remains to be seen whether their program will excel, equal, or found afterwards, was one of the "stickers.” It was with great fall beneath the girls'.
pleasure that Mr. Gray stepped to the front and began to read. By a unanimous vote it was decided to send Mr. W. A. Ward He attempted to show how nominations were made, but the to lowa. This shows the appreciation of the Lyceum society chair declared him out of order. This ruling made matters for Mr. Ward and his earnest effort in the late contest.
worse and a discussion arose. It lasted about an hour, and Our present officers are, Mr. Wolf, president; Mr. Gordon, vice president; Miss Kittie Taylor, secretary; Mr. Wilcox,
during that time the question of adjournment came up several treasurer. These are all enthusiastic workers, and during their times but was ruled out of order. term the success of the Lyceum society is assured.
The minority seeing that they had but little chance to elect
a delegate, decided not to continue the discussion any longer, The Belles-Lettres Society.
and the delegates nominated were soon elected. As promised in the last Monthly, the Belles-Lettres girls since, including the orator from the Literati society, each
This delegation will be a good representation of the Normal entertained the boys of the society and their friends one even
society will be represented. ing during the month. The invitation was given on the Thurs
By a unanimous vote of the society, it was decided to give a day before, and the Belles-Lettres hall was crowded, standing
special program in Albert Taylor Hall. The time has not been room being at a premium. The first number was a duet by the set as yet, but the program will be given in about three or four Misses Edgeworth, who responded to an encore with “The
weeks Our hall is not large enough to accommodate all our Pharisee and Sadducee." In fact, all the numbers of the
friends at the regular meetings, so on this special occasion we
expect to give one of the best programs ever given from the evening were received with the warmest expressions of appre- rostrum and will necessarily need more room. All come and ciation.
have a good time.
ECHOES FROM THE PARLOR. Oh-h-h-h! Every one of us had a beau! Oh-h-h-h-h! Who ever told
so? Oh-h-h-h-h-h! Girls, isn't he lovely though! Oh-h-h-h-h-h-h! I would just dearly love to go! Oh-h-h-h-h-h-h-h! Didn't you really hate to say no! Oh-h-h-h-h-h-h-h-h! Aren't those collars hideous though! Oh-h-h-h-h-h-h-h-h-h! There's that horrid bell and I'll have to go! Oh-h-h-h-h-h-h-h-h!
From the Albums in the Department of Bookkeeping
and Penmanship. “That country is greatest and most glorious in which there are the greatest number of happy firesides.”—GALUSHA A. GRAW, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania and the oldest member in either house.
“The true test of civilzation is not the census, not the size of cities, not the crops; no, but the kind of men the country turns out.”—LYMAN J. Gage, Secretary of the Treasury.
“Ideas are arrows, and the body is the bow that sends them home. The mind aims, the body fires."—Newell Dwight HILLIS.
“A great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the serenity of solitude. Happy is he who has a sanctuary in his own soul. He who is virtuous is wise; and he who is wise is good; and he who is good is happy.”—P. A. Barnholdt, United States Consul, Riga, Russia.
“Whatever the law declares must be accepted in payment of all debts and dues, public and private, is money. The value or purchasing power of each dollar depends upon the number of dollars in circulation as compared with property for sale. Other things remaining the same, increasing the supply of money tends to raise prices and decreasing the supply of money tends to lower them.”_WM. M. STEWART, United States Senator from Nevada.
-EMERSON E. White, the noted Author and Teacher. "The universe is governed by law. In the economy of nature, in the providence of God, nothiug is lost. Forms forever change, the universe remains. Forever and forever, life passes into death, and forever and forever, death gives back life. Every organized body in space contains within itself the germs of its own dissolution; and all disorganization supplies the sustenance for new organizations. All organized life feeds on other organized life, but life, life, life abides for aye and aye.” -DAVID OVERMYER.
"The education of the future will be based on a better knowl. edge of the nature and needs of childhood and youth.”—G. STANLEY HALL.
“We may be sure that cheerful beliefs about the unseen world, framed in full harmony with the beauty of the visible universe, and with the sweetness of domestic affections and joys, and held in company with kindred and friends, will illuminate the dark places on the pathway of earthly life, and lighten all the road.”—Charles W. Eliot, President Harvard University.
“Charity is bred in misery; the contented are too often contemptuous.”—H. C. CHATFIELD-TAYLOR.
KATY CHAIR CARS
DINING STATIONS OPERATED BY THE COMPANY. SUPERIOR MEALS,
Good manners cannot be learned in a moment. There are certain forms which society has agreed people must conform to if they wish to appear well bred, and these are often not at all what the natural inclination would prompt one to do under the circumstances. Children must be taught these conventions, and we must not be surprised if they are sometimes slow in learning them, nor despair if, after much teaching, they at times relapse into native barbarism. Patient perseverance in training them will at last produce the desired result. The constant repetition that seems so irksome, combined with the silent force of daily example, will effect the end in view—a well-bred child.-February Ladies' Home Fournal.
A College girl, on being asked if she liked cod-fish balls, said she never had attended any.