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quickness of dispatch in the execution of com spoil the soul of those that spoiled them.] For all causes mands hath nothing in it that doth not please. shall be heard over again, by a higher Judge, even The motions also of the mind of kings are swift, the Lord himself, who will do them right, and force and not very patient of delays. For they imagine their spoilers to pay dearly for the wrong they have they can do any thing ; this only being wanting, done them, for which nothing less than their life that it be done out of hand. Upon which account, shall make satisfaction. above all other qualities, celerity is to them most Ver. 24. Make no friendship with an angry. man : acceptable."
and with a furious man thou shalt not go.] And as
there is nothing more necessary than a friend, so a Ver. 17. Bow down thine ear, and bear the words principal point of wisdom consists in the choice of
of the wise, and apply tiine beurt into my him, concerning which, observe this rule among o. enowledge.] And now let me extort thee again, (iv. thers, not to enter into any familiarity with a man 20. v. 1.), whosoever thou art that readest these prone to anger; and the more furious he is, .be so things, to attend diligently, and consider seriously, all much the more cautious of being drawn along with the counsels and precepts which wise and good men him into any company. Sec Arg. [h] have delivered ; and in particular, let me prevail for
Lest thou learn bis ways, and get a snare an affectionate application of thy mind to the know to thy soul.] For it will be a very, hard matter to preledge which I impart unto thee.
serve ihyself in good temper, when he is out of huVer. 18. For it is a pleasant thing if thou keep them mour ; but thy very kindness to him will make thee within thee; they shall withal be find in thy lips.] feel the same commotion ; nay, bring thy very life For it will give thee most high satisfaction if thou into great danger, by being engaged in all his quardost so heartily entertain them, and thoroughly digest rels. them, and faithfully preserve them in mind, that Ver. 26. Be not thou one of them that strike bands, thou art able withal to produce any of them as there or of them that are "süreties for debts.] And do not is occasion, and aptly communicate thein for other keep company with those who are forward to pass men's instruction.
their word, and give security for the payment of other Ver. 19. That thy trust may be in the LORD, I have men's debts, lest, they draw thee into such dangemade known to thee this day, even to thee.] For what rous engagements, (vi. 1. xi. 15.), especially when greater satisfaction can there be, than to have a good thou hast no estate to answer the debt for which thou hope in God, and to be well assured of his gracious art bound. See Arg. [i] providence over thee? which is the very end for Ver. 27. If thou hast nothing to pay, why should he which I now declare these things to thee; that if thou take away thy bed from under thee?] For it will highhast been negligent before, yet now at length thou, ly incense the creditor when he falls upon thee, to even thou, mayst: know the way to happiness, and find thou art not so able a man, as thou madest a shew shew it unto others.
of to him, and so provoke him to pull away the very Ver. 20. Have not I written to thee excellent things bed from under thee, when thou art in it, and leave in counsel and knowledge :] Think of it seriously, thee shamefully and wretchedly upon the ground; for and deny if thou canst, that I have taken more ways why should any man have so little care of his own than one for thy information, and have set down good, as thus to expose himself to such miserable most excellent rules, and those well considered with straits for the sake of another? great exactness and care, for thy conduct both in Ver, 28. Remove not the ancient land-mark which public, and in a private state of life. See Arg. [f] thy fathers have set.] Be content with thy own estate,
Ver, 21. That I might make thee know the certainty and do not seek to enlarge it by invading other men's of the words of truth; that thou mightest answer the possessions ; especially those to which they have an words of truth to them that send unto thee?] That unquestionable right, having enjoyed them by long thou mightest not only have a certain, firm, and solid prescription, and by the consent of thy forefathers, knowledge, of all those truths that are necessary for whose constitutions ought to be had in great venerathee, but be able also to give -sound advice to those tion. See Arg. [k] that send 10 consult thee; and be fit to manage the Ver. 29. Seest thou a man diligent in his business? most difficult affairs, to the satisfaction of them that he shall stand before kings, he shall not stand before mean employ thee in an embassy.
men.] Mark a man that is not rash, but yet quick Ver. 22. Rob not the poor, because he is poor ; neither and dextrous in the dispatch of any business he is oppress the afflicted in the gate.] And besides those charged withal; and thou mayest foretell that he instructions already given, remember these that fol- shall not long continue obscure, in some private and low: Never abuse thy power to the spoiling of him mean family, but be taken notice of, and preferred that is in a mean condition, because he is unable to re to the service of his prince, in some public minissist thee; but especially do not undo him there where try, he hopes for relief, by denying him justice, much less by false accusations, when he comes into the pub
CHAP. XXIII. lic courts of judgement, (2 Sam, xv. 2.). See Arg.
THE ARGUMENT.-[a] As the foregoing Chapter Ver. 23. For the LORD will plead their cause, and concludes with an observation concerning the qua
lity of a person, who is most likely to come to throat ;" which, though it be not so easy a construc-
Whose inconstancy he sets forth by the fight of [b] But especially he must be sure to have a command an eagle ; which of all other birds is observed to
over his tongue, (which Melanchon takes to be the fly swiftest and highest into heaven, (as Solomon meaning of putting a knife to his throat, ver. 2.), here speaks), or into the clouds, (as other authors), that it take not too much liberty, and that he speak that is, quite out of sight. Whence it is that, God nothing rashly; which may undo him, as it did saying he carried the Israelites out of Egypt upon Clitus, whom Alexander slew at a feast, for con eagles' wings, Exod. xix. 4. R. Solonion (upon tradicting him too freely. He cites many admo Exod. xii. 37:) took a conceit that they went an nitions out of the poets, concerning this danger; hundred and twenty miles in one hour; for so far concluding with that counsel which Æsop gave Sv. it was from Ramases to Succoth.
Which though lon, when he was going to Creesus; speak to a king, it be but an idle fancy, yet there was this foundamas M'x154, nes idosa, either as little, or as sweet, as tion for it ; that the scripture expresses the swiftest is possible.
motion by that of the eagles. So Saul and JonaBut this is too narrow a sense of that phrase,
put a than, who were strong and excellent racers, pursuknife to thy throat;" thougli it be a part of it. For ing the enemies with great speed, are said to have it expresses the exceeding great caution a man been swifter than eagles, 2 Sam. i. 23. And such should use at a feast, lest he exceed his bounds in were they who pursued Zedekiah, and the people eating and drinking ; wherein he should be as care of Judah, when they fled out of Jerusalem, in hope ful as he is of cutting his throat; which many have to make an escape, Lam. iv. 19. Hab. i. 8. comin effect done by intemperance ; whereby some have pared with 2 Kings, XXV. 4. 5 And thus other urterly destroyed their healths at last, and others nations represent it, as Bochartus observes out of fallen into such a liberty of speech, as hath on a Cicero, who tells us out of Chrysippus, that when sudden cost them their lives. Be as afraid, there a racer dreamed he was turned into an eagle, an infore, saith the wise man, of running into excess, (of terpreter told him, Vicisti, ista enim ave volat nulla which thou art in great danger at a great table, if
velocius. thou hast a great stomach), as if thy knife where. [e] Next to covetousness he condemns envy, as Me. with thou cuttest thy meat, would certainly cut thy lanction and others understand, ver. 6. &c. or rathroat, if thou eatest too much. In short, he ad ther such covetousness as makes men sordid; vises a man to affright himself from intemperance, whence arises indeed that part of envy, which diswhere is a great temptation to it.
poses a man to grudge every thing to his neighbour, There are those indeed that take the first particle, ve, though he would be thought liberal, which I pass
in the beginning of the verse, to signify as much as by only with this note of that good man ; that a otherwise ; and the meaning to be, “if thou dost singulir diligence ought to be used, in observing not curb thy appetite, but let loose its reins to eat and finding out the dispositions and inclinations of and drink as much as it desireti, it will ex, rose o heis, that we may know whom to avoid, and thee to as certain danger, as if a knife' were at thy whom to consort withal. And (according as he
understands the beginning of the next verse, yer. cess. Whereby innumerable diseases are bred in 7.) there is none worse than the man now mention. the body, the reason for the present suffocated, and ed, who hath a spectre or satyr in his soul ; so he the most absurd affections stirred up; which change renders it, mistaking Schaar for Saar; which are men for the time into beasts. Some into lions, as widely different. And this word Schaar, being Bochartus glosses, (!. ii. c. X. p. 2.); witness used only here in this place, bath raised a great Alexander, who killed bis dearest friend in his cups, deal of difficulty, whence to derive it; which I and Herod, who after a feast condemned the great shall not trouble the reader withal, the sense being servant of God, John the Baptist, (whom he him. well enough expressed in our translation, and in self highly reverenced), to be beheaded; others in. short is this, " He is not what he seems;" his to dogs, as Nabal, whọ most rudely and churlishly thoughts differ much from his words; and therefore barked at David, to whom he had great obligations, do not believe what he saith, but mark the dis when he was in drink ; others into hogs, wallowing covery he makes of his inward thoughts, which in filthy pleasures ; as Lot, who defiled himself with are so sordid, that he is detestable, as some render incest, when he was not himself; nay, it throws the phrase, or stinkingly basę.
men down below the beasis, who drink no more (tj of envy at the prosperous estate of wicked men, than needs, and never excite their thirst by art, but which makes others wish themselves in their con only follow the directions of nature. All which, dition, though it be by imitating their wickedņess, if any man consider, he will easily allow of what he speaks afterwards, ver. 17. From wheace to Solomon says, that it “ bites like a serpent," &c. the 25th chapter, most of the precepts are admoni. that is, doth more mischief than can be repaired. tions proper for parents to give their children ; that For the wound which the basilisk gives, is said by they may know what to eschew; particularly Avicenna to be incurable ; and the writers of his drunkenness and whoredom, (of which he speaks nation' say, it doth hurt even by its looks and hiss. in this chapter), and such company as may entiee ing, as that author before named relates, cap. ix. them to be so lewdly wicked. And in order here And so Solomon immediately represents the effects unto, to implant in their minds a due esteem of wis of drunkenness to be such, that they make a man dom, as infinitely to be preferred before all earthly şenseless, and perfectly stupid ; and consequently treasures. This be inserts in the middle, between incorrigible, though he suffer never so sadly by it, the cautions against drunkenness and whoredom, ver. 34. 35. “ As if this poison made a mortifica[g] ver. 23.; upon which the Lord Bison hath pass. tion in the whole man, for which there is no ed this remark, that the wise man judged it reason remedy." able, that“ riches should be employed to get learn. ing, and not learning be applied to gather up Ver. 1. WHEN tbou sittest to eat with a ruler, conriches.”
sider diligently what is before tbee.] [h] S. Chrysostom's observation concerning an harlot, When a prince, or a very great person, doth thee the
(Hom. xiv. ad Pop. Antioch.), most excellently ex honour to admit theę to his table, be not transported plains, ver. 27.28. that nogri Pisão brisat) and in iowasúd with such vain joy, as to remit the seriousness of thy kórov, " a whore understands nothing of love or friend- mind; but remember thou art in danger, if thou hast ship, but only, of the art of enveigling. Her heart not thy wits about thee to direct thy behaviour ; lest is never sensible of true affection, but is made up thou touch any thing, which perhaps was reserved of wiles to deceive and entrap men unto their un- only for the prince's own eating, of demean thyself doing. And if the danger do not appear, she is the indecently towards him, or towards any of the guests more to be avoided, ori sgléseks 7" of gor, &c. be or waiters at the table. See Arg. [a] cause she covers the destruction, and hides the Ver. 2. And put a knife to thy throat, if thou be a death ; and takes care it shall not presently come man given to appetite.] Especially lest thou speak too into the sight of him, whom she ensnares into freely, which may hazard thy undoing ; for the preit.
vention of which, keep thy mind as sharp as thine [i] In the conclusion of the chapter, he resumes his appetite, and affright thyself from intemperance in discourse about drunkenness and represents at language, as well as in eating; of which there is the large the dismal effects of it in so lively a manner, greater danger, if thou hast a greedy desire of meat as may well deter any man that reads it seriously and drink. See Arg. [b] from being too busy with wine. Which, he saith Ver. 3. Be not desirous of his dainties ; for they are in conclusion, bites like a serpent, and stings like a deceitful meat.) Most especially when exquisite delibasilisk ; (so Bochartus hath proyed we ought to cacies are set before thee; which are so tempting, translate the word Tripboni, which we render ad- that it is a piece of wisdom not to be too forward to der); whence it was that Tatianus, the Encratites accept of such invitations; or being there, to content and Manichees, called wine “the gall of the dragon, thyself with the plainest dish; for it was not kindness, and the venom of the old serpent ;” and would not but design perhaps, which called thee thither; or thou taste a drop of it, no, not in the holy communion, mayest be easily enticed by such daințies to over-eat Not considering what lies open and obvious to every thyself, body's eyes, that there is no hurt in the thing itself, Ver. 4. Labour not to be rich i cease from thine own (which is a singular divine benefit), but in our ex. wisdom.] Do not trouble thyself with restless and
tiresome labours to get a great estate ; be not too these to be slight admonitions, which need not much
for if thou beatest bim with the rol, be sball not die.]
Ver. 14. Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt Ver. 6. Eat tbou not the bread of bim that hath an deliver bis soul froin hell.] Do not turn over this basi. evil eye ; neither desire tbou bis dainty meats.] Receive ness to another, but do it thyself, which may save no obligations from a sordid man; but though he in, the public oflicers the labour ; nay, by making his site thee to a feast, (which he may perhaps make some. body smart for his faults, both body and soul may be times for ostentation's sake), let not the good cheer delivered from utter destruction. tempt thee to accept his invitation. . See Arg. [e] Ver. 15. My son, if thine beart- be wise, my heart
Ver. 7. For as he thinketh in bis heart, so is be; eat and shall rejoice, even mine.] Bat mix the kindest exhorArink, saith be to tbee, but his heart is not with thee.] For, tations and intreaties with this discipline, saying : My even then, when he would be thought most free and
ge dear child, if thou hast any love for me, who was the nerous, he is not able to dissemble the baseness of his instrument of bringing thee into the world, be serious, mind, which expresses itself in bis very looks; where and heartily in love with wisdom and goodness, which by he shews that when he prays thee to feed hearti.. will give me, me I say, (not to mention now thy ly, he would rather thou wouldst let it alone, and own happiness), a joy incomparably greater than all Thioks thou eatest and drinkest a great deal too orher. much.
Ver. 16. Yea, my reins shall rejoice, when thy lips Ver. 8. The morsel which thou hast eaten, shalt thou speaé right things.] A joy that may be better felt cómit up, and lose thy sweet words.]. Which will make than expressed; diffusing itself all over me, and mathee so nauseate, as to be ready to bring up again king my mind triumph when I hear no ill words come every bit thou hast eaten ; and to repent of the com out of thy mouth, but only discourses of the right mendations thou hast bestowed on his entertainment; way to be happy. or the thranks thou hast returned to him for it; or the Ver. 17. Let not thine beart envy sinners ; but be wholesome discourse thou hast interspersed' at the thou in the fear of the LORD all the day long.) In which table; for it is all perfectly lost upon him.
that thou mayest always tread, be not offended at the Ver. 9. Speak not in the ears of a fool; for he will prosperity of the wicked ; much less vex and fretthydespise the wisdom of thy words.] And indeed it is self into an imitation of them, but maintain perpe. good advice, not to speak of any serious thing to such, tually an awful sense of God in thy mind; which is the stupid fools; for be thy discourse never so ingenious, best preservative against envy and all other sins, if prudent, or instructive, they will not only reap no thou perseverest constantly in it. See Arg. [f] profit by it, but despise and perhaps laugh at it. Ver. 18. For surely there is an enit, and ibine expec
Ver. 10. Remove not the old land-mark; and enter tation sball not be cut off.] Which there is great sea. not into the fields of the fatherless.). What was said be-, son thou shouldst; for be assured, though thou art af. fore, (xxii. 28.), of not removing the ancient boun-, flicted for the present, the time will come, when thou daries, understand with a peculiar respect to fatherless shalt not only be delivered, but rewarded for thy pachildren; whose possessions be not tempted to invade, tience; expect it confidently, if the fear of the Lord because they are in their infancy, and do not under- make thee persist in faithfut obedience to him ; for it stand the wrong that is done them; or are utterly un shall not be in the power of man to disappoint thee able to defend or to right themselves.
of thy hope; but thou shalt certainly flourish when those Ver. 11. For tbeir Redeemer is mighty; be shall plead wicked men shall hang down their heads and perish. their cause with thee.] For; if their guardians and Ver. 19. Hear tbou, my son, and be wise, and guide friends be. careless of their concerns, or afraid to op-. thine heart in the way.) And more particularly, my pose thy proceedings, they have a protector, who dear child, be advised by me to study this piece of neither wants power nor courage to recover their wisdom, and to follow closely and heartily this direc. right; and will undoubtedly assert it, and condemn tion which I commend to thee. tliee to make them ample satisfaction, xxii. 23.
Ver. 20. Be not among wine-bibbers, among riot. Ver. 12. Apply ibine heart unto instruction, and cus eaters of flesh.] I know how greedy youth is of thine ears to the words of knowledge.] And do not think pleasure, and in what danger to be corrupted by it; VOL. II.
therefore avoid the society of drunkards and gluttons, to thee, is no better than a high-way robber, who and take heed of all excess in eating and drinking. will watch all opportunities to make a prey of thee;
Ver. 21. For the drur:kard and the glutton shall come and is of no other use in the world, which already to poverty ; and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags.] is too bad, but to make it worse, by increasing the For, besides that it is an enemy to wisdoin, it brings number of lewd, disloyal, and faithless men. See men to poverty, which is the cominon effect of re. Arg.  velling, feasting, and riotous living ; for that is wont Ver.
29. W bo bath woe? wbo bath sorrow? who to be attended also with laziness, carelessness, and ne hath contentions ? aho bath babbling? who katb wounds glect of all business, which necessarily reduces men without cause ? who hath redness of eyes?] And if to extreme beggary.
thou intendest to avoid such women, then (as I said Ver. 2 2. Hearken unto thy father that begot thee, end de before, ver. 20 ) avoid intemperance, the lamentable spise not thy mother when she is old.] Be obejieut to this effects of which are so many, that it is a hard matter to counsel, which is given thee by thy father, who loves enumerate them ; for if thou considerest, who they are thee, and hath had longer experience of tlie world' that run' themselves into all manner of mischiefs, that than thou, and, by bringing thee into it, hath power to are never out of danger, but are engaged, for instance, command thee; and do not slight (as the manner is) in quarrels, disturbing the neighbourhood by their what thy mother saith, because she is a woman, much noise and tumult, and fighting, and are wounded, not less because she is grown old, which ought to make for the safety of their country, but for 'frivolous her advice the more regarded by thee.
causes, look deformedły, and spoil their very coun. Ver. 23. Buy the truth, and sell it not ; also wisdom, tenancer: and instruction, and understanding.] Spare no cost nor Ver. 30. They that tarry long at the wine, they tbat pains to acquire the knowledge of what is true and go to scek mixed wine.] Thou wilt find they are such as false, good and bad, and do not think there is any are so in love with wine, that they neither willingly thing of equal price unto it, though it were to get stir from it, nor content themselves with the ordinary never so much money, or the highest honours; but sort; but make a diligent search for the richest and prefer wisdom and virtue, and the means that instruct' most generous liquors, thee how to attain it, and to make thee able to do - Ver. 31. Look not thot upon the wine when it is red, good to others, infinitely before them all." See Arg. when it giveth his colour in the cup, when it nioveth 
itself aright ] Therefore' do not believe thy senses Ver. 24. The father of the righteous s?all greatly merely, but consider the power and effects of wine ; rejoice ; and be that begetteth a wise child, shail bave and when thou seest how bright it looks, and how it
joy of lim.] For there is no greater joy a parent can sparkles in the glass, when it tastes most gratefully, and have, than to see his son take virtuous courses; which goes down smoothly, let it not entice thee to excess. as it is the only wisdom, so gives both parents and Ver. 32, At the last it biteth like a serpent, and children the highest pleasure and satisfaction. stingeth like an adder.) But remember, that the pleaVer. 25. Thy father and thy mother shall be glad, sure will be attended at last with intolerable pains
, and she that bare thee shall rejoice.] Let not thy fa- when it works like so much poison in the veins, and ther and mother, then, want this singular pleasure ; casts thee into diseases, as hard to cure as the biting of but by thy well-doing fill the heart of her that bare a serpent, or the stinging of a basilisk. See Arg. [i] thee with joy and triumph; who for all the pains and Ver. 33. Thine eyes shall behold strange women, and care she hath had in thy birth, and about thy educa- thine beurt shall utter perverse things.] Thy thoughts tion, desires to other requital but only this.
will not only grow confused, and all things appear to Ver. 26. My son, give me thine beart, and let thine thee otherwise than they are, but lustful, nay aduli'yes
observe my ways.] And more especially, my dear' terous desires will be stirred up, which thou canst not child, let me prevail with thee also to apply thy mind rule, and thy mouth, being without a bridle, will affectionately to this following instruction ; and let break forth into unseemly, nay filthy, scurrilous, or thy thoughts be very intent and fixed upon it ; that perhaps blasphemous language, without respect to thou mayest preserve thyself in the practice of those God or man. virtues to which I have directed thee.
Ver. 34. Yea, thou shalt be as be that lietb down in Ver. 27. For an whore is a deep ditch, and a strange the midst of the sea, or as be that lieth upon the top of a womar is a narrow pit.] Estrange thyself from har. mast.] And, which is worst of all, thou wilt grow so lots, as much as they are estranged from God; for perfectly senseless, that thy most important business (as I have told thee before, xxii. 14.) thou art utterly will not only lie neglected, but thou wilt sottishly run undone, if thou fallest in league with a whore, who thyself into the extremest hazards, without any apwill never be satisfied with all the money thou canst prehension of danger; being no more able to direct give her ; and yet, such are her arts, notwithstand- thy course than a pilot who snorts when a ship is ing all the straits and hardships thou shalt suffer by tossed in the midst of the sea ; or to take notice of her, it will be liard matter, when thou art once en. the peril thou' art in, than he tha: falls asleep on the gaged, to get quit of her.
top of the mast, wliere he was set to kcep the watch. Ver. 28. She also lieth in wait as for a prey, and in Ver. 35. They have stricken me, sbalt tbou say, and creaseth the transgressors among men. She is not what I was not sick ; tbey bave beaten me, and I felt í not ; she appears, but, whatsoever lore she may pretend when shall I awake? I will seek it gei again.] And,