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not the proper sense of the place, but rather an ac Ver. 3. I sought in mine heart to give myself into commodation of the words to another profitable wine, (yet acquainting mine beart with wisdom), and to purpose.
lay hold on folly, till I might see what was ibat good,
for the sons of men, wbich they should do under the bea. CHAP. II.
ven all the days of their life. ] I deliberated, therefore,
with myself, about a middle course of life'; which THE ARGUMENT.-Having passed his censure upon should neither be altogether studious, nor altogether
the first way men take to find satisfaction, (mention- voluptuous, but a mixture of both ; and, in pursuance ed in the notes upon ver. 12. of the first chapter), of this counsel, entertained myself freely with all the which without all contradiction is the chief and the delights of feasting and banqueting ; yet so as not to. best of the four; he proceeds here to consider the lose my acquaintance with wisdom, but to keep my second, which is the more common ; most men im- mind so intent upon it, that folly might not have iis mersing themselves in pleasure, as their highest full swing; but find a check upon it, till I might make good. Of which he was more capable to judge a sufficient trial, whether herein lay that so much dethan any other man ; because he denied himself no sired good which men should propose to themselves, delights that he desired, and yet did not plunge him- and prosecute all the time of their stay in this world. self wholly into them, but with a mixture of wis. See Annot. [C] dom, as he tells us, ver. 3. Whereby he soon per Ver. 4. I made me great works; I builded me houses ; ceived that they who leave the pursuit of know. I planted me vineyards ;] For which end I raised, with ledge for the sake of bodily pleasure, change for exquisite art, the most stately and magnificent works the worse ; for after he had tried all sorts of things that could be contrived, for the pleasure of all the that could give him any pleasure, he went back to senses; as first of all, I built myself a most magnifiwisdom and knowledge, as the better of the two, cent palace, and other goodly houses; which, when I
And yet, after he had considered that had elegantly adorned and sumptuously furnished, I again the second time, he could not but confess, proceeded to plant about them, in a beautiful order, that there were such great imperfections in it, that the choicest vines, (Cant, viii. 11.), which, besides it could not make a man happy; as he discourses the fragrant smell, (Cant. ii. 13.), and the lovely in the following verses. Of which I shall give a sight wherewith they entertained me abroad, afforded inore particular account in the annotations.
the most generous wines for my table at home. See
thee with mirth, therefore enjoy pleasure ; planted trees in them of all kind of fruits;] To which and behold, this also is vanity.] Being thus disap- I added delicious gardens, full of various flowers, pointed, therefore, in the expectations I had of hap- herbs, and plants, for all the seasons of the year; and piness from much wisdom and knowledge, and be- then spacious forests and parks, or rather paradises of holding many men look jollily who had none at all, pleasure, wherein, besides other delights, were lovely I resolved to leave oil those troublesome cares and shades and covers for all sorts of beasts; nor were labours, and to follow my pleasures; saying to myself, orchards wanting, stored with all kinds of fruit-trees, Why dost thou vex and torment thy mind to no pure which either this or other countries could afford. pose? Let alone these crabbed studies which hasten See Annot. [e] old age, and indulge thyself in all those sweet delights Ver. 6. I made me pools of water, to water therewith which youth desires ; try what satisfaction mirth and the wood that bringeth forth trees;] And that nothing joy can give thee, and for that end, take no thought might be wanting to the perfection or preservation of for the future, but enjoy to the height the present these places, I made, with great charge, and no less goods of this life: which accordingly I did; but be. art, either fountains, or cisterns, or pools of water; lieve me, though this promised much at first, it per- not only for delight, and for fish, but to serve instead formed little, but left me more void of contentment of rain, to water the flowers and herbs, especially the than it found me. See Annot. [a]
young nurseries of trees, that they might not die with Ver. 2. I said of laughter, It is mad; and of mirtb, drought. See Annot.  W bat doth it?] For the noise, the tumult, the inde Ver. 7. I got me servants, and maidens, and had sercent motions, and scurrilous jestings of men, that let vants born in my house ; also I had great possessions of themselves loose to excessive laughter, and extrava- great and small cattle, above all that were in Jerusalem gant merriment, appeared to me like distraction of before me ;] All which requiring the care of a great inind; and considering how un profitable it is, I could many persons, I purchased servants, both men and wonot but with a passionate disdain put it from me; men, in great abundance ; of whom I had a multitude saying of it, and of mirth and dancing, and all the of children born in my house, whom I employed in frolicness of mankind, What is there in it, that thus be looking after my other possessions, which I had in witcheth them? Where lies the pleasure, that thus in- herds and flocks, of greater and lesser cattle ; which chants them, and puts them so beside themselves, that were so numerous, that I killed every day for my fathey think neither of God, nor of any thing else that mily, ten oxen crammed in the stalls, and twenty oxen is worthy of them, but of this alone? See Annot. out of the pastures, with an hundred sheep, (besides [b]
harts, and roe-bucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl,
Ver. 1: I
to say nothing of other provision, 1 Kings, iv. 22. 23.); leave this observation behind me, that all this is empand yet such was the plenty, my stock did not decrease, ty and unsatisfying to the spirit of man; and there is because a new brood grew up continually in such a- also much vexation and torment in it, to see how cross bundance, as the like had never been seen in our coun. things go many times to our, desires, how negligent try before my days. See Annot. 
they are who should look after such great works as Ver. 8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and the mine were ; but especially in this, that a man can reap peculiar treasure of kings, and of the provinces; I gat me so little benefit, and so transient, from such vast and men-singers, and women-singers, and the delights of the long labours, chap. i. ver. 3. 14. See Annot.  sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.] Ver. 12. And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and By which and divers other means, (1 Kings, iv. 21. madness, and folly; for what can the man do that cometh x. 21. 22. 23. &c. 2 Chron. ix. 24.), I laid up vast after the king? even that which has been already done} treasures of silver, and gold, and jewels, and all that Wherefore I began to reflect upon my former thoughts, was choice and precious in other kingdoms; and espe- and to turn them back again towards wisdom, as the cially in those provinces which were subject unto me, only good of man, chap. i. ver. 13. 17. and especially which were great and many, (1 Kings, iv. 24.), out that wisdom which moderates our pleasures, and keeps of whom I picked also the sweetest voices that them from running into madness and folly, (and who could be found, both of men and women ; together is there that can give a better account of this than I? with the rarest songs and hymns composed by the best who have had such advantages above any private man masters in the world, and all sorts of instruments of to know the history of former times, as well as of my music; than which nothing is more charming among own, that I am confident, they who come after can the children of men, either to lay them asleep when pass no other judgement upon things than I do they would go to rest, or to recreate their spirits when now.) they are tired with business; to banish melancholy Ver. 13. Then I saw that wisdom excelleth folly, as when they are oppressed with sorrow, and to augment far as light excelleth darkness.] For I clearly discerntheir pleasures when they would be merry ; being ed, that there is as wide a difference between wisdom no less fit to wait upon feasts, than they that attend and folly, as there is between the light of the sun, at the table. See Annot. [h]
which beautifies the whole world, and shews all things Ver. 9. So I was great, and increased more than all distinctly to us, and the darkness of the night, which that were before me in Jerusalem ; also my wisdom re wraps up all in dismat confusion, and hides even our mained with me.] Thus I was not only great in place, dangers from us. and power, and riches, but by such means as these, Ver. 14. The wise man's eyes are in his head, but the added splendour also to my greatness, and made it more fool walketh in darkness; and I myself perceived also, conspicuous and illustrious'; and (which is still more that one event happenetb to them all.] Whence it is, glorious) I was not greater in any thing than in wis- that a wise man, having this light in his mind, looks dom; which was not undermined by all these plea- before him, and round about him; which makes him sures, but when they were in danger to dethrone my cautious and well aware of dangers, into which a reason, this settled it again in its former state and blundering fool, whose mind is blinded with the authority: See Annot. [i]
sottish love of pleasure, falls rashly and inconsiderateVer. 10. And whatsoever mine eyes desired, I kept not ly; and yet, with all his circumspection, (so imperfect from them, I with-hekl not my heart from any joy; for ' are all things here, in which we place our happiness), my heart rejoiced in all my labour, and this was my por- the wisest man is not able to avoid a great many cation of all my labour.] And on the other side, my lamities, which are common to the whole race of wisdom did not lay such restraints upon me, but that mankind. I took the liberty to please my eyes, and all my senses, Ver. 15. Then said I in my heart, As it happeneth to with every thing that fell within the wide compass of the fool, so it bappeneth even to me ; and ouby was I then their desires ; it did not deny me any joy to which I more wise ? Then I said in my heart, that this also as had a mind, but taught me rather to reap this as the vanity.] Which reflection made me sigh, and think sweet fruit of all my labours ; there being nothing (it with myself, if, notwithstanding this excellence of wisshewed me) that came to my share, of all that I had dom above folly, the very same diseases, loss of chil. gotten with so much care and diligence, but only the dren and friends, and innumerable casualties, happen free enjoyment of it, without which I had as good unto me, even unto me who know so much, that there have been without it. See Annot. [k]
do unto a fool, to what purpose have I taken all this Ver. 11. Then I looked on all the works that my pains, and studied so hard to be wiser than he ? And hands bad wrought, and on the labour that I had labour- upon this review of all that wisdom can and cannot ed to do ; and bebold, all was vanity and vexation of do for us, I concluded again the second time, that there spirit
, and there was no profit under the sun.] But then, is a vanity also in this, which makes it incapable of after I had considered seriously, how small a thing giving us full satisfaction. See Annot. [m] this pleasure was, how short, and how often interrupt Ver. 16. For there is no remembrance of the wise ed, and laid in the balance against it all the time I more than of the fool for ever ; seeing that which now is, in had spent, and the pains I had taken in contriving these the days to come shall be forgotten , and how dieth the wise magnificent buildings, gardens, paradises, and all the man as the fool.] For as both wise and foolish are sest, it seemed to me as nothing; and I cannot but alike subject unto death, so, when they are dead, their
names live not long after them, but they and all their happened to others may to me, who have observed a famous atchievements are forgotten ; there being few man no way defective, either in wise contrivance, or of those things which are now done, that will be so prudent management, or upright dealing, but as emis much as thought of in the next generation ; much less nent for honesty as he was for diligence; whose in future ages, when the memory of them will be utestate fell to the share of an idle person, nay, of an terly lost, and cannot be recovered ; and is not this a ignorant, silly, unjust, and ungrateful wretch; who lamentable case, that a wise man hath no more privin prodigally consumed upon his lusts, that which cost lege than a fool, either from death, or from its insepa- him no pains, not so much as a thougbt, to acquire. rable companion, oblivion? See Annot. [n]
This likewise, it cannot be denied, is not only a disVer. 17. Therefore I bated life, because the work tbat satisfaction, but a torment, nay, a great torment, to the is wrought under i be sun is grievous unto me ; for all is mind of man ; vanity and vexation of spirit.] This put me quite out Ver. 22. For what hath man of all bis labour, and of of love with life, because the toil and labour of it is the vexotion of bis heart, wherein be bath laboured under so great and grievous, and the pleasure it yields either the sun ?] Who may well say, To what purpose is interrupted and spoiled by many unforeseen accidents, all this toil of my body, and these solicitous thoughts or quite taken away by death, which leaves no foot- and anguish of my mind ? For all that a man can en. steps of us behind us; for nothing is constant or of joy himself of the anxious laboars wherein he spends long continuance, nothing solid, nothing satisfactory his days, amounts to little or nothing; and what comhere, but all our enjoyinents leave us as empty as he fort hath he in thinking who shall enjoy the fruit of that feeds only upon the wind; nay, it torments us to them hereafter ? see that we must take great pains too, for such weak Ver. 23. For all bis days are sorrows, and his trasail and fading things, chap. i. 14.
grief; yea, bis heart taketb no rest in tbe night. This Ver. 18. 9 Yea, I hated all my labour which I had is also vanity.) And yet, such is our folly, there is taken under the sun, because I should leave it unto the no end of our cares; for we see many a man whose man that sball be after me.] | And besides all this, there life is nothing but a mere drudgery, who never is at are other reasons which made me despise all those 'leisure to enjoy any thing that he hath, but still engoodly structures which I had erected, and those gaged in one troublesome employment or other to get beautiful works which I had contrived, (ver. 4. 5. 6. more; which he follows so eagerly, as if it were his &c.), because, as I cannot keep them long myself, so business to disquiet and vex himself, and make his I must leave them to I know not whom, to a stranger life uneasy to him ; being not content with his daily perhaps, who, without any pains of liis, enjoys the toils, unless he rack his mind also with cares in the fruit of all my labour.
night, which invites him to take some rest. This is Ver. 19. And wbo knoweth whether he shall be a so void of all reason, that nothing can be imagined wise man, or a fool ? yet shall be bave rule over all my more vain and foolish. labour, wherein I have laboured, and wherein I bave Ver. 24. 4 There is nothing better for a man, than be shewed myself wise under the sun. This is also vanity.] should eat and drink, and that he should make bis soul Or if my son succeed me in the possession of them, enjoy good in his labour. This also I saw, that it was there is no man can assure me, whether he will wise- from the hand of God.] | Nor can any man reap the ly preserve and improve what I have gotten, or fool benefit of his labours, but by studying first to free his ishly squander all away ; in short, whether he will' mind from over much care and anxious thoughts; and prove a worthy or an unworthy inheritor of my la- then, (instead of heaping up perpetually for his heirs), vours; and yet, such as he is, he must have an abso- by allowing himself a moderate and decent use of all lute power over all that I leave, to dispose of it as he that he hath gotten by his honest labours ; chearfully pleaseth ; and sottishly, perhaps, to waste in a little communicating them with his friends and neighbours; time, what I with prudent care and diligence have and lastly, in order to these), by being truly and debeen heaping up all my life long. This is a great voutly religious, acknowledging God to be the donor addition to human misery, and renders even the study of all good things; from whose bountiful hand proof wisdom very vain, which cannot find a remedy for ceeds even this power, both to enjoy all a man bath, these evils.
with a quier, peaceable, and well.pleased mind, in the Ver. 20. Therefore I went about to cause my heart to midst of all troubles of this life ; and, in conclusion, to despair of all the labour which I took under the sun.] leave all with the like mind, unto those that shall come Which are so great, that, instead of pursuing my de- after him. signs for this world, I turned my thoughts the quite Ver. 25. For who can eat, or wbo else can baster contrary way; and, like one perfectly tired, I conclu- bereunto, more than 1?] For the truth of which, you ded it best to leave off all farther cares about any thing may rely upon my experience; who, when I could Here ; despairing to reap any satisfaction from all my have hoarded up as much as any other man, chose labours, particularly to attain any certainty what kind rather freely to enjoy the fruit of my labours ; ind of man he will be who shall inherit them.
was as forward to spend, as ever I was to get; but must Ver. 2t. For there is a man whose labour is in wis- acknowledge this to be the singular grace of God to dom, and in knowledge, and in equity ; yet 10 a man that me; who preserved me from that great folly of neBath not laboured therein, shall be leave it for his portion. glecting myself, for the sake of I know not whom.
This also is vanity, and a great evil.] For what hath Ver. 26. For God giveth to a man that is good in bis
sight, wisdom, and knowledge, and joy ; but to the sinner [e] Ver. 5. Gardens.] The Hebrew word genneth, be givelb travail, to gather, and to beap up, that be may some will have to be proper places for flowers, give to him that is good before God. This is alsa vanity herbs, sallets, and all manner of fruit-trees; and veration of spirit.] For this is a blessing which and pardesin, which we translate orchards, to be God reserves for him whom he loves; whose sincere only woods, forests, or parks. Of which there is piety he rewards with wisdom to judge when, and with no certainty ; for this last word, pardesin, is used koowledge to understand how, he should enjoy and but twice more in the holy scripture, and in the take the comfort of all that he hath ; especially with first of those places we translate it forests, Nehem. inward joy, satisfaction of heart, and tranquillity of ii. 8. and in the other, Cant. iv. 13. it signifies 2 mind, in this favour of God to him ; whereby the place where pomegranates grew. And therefore, troublesome affairs of this life are tempered and sea it indifferently signifying either of these, I have soned; but he delivers up him that regards not God expressed both in the paraphrase. And if we to the most cruel tormentor, which are his unsatiable judge of such places by what the Greeks (from desires, and anxious cares, with busy labours and in this word) call a paradise, they were so large as cessant pains to increase his estate without end, and to to comprehend oot only all sorts of trees, both heap up vast treasures, which God disposes afterward fruit-trees and others, (such as cedars, cypress, to those who approve themselves to him, in a pious, &c.), but fountains, and fish-ponds, and aviaries, just, and charitable life, with contented minds.
and walks for all kind of beasts, wild and tame; Now, what a vanity and vexation is this also to a in short, whatsoever could make a place pleasant, sinner, to get riches for those to whom he never de either by nature or art. signed them; nay, it is a sad thought to a good man, [f] Ver. 6. Pools.] The word berecoth, carrying that if his son be not virtuous, the estate he leaves is it the notion of blessing, some interpreters will not likely to prosper with him. See Annot. [o] have it to signify, places filled and supplied by the
great blessing of rain. But there is no reason ANNOTATIONS.
for this limitation, it being as capable to signify
any lake, or large hollowness in the ground, or [a] Ver. 1. Thus Themistocles, Lucullus, and others, upon it, for the reception of water, either from the
(as Melancthon observes), being wearied in their clouds, or from springs, or from rivers, which attendance upon public affairs, by many unprofit are beneficial for sundry uses, as I have expressed able contentions, nay, by the ingratitude of the it in the paraphrase. people, delivered up themselves unto pleasures, as  Ver. 7. Though the word baker properly belong better than ill-bestowed pains.
to oxen and cows, yet we well translate it, the [b] Ver. 2. Laughter.] The censure he passes upon greater sort of cattle, comprehending camels, asses,
this makes it necessary to expound it of such dis &c. In like manner, tzon is commonly used for solute and frantic mirth, as I have mentioned in the sheep, but comprehends goats also, and therefore paraphrase.
is well translated by us, the lesser sort of cattle. [c] Ver. 2. Gave myself.] The word in the Hebrew All which, both great and small, are comprehended
(as the margin of our translation informs the read. under the general word mikneb, which we translate er) imports something of extension, as in other possession. places of scripture, Psal. xxvi. 10.; because, when [h] Ver. 8. Peculiar treasure.] The word segrillah, men indulge themselves very liberally in eating signifies either the things themselves that are rare and drinking, the blood boils and rises, the veins and precious, or the place where such things are
swell, and the skin of the whole body is distended. reposited and kept, viz. a treasury. Lay hold on.] The word signifies not simply to ap- But the greatest difficulty in this verse, and indeed
prehend, but to keep ander restraint what we have in this chapter, is, to tell what is meant by siddalı seized. As the Philistines are said to have taken and siddoth; which he calls, in the conclusion of David (had him in their power) in Gath, in the this description of his magnificence, the delights, title of Psal. lvi. Tbus I have expounded it here, or delicious pleasures of the sons of men. These
as most agreeable to the sense of the place. 1: Bochartus hath probably conjectured to be most [d] Ver. 4. Great works.] Includes all that follows, - excellent compositions in music, or most excel
to the end of ver. 8. consisting either in build lent verses, set by a rare artist among the Phæniings, or in plantations, and water-works belong cians, called Sido, to the most ravishing and melting to them, or in his household, or his stock ing notes. And therefore I have not so much as upon his land; or his exchequer, and magazines ; taken notice of their interpretation, who, deriving or in things that were for mere state and magnifi. these words from an original, signifying spoil and cence, viz. royal furniture, or in great variety of devastation, understand hereby beautiful women, vocal and instrumental music ; to which some add taken captive in the wars, of which the king had a kind of seraglio of the most beautiful women the first choice, as he had of the rest of spoil. that could be found; though for this last there is For there were no wars in his time, till the latter no ground to think it here mentioned, but what lies end of his reign, and then he was rather worsted in two hard words, of which I shall give an ac than victorious. Some indeed, to keep this sense, deunt presently.
derive it from saddaim, the breasts or paps ; be
cause no sinall part of women's beauty (which he could not but conclude again, that there is a they would have to be the delights here spoken vanity in that also. Which is threefold, as there of) consists in the fine shape and decent position • are three ends for which men study wisdom. First, of this part of their body. But this seems to be That they may provide for their safety and securifar fetched, and therefore I have let it, and divers ty ; Secondly, That they may commend their names other interpretations, alone, and only expressed the to posterits; or, Thirdly, That they may leave to sense of our own translation, which takes these their children, what their singular prudence and for musical instruments, and those of such extra great diligence hath gathered together. But all ordinary sweetness, that they left no part of a these, he shews, are vain designs. man's soul untouched, nor room for any other plea [m] Ver. 15. Happened.] For instance, he represure, (so some derive it from a word signifying a sents here, how all mankind, wise and fools, are bundance); and had some regard to the LXX. who alike liable to the same casualties, and many inunderstand it of such as waited upon him at the conveniences; -which are common to every one of table, (cup.bearers, and such like oficers), where us in this life. Which the Lord Bacon (in Book music also was seldom wanting, but made a part of iv. of the: Advancement of Learning, chap. ii.) the entertainment of great persons, as I have ex extends to such considerations as this, That, "in pressed in the paraphrase.
all times, witches and old women, and impostors, [i] Ver. 9. My wisdom remained.] For it was not have been rivals and competitors, in the reputation the manner of great men, in ancient tiine, to pass and opinion of the multitude, with the ablest phytheir feasts only in eating and drinking, and af sicians, and contended with them for the same ter the sottish custom now, to send the cups going cures. Nay, the impostor bears away the prize, round, when all was taken away, but to spend • and virtue lies under the censure ; such is the weak. the time in pleasant, but learned discourses, or ness and credulity of men, they prefer a mountein telling stories, or propounding and resolving bank, or a witch, before a learned physician; questions, which might whet the wit, and form which the poets observed, when they made Esculamen's manners, or open the secrets of nature, pius and Circe, brother and sister, both children and at the same time both refresh and instruct of the sun. And what follows from hence, but the mind. As we see at Sampson's marriage. that physicians say to themselves, as Solomon in feast, he propounded a riddle to be unfolded, another case, It befals to me, as it doth to the concerning the generation of bees, out of the car fool; why should I labour to be more wise? It case of a lion. In Plutarch's Symposiacs, there discourages ther), that is, in their profession.” are abundance of such merry and learned ques- [n] Ver, 16. No remembrance.] And then for the tions resolved. And Athenæus, in his Diepuoso other two, (mentioned above, k), he observes phists, hath excerpt the flower of all arts and au · how short-lived our memorial is, as well as our. thors, poets, philosophers, and historians. In Vir.
selves, ver. 16.17, and that no man can be sure gil also, at the end of his first book of Æneids, who shall inherit his labours, or what kind of perJopas is introduced singing a philosophical song, son he shall be, wise or sottish, good or bad, ver.. (at the feast which Dido made), concerning the 18..19. Which he reflects upon again in the fol. motions of the moon and the sun, and in short of lowing verses with a very heavy heart, that made all that atlas that most fainous astronomer had him weary of life, ver. 20. 21. And then con. taught. And in another place, Æneas himself re cludes the chapter, with a brief account of the lates the destruction of Troy.
true way to enjoy all the happiness that this world [k] Ver. 10. My portion.) Though wisdom thus can afford; of which we are utterly incapable,
bridled his pleasures, yet it did not restrain bim unless we have a sense of God, be devoutly affectfrom such a free and plentiful enjoyment of them, ed towards him as the author and donor of all good that there was no sort which he did not taste, as things. : Which I have expressed so fully in the highly of as was possible, without making him- paraphrase of ver. 24. &c. that I may be censuself a mere fool. This he calls his portion, by a 2: red for making it too long, and therefore shall metaphor taken from inheritance, which being di not commit another error, in enlarging it farther vided into parts, every one of the children had hetes: his part given him; or from lots, which as they  Ver. 26. But only observe that wisdom and knowwere used among merchants, so sometimes, in the ledge, in this verse, do not differ, as they may be dividing of inheritances, when the heir could not : thought to do, chap. i. 26. but relate both of them agree among themselves, about the equality of the to the same thing, only with such a distinction portions which were set out for them.
a'as I have mentioned in the paraphrase ; or, as [l] Ver. 11. I locked.). Having considered the value
red the value thers will have it, wisdom relates to the acquisition of this portion, he could not say it was much .. of the good things of this world, knowledge to. worth, but rather that there was very little in it; o the use, froin which prudent fruition flows the and therefore he prefers wisdom much before all » joy be mentions together with them. Thus Cothis pleasure ; and still far more before sottish and ranus, mad pleasure, ver. 12
The last words of the chapter are referred by all And yet, for all that, after he had taken the benefits expositors, in a manner, only to the condition of
of wisdom into a second consideration, ver, 13. 14. the sinner, which immediately precedes; but since