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our buildings being strung out over more than a mile of territory, including, as they do, the shop and store buildings, hospital, employes' club, general offices, and freight and passenger depots, alternating current was, of course, decided upon, and a 650-light, 1,050-volt alternator was accordingly installed in our engine room. Through our winter months this is easily our busiest tool, having scarcely an hour's rest in the twenty-four when clouds overcast our shortest days. Although the mercury along this section of the Alaskan coast is not often to be found below zero, it puts in so much of the winter below the freezing point that ample use is found for all of our exhaust steam in heating our shop buildings. This is very satisfactorily done by the direct system; so, should you make us a call this winter, you will fin us comfortably ensconced in warm and light quarters.
Early steps were taken to provide suitable power. The first installment of new engines consisted of two 95,000-pound, consolidation, Vauclain compounds. These were followed by one 95,000-pound and four 90,000-pound ten-wheelers, and another consolidation weighing 100,000 pounds, the latter six simple. These constitute what we call our heavy power, and for narrow gauge engines they are heavy. ** The artist rightly calls No. 7 a through freight. If he had located himself a few car lengths further up the hill, and had waited a few moments longer, he would have been able to cover the entire train with his camera, including the rear helper, whose smoke can be seen over the rock cut out of which this train is coming. The train is made up of seventeen cars of 40,000 pounds' capacity (our standard), and is a load for three of our heaviest engines. This picture gives some idea of the general appearance of our freight equipment, as well as a glimpse of the rugged mountains over which this train is climbing. The passenger train just showing up in No. 8 is about five miles from the summit, about 800 feet above the track where it is to be seen along the foot of the mountain which forms the background of this picture. The men in No. 9 have just started the attack upon the granite mountainside, which resulted in the shelf on which the train in No. 8 is to be
have her picture taken, is the only tunnel we have, and is but 250 feet long. Before the completion of the steel cantilever shown in No. 11, a switchback was resorted to as a means of getting around this canyon. A sharp turn toward the head of the canyon was made at the extreme right of the picture. The grade line of the north leg of the switchback can be seen through the bridge. The round, tent-like building to be seen at the north approach keeps the snow off the turntable, on which through engines took out the turn put in them by the switchback. The foundations supporting this bridge are of concrete set upon the solid granite. This is our highest bridge, being 215 feet above the little stream which it spans. No. 12 is a good picture of White Horse as it appeared a year ago. A year, however, has wrought quite a change for the better in its appearance, substantial buildings having taken the place of many of the tents. The boats tied up to the wharf with their noses upstream are loading and waiting their turn to load for Dawson. This picture was taken from across the river opposite the ways where the boats wintering at White Horse are pulled out of the river. No. 13 shows these boats just after going into winter quarters. ** * * Without stage service, Dawson would be completely isolated between the closing and opening of river navigation. A 450-mile stage ride in this latitude may not seem very inviting, especially when it is borne in mind that 50° and even 60° below zero are by no means unheard-of temperatures north of White Horse; yet even women and children make this trip with comfort in the dead of winter. While freight trains on the river are not so thick as to be in each other's way, the photographer found no special difficulty in securing No. 15.
* * **
seen. Like the "Shriner," nothing would induce these men to let go of the rope. The "Swallow's Nest," out of which the Vauclain compound in No. has emerged just in time to
I trust I have succeeded, with the help of the photographer, in giving you a glimpse of this railroad and the part it plays in the transportation game as carried on in this far northland. What the
future has in store for this vast treasure
house, being neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet, I shall not venture a prediction; that but a start has been made at its exploitation is beyond question; that the white man will not rest until he has gone in and possessed it to the uttermost goes without saying; that the railroad will be there, prepared to do its part, who can doubt? In the meantime, the time which concerns us, this
hardy pioneer is doing business at the old stand, taking care of the needs of the hour.-Pacific Coast Railway Club.
First Aid to the Injured.
DR. J. D. MILLIGAN (Chief Surgeon, P. & L. E. Ry.): When we consider that on June 30, 1900, there were employed 972,808 men by the railroads in the United States, that there were 39,643 injured and 2,550 killed, for the year ending June 30, 1900, and that in that statement we mean all who die within twenty
four hours are declared killed-and all who are disabled to the extent of three days or more are classed as injured, it shows at a glance that there is plenty of room to apply first aid, and also the grim necessity of prompt and efficient application of the same.
a standard by many railroads, that compares favorably with the first aid in the military service.
A little knowledge is dangerous, and we find sometimes that the prayer of the injured is not always: Oh, Lord! protect me from mine enemies, but it is: Oh, Lord! save me from my friends-for it does happen that some over-zealous person may in a moment undo what nature is trying to do-and would have succeeded if the case was left alone.
"The first dressing decides the fate of the wounded" was a maxim laid down by
Therefore, the adoption of what is known as "First Aid" as applied to railroad service is in conformity to the Standard Systems used by the St. John's Ambulance Association of England and adopted by Germany and nearly every European State, as well as by the New York Society for Instruction in First Aid -a system of education for employes that will enable them to aid the injured intelligently, and which system has reached
Volkman, and it is true that it will never lose its significance and it is true that much of the argument must be lost when the position is taken that we must make amateur surgeons of our engineers, firemen and conductors; and such other members of the crew as may be designated "Emergency or First Aid Men;" but it has never been shown that such was the purpose; to expect of the laity anything else than to add comfort and safety to the sufferer. And, while it is equally true that these men are not surgeons in any sense, yet they can be properly enlightened so that they can do the right thing, or the simple, necessary thing in the emergency, to relieve suffering, or stop a bleeding wound until the arrival of the
surgeon; thereby rendering comfort and safety, which means everything to the sufferer.
As applied to the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie, the institution of the first aid has been in force for about two years, and as yet in its infancy, so far as thorough teaching is concerned, but with that potent fact staring us in the face, we are prepared to say that we find when injury occurs, that the unfortunate victim reaches the surgeon with greater safety to himself, and instead of finding him bloodless, we find the rubber tourniquet properly applied, an antiseptic pad over the wound, and a bandage over it to hold it in place; and should it be a broken limb, a temporary splint applied to keep the broken bones from doing additional injury, by goading the soft part to death from friction, while en route to place of destination.
The marked improvement in the general condition of the injured on their arrival at the hospital has been such that it is now the exception to find a man so exsanquinated that he can not at once be placed on the operating table; while previously, the reverse condition was the rule; to find his life ebbing slowly away, because no one seemed aware that hemorrhage could be safely controlled by properly applied tourniquet, and we feel safe in saying that by the judicious first aid the death rate is much lower and the injured ones made more comfortable, and with these results obtained, we should be encouraged to a more vigorous and thorough effort to secure the most efficient detail and co-operation that can be afforded by the management of the various railroad companies.
Cotton. To cover over on top of the gauze.
Rubber Band (Tourniquet).-To fasten around a limb or around the head to stop in hemorrhage, particularly case of crushed limb. Adhesive Plaster.-To hold dressings, but never to be applied to an open wound.
Cotton Bandages.-To be used over first dressings where there is much bleeding.
Our first aid or emergency box contains bandages, assorted sizes; sublimated gauze, rubber tourniquet, cotton, safety pins and enough to care for two or three injured persons. Our folding stretcher
contains two blankets and one rubber blanket, and four splints, assorted. Each caboose and each baggage car has a set of these supplies-each station and telegraph office is similarly supplied. A small handbook has been issued to the men, and a circular has been placed in the hands of the men, entitled "Aid to Memory." The first aid to the injured and the same is herewith attached.
Gauze Bandages.-To fasten splints in place and to support light dressings where there is no hemorrhage.
Safety Pins.-To fasten bandages, etc.
Don't pour ice or very cold water on wounds.
3. The patient should be placed on his back, with head low, and this position should be continued in transporting.
4. If the person is suffering from "shock," that is, pale, with pinched expression of face, drooping eyelids and cold surface of body, with feeble pulse, give spoonfuls of hot tea or coffee; if this can not be had, teaspoonful of whisky or some other alcoholic stimulant, in a tablespoonful of hot water every ten minutes until five or six doses have been taken. Wrap in a warm blanket and put hot water bottles or heated bricks about the body.
5. Remove the clothing from the wounded part by cutting it away. Do not attempt to tear or draw clothing off, as this may further injure the wounded part. Always see the wound and know by your eye just what the nature of it is.
6. If a limb is crushed or torn apply over the wound a thick pad gauze, then a large covering or pad of cotton, fastened with several turns of the bandages, handkerchief or an elastic suspender.
7. Hemorrhage. This follows shock and is very rarely severe unless reaction takes place. Too much stimulation increases hemorrhage, and for this reason it is best to give only a little stimulant, well warmed, and repeat the dose if reaction is delayed.
Bleeding is of Two Kinds.-First.Arterial, when the blood comes out bright Second.-Venous, and red in spurts. when the blood is dark and flows in an even stream.
A. To Stop Hemorrhage.-Avoid trying to stop bleeding by twisting cords or handkerchiefs around limbs with sticks.
AID TO MEMORY.
First Aid Package.-For small wounds When the wound is large and blood comes on any part of the body.
out in spurts, apply the rubber band tightly just above the wound, previously
Gauze.-For large wounds.
the wound a thick layer of styptic cotton and over this another layer of absorbent cotton and a tight muslin bandage. It is well to pass the bandage under the chin if the wound be on top of the head, as this holds it firmer and tighter.
8. After hemorrhage has been controlled, apply gauze next to the open wound always and never let an open wound remain uncovered longer than absolutely necessary to control the hemorrhage, but remember a soiled or dirty covering is worse than none at all.
9. If a leg or arm is broken, straighten it gently and lay on a pillow, then tie the pillow up with several strips of muslin, bandage or splints found in the stretcher; laths or barrel staves, padded with some soft material may be used for this purpose. This should be done before the injured person is moved any distance.
swallow, give the patient an ounce of whisky in as much water.
B. Prostration from Drinking Too Much Ice Water When Overheated.-The face is red or even purple, breathing heavy and irregular, pulse irregular. Loosen clothing, place on back, with head slightly elevated. Give hot drinks, apply heat to the spine and the extremities.
10. Compound fractures are fractures accompanied by a wound of the soft tissues at the point of fracture, so that the bone is exposed to the air. In these cases treat hemorrhage and the wound according to the foregoing rules, and then apply splints. If the bones project beyond the skin, remember to bring them back into place by pulling the extremity in the direction of the displacement, until the ends of the fragments are quite free from over-riding. Remember to always cover these wounds with the sublimate gauze and bandage.
11. Burns. Carefully remove the clothing by cutting it off, if the part be clothed, and apply immediately three or four thicknesses of the sublimate gauze (dry, or wet in warm water in which one tablespoonful of the bicarbonate of soda to the quart has been dissolved As a rule, never attempt to clean burns immediately after they occur. Cover the wounded part immediately, as directed above, and leave the cleansing to the surgeon afterward. Extensive burns are attended with great shock, as a rule, and require free stimulation. As the burns are rarely followed by hemorrhage, stimulants may be and should be given in considerable quantities.
12. Prostration from Excessive Heat. -In these cases (not sunstroke) the face is pale, lips colorless or blue, breathing slow, pulse slow and very weak. Place the patient on his back, with his head level with his body and loosen clothing. Apply heat to the surface of the body and extremities. Bathe the face with warm water into which a little whisky or alcohol has been poured, and if he can
13. Position in Which a Person Should Be Placed After Injury.-Injuries to the head require that the head be raised higher than the level of the body. In all cases, if practicable, lay the patient on his back, with the limbs stretched out in their natural positions; loosen the collar and waist bands and unless the head be injured, remember to have the head on the same level as the body; do not bolster it up with anything.
14. To Place a Person on a Stretcher to Carry IIim.-Three persons are necessary to do this; two to act as bearers of the stretcher and one to attend to the injured part. Place the stretcher at the head of the patient, on a line with the body, the foot of the stretcher being nearest the patient's head. One bearer kneels on each side of the patient and joins hands underneath his hip and shoulders with the bearer on the opposite side. The third man attends to the wounded limb or looks after any bandages or splints that may have been applied. The bearers then rise to their feet, raising their patient in a horizontal position, and by a series of side steps bring the patient over the stretcher. He is then lowered gently on it and made as comfortable as possible. One bearer starts off with his left foot and the other with his right; should they keep step the stretcher would roll badly.— Railway Club of Pittsburg.
Checking Train Registers.
MR. G. W. REEDE: Would it be an additional safeguard and less chance for error, as well as a saving of time, for telegraphers at terminal stations to have check of register on proper blank ready, and hand to the conductor of trains affecting his rights? For answer, will say that I do not think it would be an additional safeguard, nor would it save time; in fact, it would introduce an element of danger, for the reason that the terminal telegrapher is a very busy man with his ordinary routine telegraphic duties, and only concerns himself about the movement of trains when called upon by the dispatcher for train-order work, and