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formed to fit the journal, is perforated and the perforations lie right up against the under side of the driving axle. The grease in the box is pushed up from below and forced through the perforations by means of a follower plate of wood. The follower plate is pressed up against the grease by means of a spiral spring.

A small wire attached to the follower plate protrudes through the bottom of the main cellar and acts as a tell-tale. When the end of the wire becomes flush with the bottom of the box there is still at least three-fourths inch of grease in the auxiliary cellar. This amount is sufficient for a month's service and gives time for engine to be reported for repacking.

The road mentioned has fourteen locomotives in both heavy freight and passenger service equipped with this grease box. Some have been running since last April, and there has been no trouble from hot boxes. I have some figures here giving the cost of this grease lubrication which are taken from an article in November, 1902, issue of the American Engineer and Railroad Journal.

For two eight-wheeled passenger locomotives having 20x26-inch cylinders, 68inch drivers, 185 pounds boiler pressure and 93,000 pounds on drivers, the total cost for lubricating driving and truck axles was 4 3-10 cents and 4 8-10 per 1,000 miles respectively, as against the former allowance of 58 cents per 1,000 miles for oil, and which did not include oil used in roundhouses.

In freight service, with a consolidation locomotive having 21x26-inch cylinders, 56-inch drivers, 200 pounds boiler pres sure and 162,000 pounds on drivers, the record shows the total cost for lubricating driving and truck axles to have been 10 cents per 1,000 miles instead of the former allowance of 84 cents with oil. The wear on the journals lubricated in this manner is very slight and hot boxes have been done away with entirely.

babbitt strip will impart to the oil its lead and will help the oil as a lubricant. But unless the babbitt strip is held in there so it can't get out I think it is detrimental to the bearing. Of course, you understand when babbitt strips get out it is that many less inches of bearing on the axle and a greater weight on the remaining surface of the brass. I am not particularly against babbitt. I think that the babbitt strip, if it is held in place, will help the lubrication.

MR. GEO. DICKSON (Great Northern Ry.) We haven't had any trouble with running driving box brasses without babbitt strips. We have never put them in,

and what we have received have been new equipment and when they come into the shop we find that the babbitt is usually out; that is, where the babbitt runs the whole length of the brass. But I think Mr. Blake's idea is a good one, that of closing up the end of the strip so that the babbitt, it does get loose in the groove, can't get out, but will still stay there and lie on the axle. I believe the

PROF. J. J. FLATHER (University of Minnesota): The matter of babbitted strips is one that I had marked, thinking there might be something brought out in discussion on that point. I noticed that Mr. Blake rather favored the babbitt, and my interpretation of Mr. Dickson's paper was that he was somewhat opposed to the babbitt strip. Personally I believe it is a good thing, when properly secured in the bearing. I think a mixture of metals is highly desirable, whether in a locomotive driving box or in a machine bearing; white metal or babbitt used in connection with bronze or even cast iron insures a very superior lubrication. The round spots spoken of are probably preferable to strips. They are used in a great deal of machine work, as well as railway service. The Lehigh Valley road uses them entirely in their crossheads. They use a phosphor bronze crosshead casting, and on each surface they have circles of babbitt about 12 or 14-inch diameter poured into the bronze, which is dovetailed to receive it, and then hammered and all finished up together. The bearing is certainly a most excellent one. Similar circles of lesser size are used in machine bearings with entire satisfaction.

MR. DICKSON: If I put in a babbitt strip I would favor the narrow strip or the round hole. When a brass gets hot and the babbitt runs out there is less square inches of bearing left. I noticed today on an engine that we stripped, there were two babbitt strips gone out of two boxes and in two other boxes there were half of them gone. The boxes showed indications of being heated and the babbitt had been lost. Those strips were about 2 inches wide, and there was considerable loss of the area of the bearing.

PRESIDENT VAN ALSTYNE: I find the chief advantage of babbitt is that it maintains a more uniform bearing, and I have noticed a good many times in taking an engine into the shop if you will clean off the box and the journal and spot the box

back on the journal with red lead, you will find on a journal 12 inches long that there will be 3 inches on either side that will clear, and it will run down on each side of the center probably a third of the distance. So that a box of the size as large as 9x12 inches, by the time it has run its full mileage has very little effective bearing area, and it is that concentration I think that brings about the heating; that is, the concentration becomes so great that it excludes the oil and brings about a dry spot. Of course, dirt is priImarily the cause of the trouble, but it is not directly the cause. It seems to me that it is indirectly the cause, in that it wears away certain parts of the bearing, allows the load to be concentrated on the balance to a point where it is able to exclude the oil. The babbitt takes care of that dirt to some extent, and keeps a more uniform bearing.-North-West Railway Club.

Profitable Courtesy.

If

MR. C. P. CONVERSE (C. P. R.): agents were treated with a little more consideration and invited to solicit freight at their respective stations, they could undoubtedly increase their package shipments considerably.

At the present time but few agents are ever addressed by name simply as "Agent" at such and such a place. He is rarely ever complimented or encouraged and his usual correspondence is made up of peremptory demands for information or scorching letters demanding explanations, from clerks in the various departments. All this has a tendency to sink his individuality and make him careless and indifferent as to his station's earnings so long as he can keep up his reports to the various offices and save himself roasts. If he were to be addressed by his name in a courteous way, and his opinion occasionally asked as to what could be done to improve the service and earnings, his attention politely called to any errors

which may have been made and suggestions given as to how to avoid them in the future, and the different departments would keep in touch with him as a "man" and not as a "thing," his self-respect and esteem would soon be increased and as a man is only worth what he values himself at, it would not take long to transform him from an anonymous automaton into an intelligent freight getter.-Western Railway Club.

Overloading Engine.

MR. J. McPARLLAND: As to the tons loading of freight trains, railway officials for several years have given special attention to tonnage rating of engines, and in many cases, in their efforts to load engines to their maximum capacity, allowed their zeal to carry them too far. For in many cases they rated and loaded engines so they just dragged their trains over the road, resulting in serious delay to their trains and other more important trains, doubling grades, frequent break-in-twos, increased fuel consumption, increased wear and tear on motive power and damage to equipment, and in many cases setting out part of the train between division poi necessitating running the next train light enough to pick up the set-out freight.

It is not so much the tons hauled by one engine in one train, as the tons hauled by one engine in one week or month. It is far more economical in a heavy business to give engines a slightly lighter loading, which enables them to get over the road at a good average speed to division points, where engines can be promptly turned and gotten out with another train. This results in an increased engine tons mileage in a given time, decreased fuel consumption, expense in maintenance of engines and repairs on equipment, a greater contentment among trainmen and enginemen and a considerable decrease in the amount of delayed time paid.-Western Railway Club.

Railway Technical Press

Two Millions in Discarded Engines.

vestibule of each "dummy" was an upright boiler which furnished power to propel the car, the wheels of which were drive-wheels. The real "dummy" engine is seldom seen now.-Leslie's Weekly.

The installation of the "third-rail" electric system on the elevated railways of New York has put an end to the usefulness of 324 little "dummy" locomotives, as they are sometimes incorrectly called. Never before was such a vast number of street railway engines put on the shelf at one time. There are two million dollars' worth of them, and they must stand idle and rust until they are sold at second hand. They are distributed now at different stations of the Manhattan Railway, but by far the greatest num、 ber is at a single station near the Harlem River, on the Third Avenue line. Hundreds of them in long rows stand close together, side by side, on a broad elevated structure, a great mass of activity stilled.

All of these locomotives were in running order and in use when electricity succeeded steam on the elevated lines. Their average cost was $6,000 each; some of them being nearly new, are valued at nearly that price now; while others, which have seen many years of service, have been sold for $1,500 each. Some of them have gone to Kansas and Oklahoma to be used in railroad construction, for hauling loads of material short distances. They are designed to run backward as well as forward and to pull load on the level of about 600 tons. Others of the discarded Manhattan engines have been sent to coal mines in Pennsylvania and Maryland.

These little engines are not needed any more in the traction world of cities. Electricity has succeeded them everywhere, but they are still in demand in construction work. The life of one of them is about a quarter of a century. Some of those of the Manhattan road have been in use twenty years. Locomotives are still in service on the Sixth Avenue and Ninth Avenue lines of the Manhattan Railway, but are soon to be uperseded there by electric cars, as has already been done on the Third and Second Avenue divisions. Many years ago real "dummy" engines were run on street railway lines in Brooklyn and other cities. They were made to conform to the law which prevented open engines from running through the streets. The "dummies" were built like ordinary trolley cars, excepting the trolley pole; and in the front

Keeping Coal Records.

It often happens that a railway company buys coal by weight and pays for so many tons, each composed of 2,000 pounds. The engines belonging to this same company are in all probability supplied with coal not weighed at all, but shoveled into pockets which are filled up to a certain level, and these pockets are then said to contain two, three or five tons as the case may be. As a matter of fact what the engine gets is not tons of coal, but a certain measure of volume, of which the exact weight is unknown.

There is generally a periodic attempt to make the coal bought by weight tally with the coal measured out to the engines, ecause the latter are called "tons." As there is no definite ratio existing between the two, the work of making both sides of the coal account balance may possibly be regarded as "fudging" by those who are disposed to look at the process with unfriendly eyes.

It may, however, be argued that definite volumes of coal, when dealt out to engines, are near enough, as all fare alike. This would be so if some substance such as water was being supplied, for in the case of water there is practically a constant ratio existing between weight and volume all the time, which is not true of coal. Large, lumpy coal and fine, small coal when filled to the same level in a coal pocket, represent two very different amounts of fuel, and what the engine is concerned with, when making her record, is the amount of carbon carried on her tender, not the height it will pile up to in a certain sort of receptacle. If accounts ar to be with accuracy the weighed ton can not fairly be made to tally with the uncertain, measured, so-called ton. It is worse than using pounds, shillings and pence. There is a definite known relation between the three denominations of money by which the value of any one can be accurately expressed in terms of any other. This connecting ratio does not exist between

the weighed ton and the measured "ton."

Run-of-mine coal differs sufficiently in heat producing qualities from carload to carload, as it is, without adding an artificial difference in the way it is received and put upon the tenders. The desire at the present day for accurate detailed costs in railway operation is perfectly justifiable, and if this is to be rightly done the accurate weighing of coal, supplied to engines, is as important as is the careful measuring out of oil. The accurate method is also fairer to the men who use the coal. There are many locomotive coaling stations where the weighing hopper is not used, and where coal is supplied in bulk. At these places due allowance should be made for the fact, and the man in charge should not be compared with another man on whose division the most modern equipment has been in stalled, and in no case should coal records be "fudged" in order that a set of books may be made to look as if they balanced exactly.-Locomotive and Railway Engineering.

The Automobile.

"Don't prophesy unless you know" is a pretty good rule, and we sometimes wish it were more generally followed, but the temptation is strong to try to look into the future a little way occasionally, especially when important interests are involved. Particularly strong is that temptation just now with regard to automobiles, and the effect they are likely to have upon our manner of life.

No one who had the privilege of inspecting the vehicles shown at Madison Square Garden last week could fail to be impressed with the magnitude of the business there represented and the great interest taken in it by the public. There is at present a craze for automobiles and people willingly, even eagerly, pay more money for them than they will be expected to pay after the business has settled somewhat, but there is every indication that the business of building and selling autos, now large, will become much larger and that the machinist instead of the farmer and horse breeder is to supply the motive power with which goods and people are to be moved over the highways. This work will be done more rapidly, more safely and more economically than by horses and with the added advantage of much better sanitary conditions, especially in cities.

A certain company which runs thousands of wagons in all parts of the country, hauling goods, and which has been experimenting for some time past, has become satisfied that, by means of powerdriven vehicles, goods can be carried at one-sixth the cost per ton per mile of the present service by horses. This is one of the most significant facts we know of in connection with the business and means almost certainly that horses will be superseded for such work. Whatever pays on any such scale as that is certain to be adopted and nothing can prevent it.

The one feature of uncertainty about the matter, perhaps, relates to the supply of fuel. The Standard Oil Company controls the supply of gasoline and under present conditions may do what it likes in regard to price. In Germany they are introducing alcohol in place of gasoline, and it is believed to be a better fuel for the purpose. At present its employment here is prohibited because there is such a tremendous internal revenue tax upon it. This tax upon alcohol used in the arts ought long ago to have been repealed and must be repealed so that the acreage now devoted to raising oats, hay and other horse provender may be devoted to raising alcohol-producing crops automobile provender.

Very little modification of the present gasoline engine or of the present gasoline burner will be required to adapt them to alcohol, and when this is done and the vehicles otherwise improved so that those who use them will not have to wear dustproof and oil-proof clothes, everybody who now uses horses will use automobiles. We believe they will be used for driving harvesting machines and doing a good deal of other farm work, as well as upon the highways. We think, too, that it is not unlikely that they will lead to the removal of street railway rails from city streets and that public vehicles will run upon the surface of the streets without rails, each vehicle with its own independent motive power.-American Machinist.

Solidified Petroleum Fuel.

A demonstration of the characteristics of a solidified petroleum fuel was given in Chicago recently, which apparently showed that the inventor, Mr. Austin Granville, has succeeded in overcoming the objectionable features that have hitherto accompanied solidified petroleum fuels made by other processes. The heat value of the briquettes is about 18,000 B. T. U.

per pound, and they burn with a fierce white flame, leaving little or no ashes. The heat is so intense that for many purposes it is advisable to use coal dust, sawdust or other refuse of a carbonaceous nature to reduce the intensity of the flame. For steam making the preferable method of burning the briquettes is on a traveling chain grate, the air being admitted over the top and none through the grate. A plant having a capacity of 1,000 tons per day is being erected at Port Arthur, Tex., and another at San Raphael, Cal. The fuel can be delivered at tidewater from the Texas field at a cost of $1.20 per ton, which, considering its greater calorific value, is equivalent to coal at about 90 cents per ton. The dangers attending crude oil in bulk are of so grave a nature that it is not probable that it can ever be used for many purposes where it would if the danger of fire was not so great. With the solidified product, however, the fire hazard disappears; also the difficulty of handling and transportation.-Railway Machinery.

A Premium Plan for Graveling Engineers.

The Chicago Great Western has a plan with reference to locomotive coal records which is worthy of general adoption. Coal records are carefully kept, the chute reports being sent daily to the superintendent. Coal allowances are made for each class of engine and each kind of service as follows:

Trains Nos. 1 and 2 between Minneapolis and Chicago, 1.0 ton per 10,000ton miles.

Why is it things go wrong-
All in a bunch?

Bad weather, no steam, and
Oh! for a lunch.
The Trainmen's cranky, and
The "Hog-head's" hot,
And the coal's the worst
The company's got.
The coal's stacked up

On the back of the tank,
And the door comes open,
With a mighty yank.
You shake the grates

With an aching back,

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Idle under steam, .025 ton per hour. The traveling engineers are paid a certain guaranteed minimum salary and their actual rates per month are based upon the per cent. of excess made by the engines on the divisions with which they are connected. The traveling firemen receive a rate which is proportionate to that of the traveling engineer of the same division. Of course these allowances must be very carefully determined and the grades, speeds and character of the locomotives must be considered. They would vary greatly on different roads. For the Chicago Great Western Mr. Van Alstine has prepared a schedule for each division, giving the rates of pay per month for various percentages of excess. The plan has been in effect since May 1, 1902, and is reported to be very satisfactory. The original plan of making allowances per 10,000-ton miles for each train, or class of trains, has been in effect on this road for over ten years. Traveling engineers were put on about two years ago and soon after were placed on the premium basis.-American Engineer and Railroad Journal.

A Fireman's Woes

By Ed. M. Dowdy

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