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Dr. Joseph Baldwin. Born October 31, 1827, died January 13, 1899. In his death the profession loses one of its most illustrious workers and the editor of this paper one of his best and truest friends. As principal, for ten years, of the Indiana Normal School at Kokomo, he aroused interest in education in all parts of the state. In 1867 he established a normal school at Kirksville, Missouri, which was made a state normal school in 1870. He soon became a great power in educational circles in that state.
In 1881 he was invited to the presidency of the state normal school of Texas, and for ten years was a prominent factor in promoting the educational work of the state. In 1891, he was unanimously called to the new chair of pedagogy organized at the State University, and in 1897 was inade emeritus professor of pedagy.
His publications are familiar to the rank and file of teachers in this and other English speaking countries; they include “The Art of School Management,” “Elementary Psychology," and "Psychology Applied to the Art of Teaching."
His long time coworker and friend, Superintendent Greenwood, of Kansas City, says:
“No other educator who has written during this century has so fully thrown his entire soul into his writings as Doctor Baldwin. No other author has the power of making each sentence stand for a great truth. David Page and Horace Mann inspired their readers-filled them with noble and lofty desires—made them top-heavy, without furnishing a secure footing upon which to work. Doctor Baldwin builds upon a foundation as firm and ai solid as the everlasting hills."
Since his death, a friend writes of him:
“Gone, yes, gone forever from the walks of men. But the world is better and wiser for his having lived in it, and though he is gone, his influence for good still lives, and will live in the hearts and lives of a host of inen and women who have been stimulated and encouraged and made nobler and better by his influence over them. There are many, very many scattered all over the States of this country that are living better lives and doing a grander work for society and state because of their having been associated with him, and seeing how selfsacrificing he was for the good and happiness of others. Long live the memory and influence of this grand, good man to bless the world. One of God's noblemen is gone."
If some smooth agent talks you into buying some high-priced apparatus, do not mention it to the next applicant for your school as a reason for reducing the salary five or ten dollars per month. It is not fair to make your teacher pay for your bad bargain. The best thing you can buy for your school is a good, faithful teacher, and if you get that sort it pays to treat her with reasonable liberality.
Is your school provided with good water? Many schools are. Are you seeing to it that the house is comfortable? Many directors do. Have you proviled your school ground with shade trees and made it otherwise beautiful? Many districts have. Arbor day comes by and by. If teachers and directors cooperate and take sufficient interest, appropriate and interesting exercises may be had for that day. Your district is entitled to as good as the best. What say you?
Country schools ought to be the very best schools, and in some cases are. When all directors take the pride that many do to have good schools, it will be a blessing to the children. Money invested in a strong, wide-awake, industrious teacher is money well spent. A lazy, uninteresting teacher is dear at any price.
A director dropped into our office the other day and said: “Mr. Superintendent, that teacher we hired last fall is too lazy to dress himself. He actually goes some whole days without lacing his shoes. He won't half sweep the house, pays no attention to ventilation and the common comforts of the room, and is seldom at school on time. I propose to drop him and hire another teacher for the spring term.” Heaven bless this director! Why, the children are entitled to sympathy in this case, and I trust said director will be able to secure a teacher with energy enough to teach.-Supt. J. S. Wren, Bloomington, Minois.
Thoughts for Directors. Do not hire a teacher who has no certificate. Experience shows that it don't pay". It sometimes occurs that such teachers put off writing until a school is secured and then wait until just about time for the school to begin and then plead that the time is too short for them to get ready. This makes the county superintendent no end of trouble. As a rule the best teachers are those with business enough about them to get ready be. fore asking for a school.
We know a case where directors are dropping a most thorough and excellent teacher because she wants thirty-five dollars per month for the spring term. The directors will thus change teachers for the small sum of ten dollars for a two months' term. Does it pay? You say. Would it not be better to look more to the interests of the children?
We visited a school where the plastering has been off overhead for two years, and the door lacks nearly an inch of filling the space meant for it. Why is to blame? The horses and cattle of the directors are well cared for luri the cold weather
The New Alumni Plan. For several years, the members of the alumni society have been considering plans whereby the annual reunions might be a little more satisfactory, and might call in a larger number of the graduates of the school. After studying the plans in vogue in other institutions of learning, the following agreement has been reached: That for commencement week, 1899, the following classes will have special reunions: '69, '74, '79, '84, '89, '94. It will be seen that the class reunions take the classes in series of five years apart. In 1900 the following classes will hold their reunions: '70, '75, '80, '85, '90, '95, the classes moving forward one year each commencement until the series is complete. The first classes holding the reunion this year, begin again five years hence. This plan is not intended to discourage the alumni of the intervening classes from coming to commencemen', but rather to give the occasion greater significance and to insure a larger attendance from the classes whose special reunions are assigned to each particular year. It often happens that alumni would be delighted to come to commencement if they could have an assurance that a reasonable number of their own classes would be present. Experience has shown that the method above outlined reaches the desired end in other colleges and schools. We hope the members of the classes named for reunions next June will begin at once to plan to be present. If all who think they will come will write at once to the chairman of the faculty committee, Prof. W. C. Stevenson, informing him of their intention, it will enable him to give valuable information to other members of the class who would be pleased to come if assured of the presence of their mates.
With a swag and a bluster,
Struts along now redfaced March!
Just as we go to press, we learn that Hon. A. J. Turner, of Chanute, has been appointed regent vice Hon. J. S. McGrath, deceased.
The mid-term classes form April 11. We are looking for a good delegation from nearly every county in the state. What about your county?
If you are an alumnus of the State Normal School and are not a subscriber to the MONTHLY, do you not think the certificate and state board news in this issue worth a year's subscription? If so, sit down right now and remit.
The Study of the Child has just been adopted by the Teachers' Reading Circle Board for the states of Missouri and lowa as the professional book for the coming year. It had already been adopted by the Iowa child-study circles.
A LETTER from Professor Elias informs us that he and Mrs. Elias are now pleasantly located at 76 Hammond street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. They were delayed on account of snow and ice, particularly at Detroit, where it took eight hours to cross the Detroit river, one mile wide. The floating ice in the river was three feet thick. We hope to hear from him again soon.
Hon. J. H. Crichton, of Chetopa, Kansas, was a visitor at the legislature early this month. He has lost none of his interest in the institution and immediately set about to assist us in securing the passage of the certificate bill mentioned elsewhere. Mr. Crichton was a member of the Board of Regents for eleven years, serving as president and secretary part of the time. He is in excellent health and does not seem to grow old very rapidly.
The retiring members of the Board of Regents, Messrs. Knappenberger and Winans, have placed the entire School under deep obligation: to them for their great interest in our work. Both of thein have made many warm personal friends during their term of office and have many times attested to the pleasure which their duty here has given them. They assure us of continued interest in whatever pertains to the welfare of the institution. We hope that they may make frequent visits to us in the coming years.
GOVERNOR STANLEY has reappointed Hon. S. H. Dodge as a member of the Board of Regents. The new members are Hon. E. A. Ross, of Burr Oak, Kansas, and Hon. F. S. Larabee, of Stafford, Kansas. Everybody is greatly pleased at the reappointment of Mr. Dodge, and so many kind words have been said concerning the new Regents by those who know them well that we are assured that they will prove to be most acceptable and efficient in erery way. They are gentlemen of wide experience and with high educational ideals.
The friends of the public schools in this state are greatly indebted to Senators Titus, Lamb and Young, of the senate committee on education, for their strenuous efforts in behalf of our educational standards. Through the positive stand taken by them, the certificate bill, House Bill No. 92, elsewhere mentioned, was so thoroughly modified throughout that there was little to be said against it, save against the general principle involved in it of recognizing the diplomas of schools not supported and controlled by the state. Their opposition on the floor of the Senate almost defeated the bill even in its present form,
The Lyceum Wins. Long before the drawing of tickets, the sales showed that there was profound interest in the March contest in debate and dramatic art, and the largest audience ever crowding into the assembly room enjoyed the contest between the Lyceum and Belles-Lettres societies on the evening of March 10. The stage had been transformed into a Greek temple and was artistically classical.
The Lyceum committee occupied the east
non-participation in international affairs in thə
Negative: W. H. Daniels, A, B, Stroup.
Albert P. Sommers
Mame I. Wiley
Ida M. Erickson
Mabel L. House
C. H. Fain
Lewis M. Vancc
John J. Haney
James 1. Louthan
Royal C. Gordon
Bessie V, Schriver.
Lillie M. Collins
H. C. Seal
Ross J. Bader, E, A. McGowen.
Mrs. Charles Gardner, Emporia.
ment, He promises excellent things on the platform. Miss Martin caught the ear of the entire audience at once, and when she had finished, had demonstrated her right to a high rank. Mr. Stroup's speech was one of the best ever presented here, though it would have been more effective had it been given with a little more deliberation. Mr. Stroup always entertains and always sets people athinking. He was given first place by many in the audience. Mr. Brookens' closing speech added little to the arguments presented by the Lyceum society, though he s'ccessfully parried some of the thrusts of his antagonists.
The following is the report of the judges:
11. Hatfield 271
1 1. 275 Total Ranks.. 1.08
1.58 Miss Martin wins first place. Mr. Stroup wins second place. Lyceum total, 3.58; Belles Lettres, 2.66. *The second column shows reciprocals under new rules.
The Lyceum society had drawn first position in dramatic art. They were fortunate in their selection and their presentation was most happy from first to last. The general effect of each scene left little to criticise. The Belles-Lettres selection represented a different stage of civilization and did not offer the same fortunate accompaniments. In spite of this, however, the players showed themselves thoroughly conversant with the spirit and details of the play they represented and won praise on every hand. The climax, in which Creon mourned the death of his son and his queen, is seldom equaled anywhere. The Belles-Lettres society has reason for great pride in the fine rank which its representatives attained. Professor Vickrey, of the State University, ranked them first. Mrs. Charles Gardner and Mrs. Alma R. Finley, of this city, the other judges, turned the scale in favor of the Lyceum society.
The decision of the judges was announced by Hon. Rodolph Hatfield of Wichita. After a few complimentary remarks, he awarded the art prize, a fine view of the Teton Range of mountains, to the Lyceum society. As he announced that the second prize, ten dollars in gold, in debate had been awarded to Mr. Stroup, the Belles-Lettres rallied with a warm cheer, but when he said that Miss Martin was entitled to the first prize, thirty dollars in gold, the Lyceum society did not wait for the final announcement, but caine swarming to the rostrum from every entrance and from over the foot-lights like the Goths into Rome. It seemed that the whole audience had suddenly become Lyceumites, and everybody followed the victors into the Lyceum hall. There short speeches were made and the double victory celebrated in a most royal way.
It was a mistake, however, to say that everybody went to the Lyceum hall, for the Belles-Lettres people and their friends, true to their history, carried their hard-working representatives to their hall and found great comfort in the superb presentation which their boys and girls had made. Though defeated, they showed emphatically that they were not cast down. They pointed to too many trophies of past victories on their walls to think that this defeat, complete as it was, meant anything more than a temporary reverse.
The reports from the judges were ready before the band had finished the last selection on the program.
The mascots were greatly surprised at the big crowd and "didn't do nothin'."
Professor Marsland has the hearty thanks of everybody for the excellency of the whole entertainment. We have had few as good.
The lady who“fried hers in lard” had little show at any time during the evening.
The “Chorus of the Aged Thebans” was the completest picture of ancient choristers that we have seen.
That silent gesture by which Mr. Brookens concluded his arraignment of his "honorable opponents,” brought down the house.
Many were the welcome greetings given our old time regents, Messrs. Hatfield and Case.
Professor Vickrey and Senator Forney made thoughtful and encouraging talks in both halls at the rallies.
Much of the beauty of the decorations was due to the generous assistance of several members of the faculty as well as to many students.
If the ladies are to continue winning contests, we must have a regular sedan chair provided in which to carry them to the halls after the award is made.
That picture of the Teton range is thought by a good critic to be the finest framed prize in the building.
The supplication accompanying the prayer of Synorix was the finest tableau of the evening.
Hon. F. S. Larabee, one of our new regents, happened to be in the city and considered himself fortunate in striking it on contest night. He is a graduate of Hamilton College and greatly enjoyed the occasion. It was a happy reminder of college days, though his alma mater was not co-educational then. We were all glad to see him.
The music for the chants was written by our Professor Boyle. That used by the priestesses is a classic.
The band is improving greatly. We wonder how many in the audience noticed the change in the order of the selections given by it.
The music by the Orpheus boys was worthy of the generous applause it received. It added much to the enjoyment of the occasion.
The State Board of Education. The State Board of Education met on March 6 and adopted regulations concerning the issuance of state and institute certificates. No changes were made in the rules concerning examinations for state certificates, but rule three concerning institute instructors' certificates was amended so as to make eligible any one holding a state certificate or diploma or whose eminent fitness and experience might command special recognition. This modification restores the State Normal diploma to its old place.
The board passed upon certain points raised in connection with the new certificate law. It was decided that sections one and two were probably retroactive and that the graduates of the school of arts in colleges and universities that had been maintaining departments of education, and whose course had included the professional subjects, would be entitled to the certificate therein provided, but that graduates of the four years' Normal courses in the State University and schools ap proved by the board previous to 1899 would not be entitled to recognition,
The prompt movement from one scene to another did not give much time for yells during dramatic art,
Paidology. In the great French journal of philosophy, the Revue Philosophique, for May, 1897, there appears a general review of the pedagogical movement for the year, prepared by Prof. Eugene Blum of the University of Paris. Professor Blum has devoted three pages (pages 528-530) of his review to the inaugural dissertation for the obtaining of the doctor's degree from the University of Jena, Germany, by Oscar Chrisman, entitled, “Paidologie, Entwurf zu einer Wissenschaft des Kindes,” (Paidology, Outline of a Science of the Child). (See “Paidology” in the Standard Dictionary.)
After reviewing the work of Prof. Vitale Vitali, entitled, “Studi Antropologici in Servizio della Pedagogica,” (Anthrological Studies in the Service of Pedagogy), Professor Blum enters upon the review of Paidology.
"Some work as remarkable as the Studies of Professor V., in which the care for details does not in any way do harm to the design of the whole and to the philosophical and ethical order of the thought, will serve to lay the foundation for this positive science of education which Mr. O. Chrisman names Paid. ology and to which, under the same term, he has given an inaugural thesis of the highest interest.
Under the influence of the progress which he has seen realized by the psychology of childhood in the United States, his native country, and from the instruction which he has received at Jena, the author conceives a reform which corresponds in the pedagogical domain to that which experimental psychology has realized in the domain of the science of psychical facts. Without doubt there is, after all, a moral and descriptive psychology which has its value, its aim, and its particular reward, (Ribot, La psychologie des sentiments, pages 185-186); in the same way there will always be a pedagogy reduced to being 'a science of application and of application in the second place,' having for its function 'the following of the other moral sciences and yet of following them sufficiently far enough off so as not to engage itself after them in a way which way when well marked out and well explored is perfectly sure,' (F. Buisson, Lecon d'ouverture du cours de Science de l'Education, Rev. int., 15 decembre, 1896).
This is not the science of education, but, according to the very apt expression of the eminent successor to Marion, it occupies a place comprised within the sacred enclosure and yet distinct from the sanctuary, 'the court of the science.' Paidology, such as it appears in the Studies of Professor Vitali and such as Mr. Chrisman defines it, is, on the contrary, a science of discovery, employing especially the positive method, seeing only the true theory, that which accommodates itself neither to time nor circumstances, and prepares at the risks and perils the way in which pedagogy afterwards will engage itself. This purposes to unite into a systematic whole all the knowledge which concerns the nature and development of the child. The paidologist is the specialist who, aided by special apparatus and depending upon special methods, will study the child at all times, in all places, under all conditions, under all circumstances, which one should to obtain a scientific knowledge of his nature.
In the laboratory, at home, on the street, in his plays, in his strifes, in the normal and abnormal phases through which he passes from the embryological up to the period of full develop ment, in the reciprocal relations of the physical and of the moral, in a state of repose, of action, of waking, of sleeping, of disease, of health, will the paidologist examine in order to obtain the knowledge of his whole being. Thus understood, paidology will have finally its proper and independent place, it
ought to obtain in the university special seminaries in which it will be able to pursue the evolution of the systematic science of the child. Laying aside the history of education, methods, management, in order to study the child only and in himself, it will have the effect of centralizing the efforts of all those, who in the various branches of the sciences have accumulated work, scattered and often sterile, of giving to all the researches an end, and to fix the work begun by Goltz (1847) in Germany and continued by Sigismund, who published the first good observations upon the nature of the child. If one wishes to know of the history of paidology, it is enough to go back to the work of Mr. Chrisman, who states and sums up in typical words all the interesting works of the positive psychology of the child appearing in Germany, Denmark, Austria, Russia Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, and America. Although we find in the paragraph devoted to France the names of Taine, Egger, Binet, Compayre, Perez, Deville, and even those of Moure and Gelle, one has to note many regretable omissions.*
On the contrary, the bibliography devoted to the work in America is not only to be noted for the number of the works cited (75), but also for their importance, which proves the extraordinary activity of the American school in its studies of paidological questions. Some maintain one ought no longer to say that America has not a true philosophy: in no other part of the world has the scie:.tific study of the child been entered upon with such enthusiasm, energy, and unanimity, as a science independent, original, and constituting a whole in itself. Individual investigators, associations, universities work in common accord to establish paidology, which will give the orientation and the basis for the future American philosophy.
After having studied the child in history and at the same time gathered in this way some important information upon the childhood of humanity, the paidologist will study the child in the present; in the first place among uncivilized peoples, in which, notwithstanding the many narratives of travelers, we lack material upon their plays, songs, games, sports, clothing, upon the place where is imposed on him religious and social usages. He will occupy himself in following up the abnormal child (defectives, delinquents, dependents, wildings, exceptionals): as to the normal children, they are to be studied at the points of view of the body (anatomy, physiology of the mascles, of the heart, of the lungs, of the stomach, etc., hygiene), and of the mind,-psychology (intellect, feeling, will), ethics, religion, and in the forms of their activity. One will aid this by paidometry, by individual and general observations, one will find in the hospital a laboratory already prepared, but which should not cause the universities to dispense with forming special paidological laboratories. To these means of information will be added recourse to the general matters drawn from literature, myths, prodigies.
We are finally furnished some practical suggestions upon the organization of a laboratory, being enumerated the principal
*This is a just criticism. I worked at paidology for two years in Clark University (Worcester, Mass.) At that time I did not expect to give a hist. ory of the movement, so a careful bibliography was not kept. The third year was spent on it at the University of Jena, (Germany). Professor Rein desired very much the history side, and as the library at Jena afforded very little aid I went to Berlin to complete the work I worked four months in the Royal Library, from which, with its one million volumes, one might expect every. thing almost. It was greatly disappointing, though, not to find near as much on the French and American sides as was accessible in Worcester. The American part was quite familiar to me, but much of the French which I had hoped to put in had to be omitted. I had intended to work this up at Paris, but sickness in my family caused us to return to America, so I could do only as is found in the thesis.
apparatus which is to be used, the measurements to which it is
The National Educational Association. to be applied, the principal observations to be made, and the The executive committee desire to announce the following experiments relating to the strength of the body, to the vital
as the railroad rates and ticket conditions for the Los Angeles capacity, to hearing, and sight. After this quite interesting convention tendered by the terminal lines,-the Atchison, Toand suggestive exposition, which comprises a classified biblio
peka & Santa Fe Railway and the Southern Pacific Company, graphy which includes not less than five hundred seventeen viz: numbers divided into twelve sections, Mr. Chrisman ought
Rate.-One first-class limited fare, plus two dollars memberright well to consider that he has given an exact and tru
ship fee, for the round trip. This will be $52.00 from Missouri ly seductive idea of this future science of education for the con- river points, with the privilege of diverse routes, going and restitution of which so many of the elements are now prepared, turning by any direct line. and which, under the happy name of paidology, whose merits
Routes.-Additional charge will be made for return via Shasta impose themselves upon us, is destined to become as rich in
route of $12.50 for those who reach Los Angeles via El Paso or information as it is fecund in results: thus this simple school
Deming or Barstow (i. e., via Santa Fe or Southern Pacific, dissertation which gives the highest honor to the wisdom and
Sunset, routes), and $27.50 for those reaching Los Angeles ia to the intelligent devotion of its author should well mark the
Ogden This additional charge will return passengers to starting-point of a definitive reform to which will ever remain
Houston, Texas, thru Ogden, Texline and Fort Worth, or thru attached the name of Oscar Chrisman."
Ogden, Purcell and Fort Worth; to Kansas City or Omaha
thru Ogden or any direct line, and to St. Paul via any northern Nature Studies for March.
transcontinental route. Return tickets to or thru Chicago will
be honored from St. Paul as if return were made via the MisWords so imperfectly convey information to young minds souri river. that sketches and pictures are very helpful in school work. Dates of Sale.—Tickets will be on sale June 25 to July 5, 1899, Pictorial maps and birds-eye view maps make so much deeper inclusive. impressions than ordinary maps that it is to be regretted that Going Limit.-Passengers must reach Los Angeles not later they are not more common in geographies.
than July 11, 1899. In a similar way weather records are very uninteresting when Return Limit.-The limit of the ticket for return is Septemmade in figures or even in excellent English. Many teachers ber 4, 1899. have found that children take great pleasure in making obser- Stop-Over Privileges.--Stop-overs will be allowed going vations for a weather calendar, when without the pictorial within the transit limit of July 11, and returning within the work they took no interest in weather studies. The material final limit, September 4, at any and all points west of and inrequired is inexpensive and consist of a large insurance calen- cluding El Paso, Trinidad, Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Cheydar and a box of colored pencils; or one end of the blackboard
enne, and on the return trips at all points on northern translaid off in squares, one for each day of the month, and a box continental lines. of colored crayons.
Side Trip.-A side trip to San Diego may be included in In the squares make short lines for rain, flakes for snow and
connection with all routes to Los Angeles for an additional blotches, etc., for clouds. Use warm colors for the back- rate of three dollars. ground when the day is warm, and the blues when the day is No deposit of tickets will be required at any stage of the jourcold. Let the directions on the squares be those of an ordi. ney. nary map and introduce arrows to show the direction of the
The committee believe, considering the extent and scenic wind. Slant the rain dashes also to correspond with the character of the territory embraced in the trip, the liberal tickdirection of fall of the drops. The ingenuity of the teacher et conditions and stop-over privileges en route and in Califorand pupils will assist in making many improvements on this nia, and the extended limit for return, that the rate secured is suggested calendar.
the most favorable ever granted to any transcontinental conThe warm days of March will bring to mind garden making. vention or to the National Educational Association for any It is much to be regretted that our school grounds do not pos- meeting. sess specimens of all the handsome wild flowers to be found in The above proposed rates and ticket conditions are subject to each district. Many children see little at home except corn the approval of the lines of the Western Passenger Association fields and weeds, and a wild flower corner in the school yard and of the northern transcontinental lines; but the committee would be to them a perpetual stimulus to make their homes have assurances of concurrent action by these lines as well as brighter and better. Tame flower beds, also, should not be by the lines of connecting passenger associations. neglected.
The Hotel Westminster has been selected as the national Schoolroom gardens may be started in egg shells. Cigar
In addition to the usual financial and other guarantees the boxes, laid off in square receptacles with pasteboard, as are
executive committee have received from various sources The egg crates, and partly filled with rich earth, make fine experi- most gratifying assurances that all citizens and teachers thrument boxes. Use half-shells of eggs, partly filled with sand or out California will unite in giving the association a welcome rich earth, for the seeds. A tiny hole in the bottoin of the
not less cordial and generous than that enjoyed in 1888 at San
Francisco. shell will supply drainage.
Emulating the record of 1888, when 4,287 members joined the Write on the outside of the shell the name of the pupil to association from California alone, the authorities at Los whom it belongs and the kinds of seed in it, then the school is Angeles have pledged a state membership for the current year ready to study the various problems of amount of light, moist- of 5,000 members, and have already secured the advance pledges ure and warmth best for the seeds.
of a large proportion of that number. I would suggest that the teacher obtain a copy of Bergen's Correspondence should be addressed to the local secretary, Botany, and he will find an abundance of suggestions for
FRANK Wiggins, Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles, or to studies of plants.
the respective sub-committees.
E. ORAM LYTE,