« PreviousContinue »
The only manufacturers of complete watches, watch movements and watch cases in the United States.
Please remember that no one can guarantee a watch who makes one-half of it only. The finest watch case is no good to you without a reliable movement, and the finest movement is generally ruined in a half-made watch case which is destitute of all qualities necessary to protect a movement from which accuracy is desired.
Locomotive Firemen's Magazine Educational Charts
PLATE I-NINE AND ONE-HALF INCH PUMP (Front View) Copyright 1902.
JWFRANKS & SONS
Locomotive Firemen's Magazine Educational Charts.
to show the sectional detail. In A-1 it is shown that the side of the pump to the left of the reader is cut down through the center of the main valve and ports to a point beneath the top head of the steam cylinder. Then, for the purpose of showing the perspective appearance of the steam cylinder, the sectional cutting ceases. Then back to near the lower end of passage b1, then forward to the center line of the piston, which has just finished the downward stroke, is again shown in section. In this plate the left side of the air cylinder is shown in perspective, except at the air inlet W.
ITH this issue is commenced the publication of a series of colored sectional drawings of railway appliances. The frontispiece for each month will be one of these colored charts. The twelve issues of 1903 will probably be devoted to the Westinghouse Air Brake.
These drawings are original, from the fact that something new is presented, or at least presented in a new way. An effort will be made to introduce perspective drawing wherever practicable, in order that the charts will have something of the picturesque.
The Editor plans and lays out the work. The drawing is done by Bro. A. E. Marshall, of the MAGAZINE'S clerical force. Before a drawing is lithographed it is submitted to the manufacturers for inspection, and if errors are discovered they
Each plate is copyrighted, and when a series is completed large charts will be published which will include all the plates of the series, with additions and revisions.
Plate I-Nine and One-half Inch Pump (Front View). (Westinghouse Air Brake Series.) Plate I is a front view of a Westinghouse 92-inch air pump. A deviation from usual practice will be noticed in the manner of showing the piston in the air cylinder. Instead of cutting away the right side of the piston, so as to expose all of passage G, the piston is shown complete, and overlapping passage G.
The dotted lines on the small drawings, A-1 and B-1, show the manner in which this pump is cut away in order
By referring to the small drawing, B-1, we see that on the right side the main valve is cut on the center line, but only to the top cylinder head. Most of the steam cylinder is in perspective on the right side, and the right side of the piston is also shown in perspective. The air cylinder is cut on an irregular line on the right side, as is shown by the dotted line in B-1. Valves 86, near the back of the pump, are cut through their centers, while the air discharge Z is shown partially in perspective. The air piston 66 is shown in perspective and complete, by which it can be seen that passage G is beyond the air piston. Dotted lines indicate the full width of the air cylinder on the right side, if it had been cut through the center, instead of at the back, through passage G and valves 86, as in this drawing.
Action of Pump: In Plate I steam from the boiler enters at the connection X, and, passing around back of the pump, ascends through the passage a (indicated by dotted lines), and enters the back of the main valve chamber at a2. The steam
thus enters A and finds itself confined by the cylindrical walls of the chamber, and at one end by the large piston 77, and at the other end by the small piston 79. It will be seen that these two unequal pistons are rigidly connected with each other by a rod 81.
What is the result of such an arrangement? Doubtlessly a greater pressure on the larger piston 77 than on the smaller piston 79. This being a fact, piston 77 is forced to the right, and drags after it piston 79.
By a peculiar form of "yoke" the rod 81 operates the slide valve 83 across a series of ports and bridges, not unlike the action of a slide valve in the steam chest of a simple engine. With the pistons and valve 83 moved to the extreme right it is apparent that the steam in chamber A will pass through the port b, down passage b1 to the ports b2 in the lower end of the steam cylinder, and under the steam piston 65. This starts the pistons in both cylinders on their upward stroke.
In other plates it will be shown that chamber E, at the left of the main valve, is in constant communication with the exhaust port The port cl and passage c connect the cavity under valve 83 with the top end of steam cylinder. The port d and passage d1 leads from the cavity under the valve 83, down behind the pump, through passage d2 (indicated by dotted lines) to the exhaust pipe connection at Y.
Additional descriptive matter will be published with each plate, and at the completion of all the plates illustrating the Westinghouse 91⁄2-inch pump, a detailed description of its action will be published. As these colored plates are published, should any information be desired, questions will be answered in the "Question and Answer" department.
A Great Electrical Undertaking.
A communication from the Westinghouse Company says that a bill has recently been sanctioned by the British Parliament, which gives authority for an extensive power distribution scheme contemplating the supplying of power to the industrial region of the lower Clyde River in Scotland. The district covered by the bill includes that part of the Clyde Valley extending about ten miles on each side of the river and about twenty miles up and down stream from Glasgow. The area covered is about 700 square miles, and three generating stations will be erected to meet the demand for power. The
scheme has been promoted by a group of manufacturers who desire to obtain cheap electrical power and who realize that this can be better done by joining in a common system than by each putting down his own generating plant.
This is the busiest part of industrial Scotland and contains about 1,200 works, many of which are large iron and steel works, coal mines, shipbuilding yards, and Some of these works chemical works. will alone require more power than many of the local municipalities now provide for lighting purposes, and it was easily shown that it would be inadvisable for the separate boroughs to attempt to supply an amount of power involving so large an expenditure of capital.
The three generating stations are to be built at Motherwell, Yoker and Crookston. The Motherwell station is located in the neighborhood of a large number of manufacturing works and in the center of an extensive coal field and can be connected with the adjoining line of the Caledonia Railway. It is, also, in close proximity to the river Clyde, from which water for steam and condensing purposes can be obtained.
The Yoker station is also situated on the Clyde, near the line of the Lanarkshire and Dumbartonshire Railway, and is in close proximity to a large number of shipbuilding yards, works and docks. Authority has been obtained to lay cables across the Clyde from Yoker to Renfrew, which will enable the works at Renfrew, and other works on the south side of the river, to be supplied from this station.
The third generating station will be situated near Crookston on the Glasgow & Southwestern Railway Canal line; but, owing to the arrangement allowing the company to cross the river, it will not be necessary to construct this station immediately.
The works from which the most urgent demands for power have been received are situated in the areas immediately surrounding the first two sites and it is intended, therefore, to proceed with these stations first and to install in each a plant of about 4,500-K. W. capacity. They will be so designed that they can be enlarged from time to time, as the demand requires. A radius of fourteen miles from these stations covers practically the whole district in which the company will be allowed to distribute their power, but a large proportion of the works are located within a radius of six or seven miles of the stations. When the stations are in opera