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bour, swells to a greater heap, which moulders not, associates himself with the wicked, shall be as cerbut still increases.

tainiy ruined, as he will be unavoidably infected with Ver. 12. Hope deferred make!h the heart sick ; but their wickedness. when the desire corneth, it is a tree of life.] The delay of Ver. 21. Evil pursueth sinners; but to the righteous that which a man eagerly expects is such an afiction, good shall be repaid.] The wickedness of sinners

purthat it differs little from a lingering disease; but when sues them to their unavoidable destruction; and the he enjoys what he bath long looked for, it restores good which righteous men do, will infallibly return into him presently to his former vigour and liveliness. their own bosom, and reward them with many blessings.

Ver. 13. W boso despiseth the word, shall be destroy Ver. 22. A good man leaveth an inheritance to his ed; but he that feareth the commandment, skall be re- children's children; and the wealth of the sinner is laid warded.] He that despises the good admonitions or up for the jus:.] A man that doth good with his ecounsels that are given him, is his own enemy, and state, takes the surest course to settle it upon

his

pos. destroys himself; but he that reverently submits to terity for many generations ; but the wealth of him, the divine commandment, makes God his friend, who who regards nothing but his own sinful lusts and pleawill reward him for it.

sures, shall be transferred from his family unto one Ver. 14. The law of the wise is a fountain of life, to that is truly virtuous. depart from the sșares of death.] The instructions of Ver. 23. Much food is in the tillage of the poor ; but a good man ought to be as a law to him that receives there is that is destroyed for want of judgement.] A them, for, like the water of a perpetual spring, they poor man many times makes a plentiful provision for are most beneficial; especially to preserve him from himself and his family, out of a few acres of land, those pernicious and destructive principles whereby which he manages judiciously and honestly; but too many are ensnared.

there is a sort of men, whose larger estates are was. Ver. 15. Good understanding giveth favour; but the ted, either for want of skill to improve their ground, way of transgressors is hard.] A prudent, pious, and or because they do not pay the hireling his wages. regular behaviour, is most amiable and acceptable to Set Arg. [d] all men; but the conversation of such as live by no Ver. 24. He that spareth his rod, katcth his son ; but law but their own lusts, like a rough way, is grie- he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes.] Fond affecvously uneasy. Sre Arg. [b]

tion, which maketh a parent forbear to chastise his Ver. 16. Every prudent man dealeth with know- child for the faults that cannot otherwise be amended, kedge ; but a focd layeth open his felly.]. All prudent is no better than hatred, for it helps to undo him ; persons are so cautious not to discredit themselves, therefore he that truly loves his child must not be so that they undertake nothing but with due deliberation, indulgent, but as soon as ill inclinations begin to apand what they understand, but a fool discovers his pear, while he is tender and flexible, give him early weakness to be greater than was thought, by rash correction, as well as admonition, before he hath ac. meddling with matters out of his reach.

customed himself to the doing evil. See Arg. [d] Ver. 17. A wicked messenger falleth into mischief ; Ver. 25. The righteous eateth to the satisfying of his but a faithful ambassador is bealth.] A messenger, or soul : but the belly of the wicked shall quant.] A righa minister, that wickedly betrays his trust, is so in teous man never wants satisfaction, because his desires jurious to his prince, or him that einploys him, that are moderate, and he lives in a temperate use of God's he shall not escape a just punishment; but he that blessings; but wicked men, some of them, bring faithfully discharges this office, (healing, suppose, themselves to extreme poverty by their luxury and or preventing differences and breaches), procures safe- riot, and others of them are indigent even in the ty to himself, as well as to the person that used his midst of the greatest abundance, because their des service.

sires are insatiable, and they never think they have Ver. 18. Poverty and shame shall be to him that re- enough. fuseth instruction ; but he that regardeth reproof, shall be bonoured.] He that proudly rejects instruction, and

CHAP. XIV. disdains to be checked in his lewd courses, is likely to be a beggar, and exposed to the public scorn; but The ARGUMENT.—[a] As the foregoing chapter behe that is so humble as to give a due regard to re with a description of a towardly child, so this proot, and to correct his errors, not only gains a just with the character of a good mother of a family, esteem, but is likely to rise unto dignity and honour. who by her prudent care makes it flourish ; when

Ver. 19. The desire accomplished is sweet to the soul ; a lewd woman throws the house (as we say) out of but it is abomination to focls to depart from evil.] It is an the windows; for so the wise man observes: “She high satisfaction to enjoy what we earnestly desire ; pulls down the house with her own hands,” that but fools herein defeat themselves, being so wedded is, ruins the family without any other help. There to their wickedness, that they will not quit it, if that needs no more than a bad wife to undo a family. must be the .condition of their being so happy. [b] A little after this, (ver. 4.), there follows an adVer. 20. He that walketh with wise men shall be

monition for the man without doors, as here for the wise but a companion of fools shall be destroyed.] He woman within ; that he do not neglect his hus. that keeps company with wise and good men, is like bandry. Of which oxen, every one knows, were ly to be so himself, that is, to be happy; but he who the principal instruments; being not only employ

Ssa

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ed in that country, (as they are here), in plowing that relate to the government of his own ways and the ground, and carrying home the crop, but also actions. But the other kind of wisdom is made up in treading out the corn. The strength also of the altogether of fallacies and cunning devices, and reox, (which is here mentioned), is celebrated in all lies wholly upon the hopes of circumventing others, authors; and thence bulls are called abbarim, i. e. and framing them as he lists himself. This wisrobust, among the Hebrews, who were very care dom the parable rejects, not only as wicked, but ful about the breeding of these most profitable crea as foolish. For, first, it is not in the number of tures. It is not my business to inquire after the things which are in our own power, nor is it directdifference between Alaphim and Sor, (which we ed by any constant rule ; but new stratagems must render here, in this verse, by the same English be every day devised, the old failing and growing word), but certain it is, they are used promiscuous useless. And, secondly, as soon as ever a man ly for either sex; and the latter without any respect hath got the naine and the opinion of a cunning to age; though most commonly it signifies one crafty companion, he hath deprived himself utterly grown to maturity, which we call an ox.

of the principal instrument for the management of [c] Upon the next verse but one, (ver. 6.), the Lord his affairs, which is trust; and so he will find by

Bacon (in his 7th book of the Adv. of Learning, experience all things to go cross to his desires. chap. 2.) bath made this useful gloss : “He that For, lastly, these arts and shifts, however they procomes to seek after knowledge, with a mind to mise fair, and much please such as practise them, scorn and censure, shall be sure to find matter yet they are commonly frustrated, and, which is enough for his humout, but none for his instruction.” worse, end sadly." Which Tacitus hath well obe One reason of which is, that this humour of deri. served in these remarkable words, Consilia callida ding all things, springs from a great pride and con et audacia, expectatione lata, tractatu dura, eventu ceit of their own wit, which disposes them to seek tristia. “ Crafty and audacious counsels are joyfor wisdom, not from others, but wholly from them ful in the expectation, difficult in the management, selves; and so (as the wise man observes they and sad in the event." are not likely to find it where it is not to be had : [f] There is the same difficulty in the 9th verse that When he that attributes less to himself, and hath was in the 7th ; for the word jaliz' is translated the humility to listen to instruction, in a short time by some mock, by others excuse ; and so, (besides attains great wisdom. I cannot wholly omit the what I have comprehended in my paraphrase), opinion of Jansenius, who thinks the wise man there may be this sense of the words ; " fools en. means, that he who hath accustomed himself to deavour to make handsome apologies for their laugh at all wholesome counsel, and in some strait fault, and to find out colourable excuses; but up. or other begins to think what is best to do, com right men freely confess them, and easily grant a monly finds himself at such a loss, that he cannot pardon for them, and make up the difference which see his way out of it. And it may be applied to they raise in a friendly manner." Or if we retain those also, “who having mocked at religion all their the acceptation of mocking, this may be the sense of days, at last desire to understand it ; but cannot, the verse; “ fools laugh and jeer at those who have

through their own inveterate indisposition to it.” committed a sin, but good men pity them, and by [a] In the next verse I have joined these two senses kind reproofs seek their amendment." I know not

together, which it may have according to the dif how otherwise to make out the opposition which ferent acceptation of the word minneged, signifying is usual between one part of the verse and the other, either before, or from before.

unless we choose to take it thus, that “ when fools [e] The next, (ver. 8.) I take to be that, which the offend God in the highest manner, they make no

Lord Bacon, minding the sense rather than the thing of it; but if good men in the least offend, they words, thus translates, (Advancement of Learning, presently beg his pardon, and seek his grace and b. viii. c. 2. parab. 30.), Prudens advertit ad favour.” The former part of the sentence also may gressus suos ; stultus divertit ad dolos." Which his be inverted, and make this plain obvious sense, English translator (who refers this to Prov. xxvii. which is as natural as any ; " sin will expose those to 12. which is quite to another purpose) reads thus : scom, who are so foolish as to commit it;" and then " A wise man is wary of his way; a cunning the latter part is as plain ; “bat the upright will have fool seeks evasions." Upon which that Lord thus favour both with God and man." A good admodescants : “ There be two sorts of wisdom, the one nition to them that make a mock of sio ; which true and sound, the other counterfeit and false; will in time make a mock of them, and expose them which last Solomon doubts not to call folly. He as ridiculous fools. that applies himself to the former, takes heed to [8] Some take the next (ver. 10.) to be an admohis own ways and footings, foreseeing dangers, nition to a prudent man, that he should conceal both studying remedies, using the assistance of good his grief and his joy, and keep them to himself. men, and fortifying himself against the wicked ; But it is rather an advice to every one, not to cen. wary how he enters upon a business, and not un sure too heavily the passions of grief or of joy in prepared for a retreat, and how he may come off others, because the causes of them

may be unknown handsomely; intent upon advantages, courageous to us. Or we may look upon the former part of against impediments, with innumerable other things the verse as an admonition to those that are at ease,

See Arg: [a]

not to censure too severely the complaints of those a just doubt made. As for the Chattaah, nobody that are in pain or trouble; and the latter part as an doubts but it signifies a sin-offering, as well as sin; admonition to such as are delivered from trouble, to yet with respect to our translation, I have endean be more thankful than any one can exhort them to voured to express both senses of those two words in be, because they best know what reason they have my paraphrase.

for it. [h] The next verse but one, (veľ. 12.), is the only Ver. 1. EVERY wise woman buildeth her bouse ; but sentence which Melancthon points out to his scho

the foolish plucketb it down with ber bands.] lars as the most remarkable in this chapter. Which He hath a great treasure, whosoever he be, that hath he takes to be an admonition of the weakness of a wise and virtuous wife ; for she alone, by her dilimen's judgement, and all human counsels; which gence and prudent administration, is able to raise her mistake lamentably, and lead men frequently into family, and increase its riches and reputation ; but she ruin. According to that saying of Simonides, tò that is foolish, and void of goodness, by her negligence, doxar Bicheras tiuj dan quay, “ Shows and seeming ap- ill management, and luxury, without any other assistpearances do violence to truth,” or “ truth is forced ance, will lay it low, and waste all that hath been gotto give way to the mere show of it:” and that ten by her predecessors' care. other, πολλάκι την μόρφίου εξαπατώς ιδέει, « Shadows Ver. 2. He that walketb in bis uprightness, feareth too oft cheat us of the reality.” Against which the LORD ; but he that is perver se in bis ways, despiseth there is no remedy but the word of God, and in him.] He that sincerely discharges his duty in all voking his direction ; according to such sayings as the actions of his life, hath a due regard and revethese, “Thy word is a light to my feet," &c. «Com- renoe to the Lord, from whom all virtue flows ; but mit thy way unto the Lord, and trust in him, and he that cares not what he doth, so he do but satisfy he will bring it to pass.” “ This shall be your wis. his own lusts and passions, lives in a profane contempt dom, to walk in my precepts," Deut. iv.

of his majesty ; which is the very fountain of all [i] And as some are deceived by their own counsels, wickedness. so others by the counsel of flatterers, if they be so Ver. 3. In the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride ; simple as to believe every one that pretends to kind- but the lips of the wise shall preserve them.] A fool is ness, ver. 15. Where Bochartus notes very op- so-insolent, that he boldly calumniates and wounds positely, that as prudence withoût simplicity dege. the reputation of others, though it come home at last, nerates into craft, so simplicity without prudence with a terrible back-blow, upon himself, but wise is no better than mere fatuity,

men are careful of their words, not to offend, much [k] In like manner, the wise man observes, ver. 23. less abuse the meanest person ; and thereby they re

that talking without doing is vain, and to no pur- main in safety. pose ; but only to be a cover perhaps for idleness. Ver. 4. Where no oxen are, the crib. is clean; but As the Lord Bacon (Advanc. of - Learning, b, viii. much increase is by the strength of the ox.] If the fields C, 11. parab. 28.) glosses upon that verse, in these lie fallow and be neglected, a famine must needs folwords : “ Solomon here separates the fruit of the low; but good husbandry bestowed upon them, makes labour of the tongue, and of the labour of the hands, great plenty. See Arg. [6] as if want was the revenue of the one, and wealth Ver. 5. A faithful witness will not lie; 259 a false the revenue of the other. For it commonly comes witness will utter lies.] A person of integrity will not to pass, that they who talk liberally, boast much, be prevailed withal, either for fear or favour, to jus. and promise mighty matters, are beggars, and re- tify the least untruth; but a man of no conscience, ceive no benefit by their bags, or by any thing they who hath accustomed himself to lying, cares not how discourse of; nay, rather for the most part such many falsehoods he testifies ; which he utters without men are not industrious and diligent in their em- any difficulty. ployment, but only feed and fill themselves with Ver. 6. A scorner seeketh wisdom, and findet) it not; words, as with wind. Certainly, as the poet says, but knowledge is endy unto bim that understandeth.] He Qui silet, est firmus. He that is conscious to him- that scoffs and jeets at every thing he reads or hears self of proficiency in his endeavours, contents him- would be thought wise, but loses all his pains, which self with inward applause in his own breast, and perhaps he takes to be so ; when a serious person, holds his peace; but he who knows within himself, who doth not think himself too wise to learn, easily that he only hunts after vain-glory, and hath no- and quickly attains the knowledge of things necessary thing else to live upon, talks abundantly, and re- and useful for him. See Arg. [c] ports wonders onto others."

Ver. 7. Go from the presence of a foolish man, when There are several other remarkable things in the rest thoui perceivest-not in him the lips of lenowledge.] Ob

of the chapter ; but this preface is already so long, serve a fool (and a wicked man is no better) as dili. that I shall only touch upon one, ver. 34.

gently as thou pleasest, and thou shalt never learn [1] Where they seem to me to have translated the any good from him ; and therefore it is best to flee Hebrew most exactly, who take the word chesed in the company of such persons, whose discourse thou the ordinary sense of it, for mercy or clemency; perceivest tends to nothing but vice and mischief. not for reproach, which it never signifies, unless See Arg. [a] perhaps once, Lev. xx. 17. of which there may be Ver. 8. The wisdom of the prudent is to understanci

his way ; but the folly of fools is deceit.] The great Ver. 16. A wise man feareth, and departetb from est cunning and subuilty that a truly wise and good evil; but the fool rageth, and is confident.] A wise man studies, is to understand what he ought to do, and man, being admonished of his error, and of his danwhat to avoid, upon all occasions ; but all the skill of ger, is afraid of incurring the divine displeasure, and wicked men, such is their folly, lies in cheating tricks, instantly starts back from that evil way into which and in devising arts of circumvention and deceit.' See he was entering, or wherein he was engaged; but a Arg. [e]

fool- storms at those that would stop him in his Ver. 9. Fools make a mock at sin; but among the course, and proceeds boldly and securely to his own righteous there is fuvour.] Lewd men, as if it were ruin. but a sport, care not what injury they do their neigh Ver. 17. He that is soon, angry dealeth foolisbly ; bours, and when they have done, laugh at those that and a man of wicked devices is bated.] He whose antalk of making satisfaction ; but among men exactly ger is presently kindled, and breaks out when he is virtuous, there is nothing but good will, which offended, may do such things, when the fit is upon makes them live without offence, or presently re- him, as none but a fool would be guilty of ; but he concile themselves to those they have offended. See is nothing so bad as him, who, suppressing his wrath, Arg. [6]

lets it boil in his breast, and deliberately contrives Ver. 10. The heart knoweth his own bitterness ; and how to take a cruel revenge ; for most men are in& stranger doth not intermeddle with his joy:] No- clined to pity the weakness of him that is hasty, body can know what another suffers, so well as him- but this man's wickedness is odious and execrable self; and he alone is privy to the greatness of that unto all. joy, which springs from the happy conclusion of his Ver. 18. The simple inherit folly ; but the prudent sufferings. See Arg. [3]

are crowned with knowledge.] Inconsiderate men will Ver. 11. The house of the wicked shall be overthrown ; never leave their folly, till they feel the woeful effects but the tabernacle of the upright shall nourish.] Men of it; but they who are cautious and advised, will of sincere integrity are happier in a mean cottage, heartily embrace all the means of instruction, and than the wicked are in their palaces; for, when the endeavour to arrive at the perfection of knowledge, great and potent families of those wicked men are which will prove a singular ornament and glory to them. overturned, the despicable family of the sincerely Ver. 19. The evil bow before the good ; and the wic. pious shall flourish and grow illustrious.

ked at the gates of the righteous.] Evil-doers had best Ver. 12. There is a way which seemeth right unto not be insolent in their prosperity, for they may not a man ; but the end thereof are the ways of death.] Ex only be brought low, but have been seen io humble amine every thing strictly and impartially, and be not themselves before the face of those good men whom led merely by the appetite, for that inakes many they had oppressed; the most impious of them, that actions seem innocent, which in the issue prove dead stuck at nothing which would support them in their ly destructive. See Arg. [b]

wickedness, have been forced to wait as humble supVer. 13. Even in laughter the heart is sorrowful, and plicants at the gate of that just man, (whom they the end of that mirth is beaviness.] Do not think that despised and abused), and implore his favour and reevery one that laughis is merry, or that profuse and lief. immodlaite joy is true pleasure, for it leaves the heart Ver. 20. The poor is hated even of bis own neighbour ; more heavy and sad afterwards, especially when the but the rich bath many friends. ] There is little sincere mind reflects upon it; nay, such is the vanity of this kindness left in the world; for if a man fall into popresent life, there is no joy without a mixture of sor. verty, his near neighbour, nay, even he that professrow, which oft-times treads so close upon its heels, ed friendship to him before, not only forsakes him, that it immediately follows.

but hates his company ; but if a man grow very rich, Ver. 14. The backslider in heart shall be filled with (let it be by what means it will), there are many his ownt ways; and a good man shall be satisfied from that before took no notice of him, who will pretend bimself. ] He that, to avoid a danger, revolts from to love him; nay, the greatest persons offer him their those virtuous courses, unto which he knows he ought favour. to have adhered, shall bring upon himself misery Ver. 21. He that despiseth his neighbour, sinneth : enough, by his own devices : but a truly good man but he that, bath mercy on the poor, happy is be.] But is, even in this, far superior to him, that though he let such men know that it is a greater sin than they should suffer, his own integrity, and the clearness imagine, and shall be severely punished, to overlook and quietness of his conscience, gives him abundant their poor neighbour, and deny him their charitable satisfaction.

relief; which whosoever compassionately affords him, Ver. 15. The simple believeth every word; but the not only doth a good deed, but shall be amply reward prudent man looketb well to bis going.] It is a mark ed for it. of great silliness to be credulous, that is, to take all Ver. 22. Do they not err that devise evil? but mer. those for friends who make profession of it, and cy and truth shall be to them that devise good.] Need I easily to follow every one's advice; for a prudent tell you (when it is so known a truth) that they miss man is suspicious, and proceeds cautiously, examining their end, and do but contrive their own ruin, who before he trust, and considering well before he do carry on mischievous designs against the innocent? as he is advised. See Arg. [i]

but they that take the same pains to study how to do

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men good, shall never fail of that bountiful reward He that defrauds or oppresses the poor, forgets God, which is secured to them by the faithful promise of who can reduce him to the same condition ; nay, afGod.

fronts his majesty, who hath promised to be the deVer. 23. In all labour there is profit ; but the tale fender of such helpless people : therefore, whosoever of the lips tendeth only to penury.] If a man take pains hath any respect to God, will be so far from inin any honest employment, though never so mean, it juring, that he will shew mercy and do good to him will bring him in some profit; but to spend one's time that is needy. in talking only, and perhaps boasting what he can do, Ver. 32. The wicked is driven away in his wickettends to nothing but to make a man a beggar. Scé ness; but the righteous hath hope in his death.] When Arg. [k]

a wicked man falls into calamity, his heart fails him, Ver.

24. The crown of the wise'is tbeir riches ; but and he is driven away from all his confidents, like the the foolishness of fools ir folly.] Riches are a singu- chaff before the wind, by the consciousness of his lar advantage and ornament to a wise and virtuous own ivickedness; but a righteous man is not dismayman, who knows how to use them ; but such is the ed in the greatest dangers, but remains steady and folly of wicked men, that their wealth makes them confident, even in death itself. the more vile, and only gives them the greater means Ver. 33. Wisdom resteth in the heart of him that to shew what senseless fools they are.

bath understanding ; but that which is in the midst of Ver. 25. A true witness deliveretb souls ; but a de- fools, is made known.] A prudent person makes no ceitful witness speaketh lies.] An upright man will unseasonable demonstration of his wisdom, but lets it not fear to endanger himself in justifying the truth, lic quiet in his own mind, till there be a fitting opto save the lives of those that are falsely accused; portunity to do good with it; whereas fools cannot but false and deceitful men boldly pour ont lies and contain themselves, but presently vent whatsoever calomnies, though thereby they destroy the innocent. they know, though never so small, in every company • Ver. 26. In the fear of the LORD.is strong confidence; whereinto they come. and bis children skall have a place of refuge.] A' reli. Ver. 34: Righteousness exalteth a nation ; but sin is a gious care to please the Lord in all things, gives a man reproach to any people.] Justice and piety raise a nathe firmest resolution, and the strongest confidence of tion to the highest degree of prosperity and glory, security and protection in all dangers; and his children especially when mercy, humanity, and kindness, even after him shall flee to God for safety, and hope to unto strangers and enemies, is joined with them; fare the better for their pious father's sake.

which pacifies the divine anger, and turns away many Ver. 27. The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, calamities, which the contrary sins bring down upon to depart from the shares of death.] There is nothing á people, till they niake them vile and miserable. "See makes a man live so comfortably and happily, as this dig: ['} . religious care to avoid every thing offensive to his Ver. 3.5. The king's favour is toward a wise servant ; majesty, which, like a perpetual spring, gives end. but his wrath is against him that causeth shame.) A less satisfaction, and diverts a man from those dan prudent and dextrous minister of state, who undergerous ways, wherein others are intangled to their stands his business, and is faithful in it, must needs utter destruction.

be very acceptable to his prince ;. whose anger no-
Ver. 28. In the multitude of people is the king's bo- thing more provokes, than one who regards not his
pour ; but in the want of people is the destruction of the master's honour, but by his ill management dis-
prince.] The honour and splendour of a king de- graces his goverament, and brings all things into con-
pends upon the multitude, wealth, and strength of his fusion.
subjects, whom therefore he ought to cherish; for if
they be wasted by unnecessary wars, or forced into

CHA P. XV.
other countries by oppression and unjust exactions,
it proves the ruin of his kingdom.

THE ARGUMENT.-This chapter begins with that Ver. 29. He that is slow to wrath, is of great under aphorism, which [a] the Lord Bacon (Advancement standing ; but be that is basty of spirit, exalteth folly.] of Learning, B. viii. ch. 2.) hath set in the front of He declares himself to be a great man, and to abound all those which he hath culled out of this book, with prudence, who is not soon provoked to anger by for an example of that sort of wisdom which is to reproaches or ill usage; by which if a man be hastily be exercised in business, upon various occasions. inflamed, he exposes his folly, and makes it apparent And he applies it particularly to a man's behato every body.

viour towards a prince, or other great person, Ver. 30. A sound heart is the life of the flesh; but when he is angry with him.

“ Two things," envy, the rottenness of the bones.] There is nothing saith he, “ Solomon advises in this case ; the one is, conduces more to health and happiness, than a quiet, That an answer be made, the other, that it be soft. gentle, and contented mind; but envy, and such like the first of which contains three precepts. First, fretful passions, is as miserable a torment and con That you beware of a sad and sullen silence, which suming disease, as rottenness in the bones.

either charges the fault wholly upon yourselves, or Ver. 31. He that oppresseth the poor, reproacheth bis impeaches your master of injustice, as if his ears Maker; be that honoureth bim, hath mercy on the poor.] were not open to a just defence. Secondly, That

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