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Both the arriving and leaving time of a train are in full-faced type when both are passing times, or when one or more trains are to pass it between those times.

When a train takes a siding, extending between two adjoining telegraph stations, to be passed by one or more trains, the time at each end of the siding will be shown in full-faced type.

When there are one or more trains to pass a train between two times, attention is called to it by

NOTE TO RULE D-5.-The Committee recommends that each company adopt such method as it may prefer in filling the blank.

Train Signals.

D-17. The head-light will be displayed to the front of every train by night, but must be concealed when a train is standing to meet trains at the end of double track or at junctions.

Movement of Trains.

D-83. A train must not leave its initial station on any division, or a junction, until it has been ascertained whether all superior trains due have left.

D-86. An inferior train must keep out of the way of a superior train, and clear its time at least five minutes.

D-91. Unless some form of block signals is used, trains must keep at least five minutes apart, except in closing up at stations.

NOTE TO RULE D-91.-The Committee recommends that where greater clearance is necessary, Rule D-91 should allow a clearance of TEN minutes or more.

D-93. A regular train which is delayed, and falls back on the time of another train of the same class, will proceed on its own schedule.

D-97. Work extras will be assigned working limits. Within these limits such trains must move with the current of traffic unless train orders otherwise direct.

D-101. If a train should part while in motion, trainmen must, if possible, prevent damage to the detached portions. The signals prescribed by Rules D-12 (d) and D-14 (f) must be given, and the front portion of the train kept in motion until the detached portion is stopped.

The front portion will then go back, to recover the detached portion, running with caution and following a flagman. The detached portion must not be moved or passed until the front portion comes back.

The front portion must give the trainparted signal to trains running in the op

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D-FORM G. Eng. to (2.) Eng. to


(1.) No. 1 will run 20 min. late Joppa to Mainz.



(2.) No. 1 will run 20 min. late Joppa to Mainz and 15 min. late Mainz to Muscat, etc.

(1) and (2) make the schedule time of the train named, between the stations mentioned as much later as stated in the order, and any other train receiving the order is required to run with respect to this later time, as before required to run with respect to the regular schedule time. The time in the order should be such as can be easily added to the schedule time.


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(1.) Eng. 99 will run extra Berber to Gaza.

(2.) Eng. 99 will run extra Berber to Gaza and return to Cabul.

A train receiving this order must keep clear of all regular trains and of extra trains having right over it, as required by rule.

(3.) Eng.



right over all trains.






will run extra leav-
as follows with


Eng. 77 will run cxtra leaving
Turin on Thursday Feb. 17th
as follows with right over all

Leave Turin 11:30 p. m.
46 Pekin 12:25 a. m.
Canton 1:47. a. m.

A train must not be moved against the current of traffic until the track on which

Arrive Rome 2:22 a. m.


This order may be varied by specifying it is to run has been cleared of opposing the kind of extra and the particular trains over which the extra shall or shall not have the right. Trains over which the extra is thus given the right must clear the time of the extra





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(2.) "On (castward) track without protecting against extra trains." "On (westward) track without

Under (4) protection must be given against trains which may be moving against the current of traffic on the track or tracks named.


has right over opposing trains

"On (eastward and westward)
track without protecting against
extra trains."

Under (2) protection against extra trains will not be required. The time of regular trains must be cleared.

(3.) "Protecting against (No. 1) or all regular trains."

Under (3) the Work extra can work upon the time of the train or trains named in the order, and must protect against such train or trains as prescribed by Rule D-99.

(4.) "Protecting against trains moving against the current of traffic on track."


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(1.) No. 1 has right over opposing trains on No. 2 (or eastward) track Mecca to Mirbat.

Under this order the first named train must use the track specified between the two points named and has the right over opposing trains on that track between those points. Opposing trains must not leave the point last named until the first named train arrives.

An inferior train between the points named moving with the current of traffic in the same direction as the first named train must receive a copy of the order, and may then proceed on its schedule, or right.

This order may be modified as follows:
(2.) After
arrives at
has right over opposing trains on



After No. 4 arrives at Mecca No. 1 has right over opposing trains on No. 2 (or eastward) track Mecca to Mirbat.

Under (2) the train to be moved against the current of traffic must not leave the first named point until the arrival of the first named train.

protecting against extra trains." D-FORM S. PROVIDING FOR THE Use of a



track will be used as single track between and If it is desired to limit the time for such use add (from until -).


No. 1 (or westward) track will be used as single track between Mecca and Mirbat.

Adding if desired

from 1 p. m. until 3 p. m.

Under this order all trains must use the track specified between the stations named and will be governed by rules for single track.

Trains running against the current of traffic on the track named must be clear of the track at the expiration of the time named, or protected as prescribed by Rule D-99.

Questions and

The Westinghouse Air Brake.

Answers by F. B. Farmer.

142. Oil for Pump Air Cylinders.-"What is the proper kind of oil for use in air end of pump, considering engine oil and valve oil only?"-M. O. Ď.

Answer.-Valve oil, for the reason that engine oil will not stand the high temperature resulting from compressing the air as high and as rapidly as is generally required.

The valve oil should be introduced in small quantities through the cup provided, except such as works down the rod from the swab, and the time between oilings should generally be shorter than it now is. The time should be governed largely by the amount of work done, how rapidly it is performed, the quantity of dust and cinders drawn in and the heating of the air cylinder.

Where adequate lubrication means using more oil, the pump will gum up quicker, but without the oil it will wear much more rapidly or even cut; so the former is the lesser of the two evils. Wasting oil is not recommended, but using just enough to keep the air cylinder lubricated is advised.

Always oil the air cylinder shortly before starting down a long heavy grade, or at any other time just previous to the pump being worked hard and long. Too often this is overlooked.

The Standard Code of Train Rules, containing rules for both single and double track, may be obtained of the American Railway Association, 24 Park Place, New York, for 40 cents.

143. Air Pump Repair Bench and Stand.-"I wish to ask through the columns of your valuable Magazine for a design of stand for attaching air pumps to while being repaired."-Ï. A. Ĵ.

Answer. Two stands of this character are illustrated in this number, one as used by the Duluth and Iron Range Railroad, and the other by the Duluth, Missaba and Northern Railway. Those having the proceedings of the Air Brake Association will find another very good and simple device of this character illustrated on page 43 of the Air Brake Association Proceedings for 1897,


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(a) Front Elevation. (b) End Elevation. (c) Plan View. (d) Pump lug clamp, for holding pump to bench when turning bolts and nuts. There is lone drawer for tools, and one drawer for small repair pails.

144. Fitting Pump Packing Rings.-"Please advise the quickest and best method of fitting packing rings of air pump."J. A. J.

Answer. This question was submitted to three men of recognized ability and long experience in this work. As might be supposed, their recommendations were practically the same and are as follows:

First, it is preferable to do this work in the repair room and, therefore, pumps needing it should be replaced when practicable.

On one road a record is kept of cylinder sizes; also, extra steam and air pistons with rings fitted to the grooves and to cylinders to suit the pistons, a record of cylinder diameters being kept, are carried in readiness for quick repairs. This leaves little more than slightly filing the new rings open to make them fit.

The piston grooves should be trued up to the rings and a neat working fit assured. This is important.

If there is any shoulder at the end of the cylinder, remove it. File the rings open until they will lap about -inch or a little less when in the cylinder. Using lampblack and oil on the cylinder wall, mark and fit the rings until a true bearing is obtained all around; then file the ends until the rings will just pass without binding at the smallest point.

A fairly true cylinder is essential for making a satisfactory fit. Particularly with the air end of pumps in heavy service, it does not pay to fit rings to cylinders 1-32 inch or more out of true. One repairman who has some pumps in particularly heavy service says he has found it pays to bore the air cylinders of such when 1-64 inch out of true.

Another undesirable feature of doing this work on the locomotive is the difficulty of insuring adequate lubrication, so as to prevent cutting, while the rings are wearing to the perfect fit obtained only with use, but which can easily be assured while breaking the pump in on the testing rack.

All such work should be tested, not only to determine that the results are satisfactory, but as a means of education. By observing and noting the air cylinder condition after repairs the test will, by comparing one case with another, soon teach the repairman what is essential to insure satisfactory results. This feature will be found explained elsewhere in this issue.

145. Stopping Distance.-"How far should it take to stop a three-car passenger train

running 6 miles per hour, track level, rail dry, coaches equipped with quick action brakes, engine and tender with plain triples and no brake on engine truck? Please give the rule for making the calculation. In the above instance suppose the brakes were set in the emergency and no sand used."—J. J. C.

Answer. Calculating the distance required to stop a train is, at the best, unsatisfactory, particularly where there is no reliable data of stops made by a similar train. So far as the writer has been able to learn, there is no data below 20 miles per hour, and even at this speed it is for a longer train, greatly increasing the unreliability of an estimate such as requested.

A computation once made by probably the best authority on this subject was for a four-car train and gave the distance for 10 miles per hour as 35 feet. This was based on each car, the tender and engine being leveraged properly and brakes in good order, but no engine truck brake. He stated, at the same time, that a shorter train would greatly alter the results and that no estimate of value could be made for lower speeds owing to the coefficient of friction rising so rapidly.

To arrive at the figures given he had to use the results of brake shoe tests made by the Master Car Builders' Association, the main purpose of these being to determine the frictional values of various types and makes of brake shoes. These tests were made on a special machine in a shop, the one now at Purdue University.

The brake shoe friction is but one of the several variable factors and, as illustrating how it alone can affect the results, in some road tests once made where all other conditions were the same, a change in brake shoe metal alone doubled the stopping distance.

By far the better plan is to make a test stop, or several if possible, with the same train and at the place in question; or, if this can not be done, with a similar train.

Where the speed in question was low the tests should also be made at such speeds, but from 20 miles per hour up, a close approximation can be obtained for one speed where the distance that was required at another speed, but all else the same, is known. The rule is as follows:

Multiply the known distance by the square of the speed for which the proportionate distance is desired and divide the product by the square of the speed at which the known stop was made.

As an example, assume that a train at 20 miles per hour was stopped in 102 feet.

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