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work alone; for my enemies are not only very nume- treat thee to send speedily for my relief, or else it will rous, but so mighty and formidable in their power, so come too late. insolent also and furious, and have inclosed and hem. Ver. 20. Deliver my soul from the sword : darmed me in so strictly, that it is impossible without thy ling from the power of the dog.] Reseue my life from iniraculous providence to escape the n.
the sword which the enemy hath drawn to dispatch Ver. 13. They gaped upon me with tbeir mouths, as me : it is all I have left, and it is left without all de. a ravening and a roaring lion.] A hungry lion is not fence but thine, who, I hope, wilt preserve it from more fierce nor more dreadful, when he is ready to the power of him that with the rage and fury of a seize on his trembling prey, than these my perse- dog inaliciously persecutes me. cutors; whom I hear roaring and thundering out their Ver. 21. Suve me from the lion's mouth : for thur threats, and see coming with open mouth to fall upon bast keard me from the borns of the unicorns.] Thou me, greedily desiring and aiming to devour me. hast done as great things heretofore, and sent me re
Ver. 14. I am poured out like water, and all my lief when the fiercest and strongest enemies were bones are out of joint : my heart is like wax, it is melted pushing at me, and insulting over me ; which makes in the midst of my bowels.] Which have struck me me presume of thy favour now in this sore exigence, with such consternation, that I am as weak as water ; when the most violent men are ready to fall upon me, my bones are so loosed, that they are not able to sup- and tear me in pieces, if thou dost not save ine. port my body; my heart fails me, and my spirit dis- Ver. 22. I will declare thy name unto my brethren: solves and faints away, as wax melis before the fire. in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.]
Ver. 15. My strength is dried up like a po'sberd : and Save me, O Lord, and it will redound to thy praise, my tongue cleaveth to my jaws: and thou hast brought and not merely to my own satisfaction: For * I will me into the dust of death.] Fear, sadness, and sorrow, tell all my brethren how good and gracious thou art, have quite dried up my vital moisture : I have scarce and publicly proclain the greatness of thy power, strength enongh left to complain, but am just upon the and wisdom, and justice, (as well as of thy love), in point to expire, and to be laid in my grave.
the midst of thy faithful people. Ver. 16. For dogs have compassed m., the assembly (* This David did in the 18th Psalm ; and this our Saviour of the wicked bave inclo cd me : they pierced my bands did by his apostles, Hev. ii. 12. who proached his resur. and my feet.] For that malicious company which
rection, &c. every whicre, iu ide praise arid glory of God's have combined together to persecute me, are as gree.
grace, Eph. i. 6) dy and as cruel as the hungry dogs who have hunted
Ver. 23. 12 that fear the LORD, praise bim; all ye down a hind, (see the title), and are all gathered the seed of Jacob, glorify him ; and jear him, all ye ile about her to tear her in pieces: they use me most seed of Israel.] I will call upon him all the devout. shamefully, as well as cruells, and have bored through worshippers of the Lord, to join with me in praising my hands and my feet*.
and giving thanks unto him, (1 Chron. xvi.). Let the (* There is no'hing like this in the history of David; of whole posterity of Jacob (and whoscever hath any whom it can be only spoken poetically by an hyperble.)
thing of his spirit in him) set forth the glory of his Ver. 17. I may tell all my benes : they look and stare
most excellent perfections, which shine in his marvel. upon me.] Grief and sorrow liave so consumed my
lous works : let them all, I say, whom he haih chosen flesh, that niy bones stick out through my skin, and
to be his peculiar people, most humbly worship and inay be distinctly numbered : and they that behold my
adore his majesty, and learn to give him faithful obeinisery are so far from having compassion on me, that dience. they feed their eyes, and are exceedingly satisfied
(All that follows is as applicable to Cirist as to David ; with this lamentable sight.
and some passages more fulfilled in him.) Ver. 18. They part my garments among them, and
Ver. 24. For he hath not despised nor abborred the cast lets upon my vesture.] They make themselves affliction of the afflicted; neither bath be bid his face sure I shall never recover ; no ‘more than the poor from him ; but when be cried unto him, be keard.] For hinde, whose skin the hunters have divided, or cast that poor despicable person, (whom men contemned lots to whose share it should fall. For so have they and scorned, ver. 6.7.), he hath not disdained to look parted my upper garments among them, and cast lots graciously upon in his lowest and vilest condition. But who shall have my inner t.
ihough he seemed to neglect him for a time, hath sea. (t This also was more literally fulblled in Chtist than in sonably appeared in his favour, and granted the
earnest prayers David, in whose story we find nothing like it; and
which he put up unto him in his distherefore it can signify nothing more, (if applied to him), than that they looked upon him as utterly undone; and Ver. 25. My praise shall be of thee in the great congres rifled his house, and despoiled him of all, when he ficd gation : I will pay my vows before them that fear him.] from Saul, 1 Sam. xix.)
Which shall be openly acknowledged when I return Ver. 19. But be not thou far from me, O LORD:0 to thy house with the heartiest praises to thee, from my strength, baste thee to help me. Once more, there whom I am sensible I receive all the blessings I enföre, I humbly beseech thee, O Lord, to interpose by joy. And as I have been forward, in my trouble, to thy power, in this grievous strait, for my delivera vow thee many sacrifices, if thou wouldst restore me; ance : it is easy for thee to affect it, who art all- so I will certainly offer them in the presence of those mighty, and I depend merely on thy aid ; which I in, that devoutly worship the Divine Majesty.
Ver. 26. The mjek shall ent and be satisfied: they a more tender and co.:staat care over his Beck, tha: shall praise the LORD that seek bim ; your heart shall the Lord doth over me ; and therefore I am confident live forever.] I will invite also those poor people who I shall not want any thing that is necessary, eithe: were partakers with me in my sufferings, to come and for my sustenance, or for my defence against those feast with me on that plentiful provision I will make who would bereave me of my happiness. for them; and thereby encourage all those that seek Ver. 2. He maket) me to lie down in green pastures : the Lord sincerely, and depend upon him, to hope that be leadeth me beside the still water's ] For as a good they shall also praise him. Let me assure all such shepherd leads his sheep in the violent heat to shady faithful souls, your hearts shall be always full of com- places, where they may lie dowa and feed, (not in fort and joy, which nothing shall be able to take parched, but) in fresh and green pastures; and in the away from you.
evening leads them, (not to ruddy and troubled waVer. 27. All the ends of the world shall remember ters, bui) to pure and quiet streams: so hath he already and turn unto the LORD: and all the kindreds of the na- made a fair and plentiful provision for me ; which I tions shall worship before thee.] Nor shall the fame enjoy in peace without any disturbance. of thy wonderful works, O Lord, be confined within
in' soul; be lead'th me in the the narrow bounds of this one country, but spread it- paths of righteousness, for his name's sake.] And lest I self to the farthermost parts of the earth; where they should lose so great a happiness, his goodness is pleashall, with thankful commemorations of thy goodness, sed, (for to nothing else can I ascribe it), both to d:universally prostrate themselves before thee, and be
rect and guide me in the right course of pious living, come thy subjects.
and to reduce me when I go astray ; just as a shepVer. 28. For the kingdom is the Lord's: and be is herd brings back his.wandering sheep from those the governor among the nations.] For the Lord is the craggy, untrodden paths wherein they would lose Sovereign of the whole world; and therefore, as all themselves, and leads them into plain and easy ways, nations are under his dominion, so they shall all sub- wherein they find rest and safety. mit unto his government.
Ver. 4. Yea, though I walk through the valley of the Ver. 29. All they that be fat upon carth, shall eat shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me, and worship: all they that go down to the dust, shall thy rod and thy stuf they comfort me.] Which makes bow before him, and none can keep alive his own soul.] me resolve to take a good courage, though I should All they that are rich and powerful shall partake of fall again into the most dismal dangers, (as a poor his altar", and humbly worship him that bestows sheep sometines doth into a deep pit); it shall not ters'ich benefits upon them: and so shall all the poor and tify me, when I remember that thou art present with miserable also think themselves happy in his service. me, to protect and defend me : thy royal power, and For he is the protector of them all ; and the greatest, pastoral care, shall be my support and comfort. as well as the meanest, must acknowledge, that of him Ver. 5. Thou preparest a table before me in presence alone cometh their salvation.
of mine enemies : thors anointest my head uith oil, my (* As they that eat of the sacrifices did, 1 Cor. x. :8.)
cup runneth over.] But (such is thy extraordinary Ver. 39. A seed shall serve bim, it shall be accounted kindness to me) thou hast not merely provided food, to the LORD for a generation.] Their posterity like- but a feast for me ; a most sumptuous feast, which, wise shall devote themselves unto him, and propagate with great care and order, thou hast set before me, his religion unto future generations, whom the Lord to the astonishment of my enemies, who with shame shall adopt into his family.
and grief behold me, włon they lately despised, reVer. 31. They shall come, and declare bis righteous- joicing in thy royal bounty towards me, which enterness unto a people that shall be born, that he hath dona tains me even with superfluity of all good things. this. They shall join themselves to the society of
Ver. 6. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all his people, and publish to those that shall succeed the days of my life : and I will dwell in the house of the them, the loving-kindness and faithfulness of the LORD for ever s And therefore I am bold to hope, Lord in this wonderful deliverance, which he alone that tlie same bounteous goodness and tender mercy hath wrought for me.
which hath, without my desert, done all this for me,
and pursues me as zealously with its favour, as my PSALM XXII.
enemies do with their malice, will still most gra
ciously attend me to the end of my days, and settle A Psalm of David.
me in a quiet enjoyment of his house, (as well as my
own), where I will never cease to praise his wonderTHE ARGUMENT.—This psalm seems to have been ful love towards me, and to give him thanks for all the
composed by David, after God had brought him benefits he hath bestowed upon his unworthy servant. out of that great distress of which he complained in the foregoing, and settled him in a prosperous
PSALM XXIV. condition ; wherein he was confident God would continue him.
A Psalm of David.
Ver. 1. THE LORD is my shepherd, I shall not The ARGUMENT. As the foregoing psalm seems to
want.] There is no shepherd exercises have been composed by David presently after his
settlement in his kingdom ; so this, it is most like. who is worthy to appear before him? Who may ly, was penned by him, when he brought the ark hope to be admitted to a gracious audience with him? from the house of Obed-Edom, and settled it (after Ver. 4. He that hath clean hands and a pure heart ; inany flittings and removals) in Mount Zion. Which who hath not lift up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deplace, upon that account, he prefers before all the ceitfully.] Not every one that lives in this happy rest of the world ; and excites the people, who at country, (though chosen to be his peculiar people), but tended the ark thither with extraordinary pomp he that carefully keeps his commands in thought, and solemnity, not to coitent themselves merely and deed, and word : He, I say, who not only prewith that sort of piety, but to add the practice of serves his hands from pare murder and theft, and all moral virtue ; that so they might enjoy the bless- such like injurious actions, but his heart also from so ings which might be expected from the divine pre- much as designing them ; who uses no lies, much less sence with them, and comfortably wait for the false oaths, to deceive his neighbour, and enrich himcoming of the Messiah. Whose ascension to hea- self; but religiously observes all his promises, espeven is represented by the carrying of the ark up into cially those that are made in God's presence, though Mount Zion; which was a type of heaven, as the it be to his own detriment. ark was of the Lord Christ.
Ver. 5. He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, The Hebrews (from whom some copies of the LXX. and righteousness from the God of bis salvation.] This
add in the title, της μίας των σαββάτων) were wont to is the worshipper, and he alone, who shall receive a sing this psalm on the first day of the week; (see blessing, not only from the priest, (when he comes the argument of Psal. xciii.); because, as some fan- out of the sanctuary), but from the Lord himself, cy, there is mention in the beginning of it of the who will faithfully keep his promises with them, creation of the earth; which Moses says was on and amply reward them who are thus faithful to him. that day : but rather, I should think, because Ver. 6. This is the generation of them that seek him ; therein their prophets and wise men saw a prophe- that seek thy face, O Jacob. Selah.] This is the geсу
of Christ; whose first step to the throne of his nuine people of God, whose prayers are like to preglory was upon the first day of the week, when vail with him. Such should all those proselytes be, we constantly commemorate his resurrection. And who seek the favour of being received into your comthere is so remarkable a difference between the munion, Oye children of Jacob ! 8th verse and the 10th, that we may justly think Ver. 7. Lift up your beads, O ye gates ; and be ye some new thing is intended in the 9th and roth lift up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of glory shall verses, which are a repetition of the 7th and 8th ; come in.] And let all those who thus follow the Lord, viz. the ascension of our Lord Christ. For in the .(not merely with their bodies, but with their hearts), beginning of the verse, the question is put with in this solemn entrance he now makes into the hogreat emphasis, “ Who is this King of glory?" ly place, join with me and say, Be ye open, Oye And in the latter end of the words,“ inighty in gates of the sanctuary ; stand wide open, ye durable battle,” are omitted : because in the days of Christ, doors, and the King of incomparable majesty will as Aben Ezra himself gives the account, men are enter, and, by the special token of his presence, dwell “ to turn their swords into plough-shares, &c. among us.
Ver. 8. Who is this King of glory ? the LORD, strong Ver. I.
thereof; the world, and they that dwell ask who this King is, whose majesty we proclaim to be therein.] What a favour is this, that the divine Majes. so transcendent ; let them know, it is the Lord, who ty will vouchsafe to take up his special residence here made and governs the world ; that most mighty and amongst us! when the whole earth is his, and all the invincible Lord, by whose presence with me, I have creatures wherewith it is filled ; this great world, and been victorious in so many battles. all the people that inhabit it.
Ver. 9. Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; even lift them Ver. 2. For he hath founded it upon the seas, and up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of glory shall come established it upon the floods.] For by his almighty in.] Therefore make no delay, o ye gates of the power it was formed, and therefore he hath a just [heavenly] sanctuary ; be ye open, wide open, Oye propriety in it. He hath settled it also so firmly, that doors, which never shall decay; and the King of inthough the seas and the rivers beat against it, they comparable majesty, as I said, shall enter, and fix his cannot overwhelm it; but together with it, make a seat in his holy place. convenient dwelling for those that live in every part Ver. 10. Who is this King of glory? The LORD of of it.
Hosts, he is the King of glory. Selab.j And if you ask Ver. 3. Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD ? again (as there is reason) with greater admiration, and who shall stund in his holy place.? ]
bis holy place ?] And, blessed Who is this *, the King of incomparable majesty ? be God, we dwell in that part of the earth, where he know that the Lord of the sun, moon, and stars, yea, himself hath fixed his royal palace. (For this is the of all the angelical powers, he is the King, whose mountain that he hath chosen, and separated from all transcendent majesty is come to make his residence other, to be the place of his special presence.) But here.
+ See the Argument.
Ver. 6. Remember, O LORD, thy tender mercies, PSALM XXV.
and thy loving-kindnesses : for they have been ever of
cld.] Who art ready to help the miserable, when they A Psalm of David.
humbly seek thee, that all ages have left us remem
brances of thy most compassionate bounty towards THE ARGUMENT,—This psalm seems to have been them. And therefore I beseech thee to do to me as
penned by David after the commission of some thou hast ever done : I beg no new thing of thee, but
me, for thy goodness sake, o LORD.) I am a sinner an earnest supplicant for the 'pardon of them, and indeed, and began to be so very early; for in my for deliverance from his enemies. He began to youth I childishly and foolishly went astray from make this petition with an extraordinary art ; but thee, and since that time have committed much the method is presently disturbed, by the ardency more grievous offences. But thy goodness is so great, of his desires, and his passionate sorrow, which that thou art not wont to punish us according to our would not let him follow exactly the order of the deserts, but to pardon us according to thy tender letters of the alphabet, in the beginning of every mercies: to which I now betake myself, beseeching verse, as he first designed.
thee not to consider the greatness of my sins, but only
the largeness and freeness of thy mercy, which gives Ver. 1. UNTO ibee, O. LORD, do I lift up my souls] me hope thou wilt be graciously reconciled to me.
O Lord, my constant and only refuge in Ver. 8. Good and upright is the LORD: therefore will all my troubles, I look up unto thee in this distress; he teach sinners in the way.] For such is the lovingmost humbly waiting on thee, and hoping in thee, kindness of the Lord, such is his love to rectitude and that thou wilt deliver me.
holiness, that he will rather choose to reduce sinners, Ver. 2. ( my God, I trust in thee; let me not be and instruct them in the way of virtue, than destroy ashamed ; let not mine enemies triumph over me.] Thou them because they have wandered from it; knowest, O my God, that I place no confidence in Ver. 9. The meek will be guide in judgement : and the any thing but thine almighty goodness, upon which meek will he teach his way.] If they repent, that is, i profess entirely to depend : and therefore do not and, being troubled for what they have done amiss, fail to relieve me, lest I hang down my head in con- meekly submit to his will and pleasure, he will fusion of face, and my enemies insult over me, when sweetly direct them to discern what is acceptable to they see me disappointed of the help which I have só him. Such humble souls will be apt to learn, and often declared I expect from thee.
therefore he will not fail to teach them the way to reVer. 3. Yea, bit none that wait on thee be asbamed: cover his favour. let them be ashamed which transgress without cause ] -. Ver. 10. All the paths of the LORD are merry and Yea, for their sakes, who, by my example, wait upon truth, unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies.] thee, do not deny me : let not those who take my part, And when they carefully observe the covenant whereand place the same confidence in thee that I do, be in they stand engaged to him, (by obeying his laws, disappointed of their hopes; but let them be utterly which testify what his will and pleasure is), he will defeated, who, against all law and all obligations, order and dispose all things for their good, and faithhave broke their faith with me, and without any pro. fully perform the promises he hath made to such duii. vocation vainly labour to destroy me.
ful servants. Ver. 4. Shew me thy ways, 0 LORD : teach me thy Ver. 11. For thy name sake, O LORD, pardon mine paths.] It is hard to know what to do in these diffi. iniquity: for it is great.] I beseech 'thee, therefore, cult times, especially in this great agitation of again, by this mercy and faithfulness of thine, which thoughts, wherein my troubled mind is tossed up and shall be always celebrated and praised by me, to grant down: therefore do thou be pleased, O Lord, to shew me a gracious pardón: for which I am the more earme the course thou wouldest have me take, and goc mést, because my sin is so foul, so heinous; and such vern my actions so, that they may be pleasing unto a multiplied wickedness, that I can have no rest till thee.
thou art reconciled to me : Ver. 5. Lead me in tby truth, and teach me : for Ver. 12. W hat man is he that feareth the LORD' tbou art the God of my salvation, on thee do I wait all him skall be teach in the way that he shall chuse. the day.] I have as much need of thy guidance, as a Which if thou wilt be, o, how happy shall I think little child hathjof its parents; and I cry as earnestly myself! for he that fears to offend thy majesty, (as I to thee, that thou wilt direct me in every step : and in all reason ought hereafter to do, both because I on especially that thou wilt preserve me'as faithful to no other terms expect thy merciful pardon, and have thee, as I doubt not thou wilt be to me: for thou felt also the sad burden of being a sinner), him will art the Author of all the deliverances I have received; the Lord instruct, and lead into those ways which are and on thee I have, with a constant and perseverant conformable to his blessed will, and which will prove hope, depended in all my trials :
most grateful to him that walks in them,
Ver. 13. His soul shall dwill at ease; and his seed guard, and my honest dealing my protection ; for I siall in herit the earth.] He shall be at ease within depend on nothing but thy favour in such courses. himself, or rather filled with joy, and all manner of Ver. 2 2. Redeem Israel, O God, cut of all his troubles.] satisfaction: none of the blessings of this life shall be Nor do I plead my own private cause alone, but bewanting to him, and he shall leave them as an inherit- seech thee to have mercy upon the whole nation, who ance to his posterity after him.
are lamentably distracted.by these divisions; and to Ver. 14. The secret of the LORD is with them that restore them to peace and quietness, by delivering me fear kim : and he will shew them his covenant.] Or it from this rebellion that is raised against me. he fall into any straits and dificulties, the greatest com. fort of all is, that the Lord is present to them that
PSALM XXVI. fear to do any thing displeasing to him, (though it were to deliver themselves from danger), to counsel,
A Psalm of David. and secretly suggest good advice unto them : for hé THE ARGUMENT.In this psalm David asserts that hath engaged himself to shew then what is best for uprightness and integrity, to which he pretended in their safety and preservation.
the 21st rerse of the foregoing psalm ; and appeals Mine
ezos are ever towards the LORD, for to God as the judge of bis sincerity, who was privy be shall pluck my feet out of the net.] In confidence of to his inost secret intentions. But it seems to rewhich, my mind is fixed in a constant dependance
late to former times, when he was persecuted by upon the Lord: I expect no help from any one else, Saul, and looked upon as a public enemy, 1. San. but on him will I patiently wait, for I believe he will
Thus Theodoret understands it: and wind me out these perplexities, and deliver me from thinks he was now among the Philistines, or in the snares which my enemies have laid for me.
some other strange country, into which he was Ver. 16. Turn thou unto me, and have mercy upon some time forced by that persecution. ini : for I am desclate and aflicitd.] Behold, O Lord, how entirely I trust in thee : have a respect to my JUDGE me, O Lord, for I have walked faith, and hope, and patience, and take pity upon me,
in mine integrity : I have trusted also in the now that thou seest I am in a manner forsaken by all, LORD, therefore I shall nct slide.) I am accused of and reduced from the estate of a king to the condi- grievous crimes by those that persecute me; but am tion of a beggar.
not afraid to appeal to thee, O Lord, as the judge of • Ver. 17. The troubles of my heart are enlarged: 0 that matter : nothing doubting but ihou wilt acquit bring thou me out of my distresses.] Great are the op- me, and punish my false accusers and persecutors. pressions that lie upon my heart, and they are still For thou knowest I kept a good conscience when I growing into new cares, and fears, and vexativus was at court, (1 Sam. xix. 4.) ; and since I have been thoughts : 0 deliver me out of such grievous straits, banished thence, have taken no wicked course to dewhich press so sore upon me.
liver myself, (1 Sam. xxiv. 11. 12), but entirely deVer. 18. Look upon mine affliction, and my pain, and pended upon thee alone for safety : in which resolu- . forgive all my sins.] Have compassion upon the mise- tion nothing shall shake me. rable and toilsome iite which I lead, and remove all Ver. 2. Examine me, O LORD, and prove me ; try my sins out of thy sight, which I know are the cause my reins and my heart.] Thou seest into the secret of it.
thoughts of my mind, and inclinations of my will: if Ver. 19. Consider mine enemies, for they are many, I have not sufficiently approved myself to have not and they hate me with cruel hatred.] Discountenance so much as designed any such evil as I am charged my enemies; who (as they are very numerous, so) withal, go on, good Lord, to make a farther search; bear an implacable hatred to me; which disposes them and if thou wilt still expose to the fiery trial of sorer to do me all the mischief imaginable, though I have aflictions, I hope it will only still discover more of my not been in the least injurious to them,
integrity. Ver. 20. O keep my soul, and deliver me ;
Ver: 3. For thy loving-kindness is before mine eyes : ve ashamed, for I put my trust in thee.] O preserve me and I have walked in tly truth] For I trust to nothing from falling into their hands, for they seek my life, but thy loving-kindness, which is the pattern I have and rescue me from the danger I am now in of losing set before my eyes to imitate : I ever designed good, it: and let not (1 again most humbly beseech thee) not hurt, to them; and have ever kept my faith, and the trust and confidence which I repose in thee, be punctually performed my promises to them ; after turned into shame and confusion, as it will be if thou the example of thy truth, by which I have squared dost not deliver me.
actions. Ver. 21. Let integrity and uprightness preserve me : Ver. 4. I have not sat with vain persons, neither will for I wait on thee.] I have grievously offended thy I go in with dissemblers.] I never loved the company majesty, it is true, and I have sorrowfully bewailed of false and treacherous persons ; nor have had any it: but as for them that rise up against me, they have thing to do with those, who under specious shows iso little reason to accuse me, that I desire thee io deal cover ungodly designs. with me according to my uprightness and integrity Ver. š. I have kated the congregation of evil-deers : in all my administrations: let my innocence be my and will 1.0t sit with the wicked.] No, I perfectly