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of God; in whose worship and service they therefore by nature, beyond which we do not desire them, yet devise, after the manner of men in dreams, a multi-money, and riches, and all unnecessary things, are untude of senseless things; hampering themselves, for limited, and therefore excite an endless appetite after instance, in many vows, from which they seek after- them, which very appetite also deprives him who ward in vain to extricate themselves, and therefore indulges it, of the fruit of all his abundance ; for, plainly violate and break ; the cure of which lies in imagining he parts with so much of his happiness, as an holy fear of offending God, with which possess he doth of his money, he hath not the heart to make thy soul, especially when thou comest into his house, use of it for his pleasure, nor scarce for his necessity. that it may preserve thee from speaking much unto This is another strange folly, or rather madness, him, and from vowing any thing, which is either un which infests mankind, and miserably torments them. worthy of him, or so inconvenient to thyself, that af- See Annot. [i] terward thou shalt not find in thine heart to make it Ver. 11. When goods increase, they are inereased that good. See Annot. 
eat them and what good is there to the owner thereof, Ver. 8. $ If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and saving the beholding of them with their eyes.] But let viilent perverting of judgement and justice in a pro- us suppose that he useth his riches, yet it is but a vince, marvel not of the matter ; for be that is higher small portion of them that he can enjoyl; and as his than the highest regarderb, and there be higher than estate increases, the greater family and retinue (if he they.] And this also will preserve thee (if thou al. will live like himself) he must maintain, who have ways preservest it in mind) from being too much a larger share than himself in the daily provision troubled at that abuse of power, which began this that is made by his expences. And as for the rest discourse, (iii. 16.); when thou seest, for instance, that is not expended, (which he calls peculiarly his), those who should vindicate and protect the poor, be. he hath no other benefit from it, but only that it feeds come the instruments of their oppression, so that even and entertains his eyes; from which he derives all in the courts of justice, to which they fly for relief, the true pleasure he hath above them, if he keep a their rights, and their lives perhaps, are violently good house willingly, that he sees many continually wrested from them, be not dejected at this bold li- supported by his hospitality ; but this very thing, if cense which they take, but remember that these he be covetous, is his torment, that he beholds so great men have one higher than themselves, viz. many mouths, which eat at his cost and charges. See the king, whom God hath set over them, as well as Annot. [k] over others, to inspect their doings, and to judge them; Ver. 12. The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, wheand if he neglect his duty too, there are higher than ther be eat little or much; but the abundance of the rich them all, viz. God, and his holy angels, whom he will not suffer bim to sleep.] And as he that tills his will employ to punish both them and him. See ground, or serves him in any other labour, hath comAnnot. 
monly a better appetite, and stronger digestion, and 9 Moreover, the profit of the earth is for all; therefore more health than himself ; so he sleeps sound, the king himself is served by the field.] , And now let ly, and is recruited with new vigour against the momus consider, how senseless the love of money is, ing, whether his supper be small or large ; when his which is the cause of all this rapine and violent dealing. rich master, if he eat sparingly, hath his head so full And this appears from the fruitfulness of the earth, of cares and fears, or if he cram himself, hath it so which brings forth more than enough for all men's filled with unquiet vapours, that he cannot sleep a necessities, if husbandry be not neglected ; an em- wink; or tosses up and down so restlessly, that he is ployment no less noble than innocent, for kings not at all refreshed by it, but by his crudities prepares themselves, in former times, have not disdained to matter for many diseases. See Annot.  give their mind unto it; nor is there any prince now, Ver. 13. There is a sore evil which I have seen under who is not so much indebted to it, that it ought to be the sun, namely, riches kept for the owners thereof to their one of his principal cares, to encourage, secure, and burt.] And, besides all this, there is another thing protect it.
which is very calamitous, and may rather be called a And yet, such is the vanity of mankind, that, dis- grievous plague, than a mere affliction; that these very regarding these riches, which lie not very deep in the treasures which men have heaped up, and preserved earth, all their business is, with incessant pains and with a great deal of care, from thence expecting their danger, to dig into its bowels for gold and silver, felicity, prove in the issue their utter undoing; for I which tempt them also to oppress and squeeze the myself have seen some of these miserable men murderpoor, to pervert judgement, and do all manner of ed by their servants, or by thieves, nay, by their own evil, to extort their money from them. See Annot. children, that they might be masters of these riches; [h]
which bring them also, perhaps, at the last, into the Ver. 10. He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied same or the like destruction. See Annot. [m] with silver ; nor he that loveth abundance, with in Ver. 14. But those riches perish by evil iravail; and crease : this is also vanity.) And what can it do for he begetteth a son, and there is nothing in his band.] Or, him that sets his heart upon it, but only to increase if this happen not, these riches perish, (to their no small his desires, that they can never be satisfied ? for grief and trouble), by fire, or sbipwreck, or bad bar. though necessary things have certain bounds set them gains, or ill debtors, or those very crafty practices VOL. III,
whereby he seeks to increase his estate ; or by some bours.; and this not for a fit, but all the time that God other misfortune or misadventure ; so that the son, is pleased to continue him in this world; for this is all whom he thought to have left possessed of abundance that falls to his share, or that can truly be called his of wealth, hath nothing at all to support a wretched part in the good things of this life ; and the only way life. See Annot. [n]
to prolong his days, and enlarge his portion in them. Ver. 15. As he came forth of bis mother's womb, Ste Annot. [p] naked shall be return to go as he came, and shall take no. Ver. 19. Every man also to whom God bath given thing of his lubour, which he may carry away in his riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereband.] These things, indeed, do not always happen, of, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labour ; but this which follows doth; that though he die pos- this is the gift of God.] And whosoever he be, whom sessed of all that he hath gotten, yet he cannot carry God hath blessed, not only with plenty and abundance one farthing away with him; but in this, he and the of worldly goods, but also with such a noble and gepoorest wretch are both alike, that as he came naked nerous mind, that he is 110t their slave, but truly masinto this world, so he must be stripped again when he 'ter of them, being able to enjoy them innocently, and goes out of it; and though his labour hath been great, to take his full share in them, and that with chearfuland his estate no less, yet it is not in his power to take ness, and delight in doing good to others ; let him be along with him so much as a winding-sheet, but what very thankful to Almighty God for so great an happiothers please to bestow upon him.
ness, and acknowledge it to be a singular gift of his Ver. 16. And tbis also is a sore, evil, that in all points bounty, wherewith he rewards his honest labours. as he came, so shall be go ; and what profit bath be that Ver. 20. For he shall not much remember the days of hath laboured for the wind ?] This is another grievous his life; because God answereth him in the joy of bis affliction and sore torment to mankind, especially to heari.] For he that is thus highly favoured of God, the wealthy, that the things on which they have set their will not think life tedious or irksome, but (forgetting hearts, cannot accompany them into the other world; all his past toils, and taking no care for the future) for as the richest man that ever was, brought nothing spend his time most pleasantly; because God hath hither, so he can carry nothing thither, but must leave given him his very heart's desire, and he hath attained all that he hath behind him ; and then what advantage the scope of all his labours, in that inward tranquillity of hath he ? what pleasure? wherein doth he differ from mind, or rather joy and gladness of heart, where with a mere beggar? But in this only, that he hath taken a God hath compensated all his pains, and testified his world of pains to no purpose, for that which gives no extraordinary kindness to him. satisfaction, and which he can hold no more than he can the wind. Ver. 17. All bis days also be eateth in darkness, and
ANNOTATIONS. be bath much sorrow and wrath with bis sickness:] And as at death he can find no comfort in all his wealth, [a] Ver. 1.] To prevent or cure that folly mentionso he took as little perhaps in his life; but dwelt ob. ed in the argument of the chapter, he advises three scurely, and, denying himself even what he had, led things about the worship of God. The first of them such a zad, melancholy, and sordid life, that his meat, is in this verse, to look to the disposition of their and his drink, and the very light itself, gave him no mind, when they go to God's house. And this pleasure; for such a man never thinks himself happy, pious disposition of mind consists also in three but when some hope of gain shines upon him; and things: first, in frequenting the house of God, the therefore at other times he pines, and grieves, and frets, place where he is worshipped : Secondly, in a reveand vexes himself at every thing that makes an expence,
rent behaviour there, suitable to the great thoughts or crosses his covetous desires and designs; insomuch, we have of God, and to the humble sense we have that the sickness of the soul appears in his pale and of our own meanness; expressed by keeping or obcareful looks, and in his lean and meagre body; which serving the feet, i. e. taking care to put off their consumes and wastes, even by the sorrow and sadness, shoes, or sandals, as the manner was in those counthe vexation and displeasure of his mind. See Annot. tries; and to go barefoot into the holy places, an
swerable to which now is uncovering the head in Ver. 18. 9 Behold that which I have seen : it is our churches, &c. as Mr Mede well discourses in good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and to en more places than one, book ii. p. 441. 546.; and then, joy the fruit of all bis labour that be taketh under the lastly, in readiness of the will to obey all the divine sun, all the days of his life which God giveth bim ; for it precepts, as the best of sacrifices. For this is the is bis portion.) Behold therefore the truth of that ob sacrifice of wise and good men ; and all other sacriservation, which I have made more than once, (ii. 24. fices, without this, are but the sacrifices of fools and ji 12. 13. 22.), and now repeat again; that it is best .wicked people, who are able many times to furnish for a man, and most becoming, freely to use and enjoy the altar with more burnt-offerings than the best of the riches he hath gotten by his honest labours; both
But they are such fools as not to consider, for the constant supply of all the necessities of nature, that this very thing increases their guilt; that they and for moderate delight and pleasure, for the entertain imagine God will be pleased with the sacrifice of ment of his friends, and the relief of liis poor neigh beasts, without the sacrifice of themselves; in entire
obedience to his will. So our translation seems to tude of words," i. e. he utters a great deal of inco. understand the last clause of this verse ; which may herent confused stuff, &c. Or thus, The voice of a be thus also translated, “ For they make no con fool comes in a multitude of words. And then science to do evil.” It is no part of their religion to the sense will run thus: As a multitude of abstain from wickedness; but, fancying by their sa business tires a man, and makes him but dream crifices they shall atone for that, they do not fear to at last about it, (and therefore he had better commit it. To this purpose Maldonate expounds it, leave off, before he be unfit to attend it), so when more plainly than any that I have read.
a man enlarges himself too far in his prayers or dis[b] Ver. 2.] 'Here he gives the second advice ; which courses of God, he doth but babble in the conclu.
is about prayer, and about vows to God, or, (as St sion, and therefore had better be shorter.”
thing; of which he speaks in the next words, ver. [c] Ver. 3.] The reason for the foregoing precept, 5. and 6. where he cautions against excuses which
(of not using many words), taken from the consi men are apt to make for not being as good as their deration of God's greatness and our meanness,
intentions. Greg. Thaumaturgus hath expressed (ver. 2.), together with the enforcement of it in this both excellently in a few words, (alluding to the verse, is thus explained by St Hierom. He requires Hebrew word' osv which signifies to complete), us, that whether we speak or think of God, we 'Επαγίελία δι ευχής γινομένη τέλΘ- λαμβανέτω δι έργα. « Α should not venture beyond our ability, but remem promise being made by a vow, let it receive its perber our imbecillity; and that, as far as the heaven fection (or completion) by performance ;” and that is distant from the earth, so much do our thoughts with all speed, soon as it is due. For a vow is fall short of the excellence of his nature. And there an imperfect sort of a thing till it be made good ; it fore our words ought to be very moderate ; for as a hath only the beginning of a good thing, and wants man that is full of thoughts, commonly dreams of its finishing, which if it have not, it becomes ugly those things whereof his head is full, so he that and odious. For God loves not (that is, hates) to attempts to discourse much of the divinity, falls be so dealt withal, as if he did either not underinto folly. Or rather thus, Our words ought there stand, or not mind what we say to him; or would fore to be few, because even those things which we put up that. affront which the poorest man cannot think we know, we see through a glass, in ænigmate, but resent; who looks upon himself, as not only and we do but dream of that which we fancy we abused, but despised, when men give him fair comprehend. So that when we have said a great words, which either have no meaning, or deceive deal, (and to the purpose, as it seems to us), the him when he depends upon them. This Solomon conclusion of our disputation is folly.
represents in the gth verse, as far worse than proAnd so much, we may be certain, he suggests unto us, mising nothing at all ; in which men may be unkind, that in a multitude of words spoken unto God, (as
but in this they are unjust. I rather understand it), there must be many of them [e] Ver. 6.] And he presseth it farther in this as idle as men's thoughts are in a dream. For the verse, where by Malach Angel, there are those that third verse sounds thus in the Hebrew, “ For a understand that particular angel, which is supposed dream proceeds from (or by) a multitude of toil by some (but cannot be certainly proved) to attend some business; and the voice of a fool from (or upon every particular person ; others understand by) the multitude of words.” That is, if a man the priest, who is God's minister ; but I have folhave a multitude of cares in his mind all the lowed Mr Mede, (book ii. p. 438.), who takes on. day, they will produce strange, extravagant, gel here collectively for more than one, as tree is or distracted dreams in the night; and in like put for trees, leaf for leaves, Gen. iii. 2.7.), which manner, if a man utter abundance of words, with. attended upon the Divine Majesty in his house, out consideration and due weighing what he saith where the vow he is here speaking of was made, to God, many of them must needs be foolish, (ver. 1.) Which angelical ministry in God's whether they be vows, or whether they be prayers house was' represented to the Jews, by filling all unto him, (or whether they be discourses concern the curtains of the tabernacle with the pictures of ing him, for we may refer it, if we please, to all). cherubims, Exod. xxvi. 36. 37. ; and by carving And the sense will not much differ, if that preposi the inside of the walls of Solomon's temple with sion which we translate from, be translated with, in
Kings, vi. ; and by the ark of the testithis manner : “ As dreams come with a multitude of mony being overspread with two mighty cherubims, business,” (i. e. bring before the mind, in a confu. (having their wings lifted up, and their faces looksed manner, what we have been doing or thinking ing down towards it, and towards the mercy-seat), of all day), "so a fool's voice comes with a multi called the Cherubims of Glory, i. e. of the divine
in מעל But
presence, Heb. ix. 5. And all to signify, that. due time. So he began it, iii. 17. and so he here where God's sacred memorial is, there the blessed ends it in this verse. Which hath some difficulty angels, out of duty, give their attendance; and there in the last part of it, which we translate, " He that is fore the LXX. I observe, in this place, instead of higier than the highest,” &c. Word for word, before the angel, have ago agorámy oő Oiš, before the ** High above the high observeth." face or presence of God; whose minister, the angels Hebrew never signifies simply above, but always from were, and before whom the vows men engaged above, or from on bigh, and therefore should be themselves in being made, they were witnesses also translated here, “ He that is high, from on high oband avengers of their excuses, or of their delays, to serveth." And then the only question is, Who is make them good.
meant by the high, whether God, or his vicegerent, As for the Vulgar translation of those words, it is an the king here on earth? I have expounded it of the
error), which is this, there is no providence, I have latrer, because otherwise the same thing must be taken no notice of it, because it doth not seem to be said over again immediately, which is not usual in. the genuine meaning; for why should a man make deed in scripture ; but where there is no necessity any vows, who believes 110 providence over him, un... of it, and where the words will better bear another less we will say, that he might alter his opinion. sense, they are not to be so construed. And the last afterwards; and so we may put both senses tr gether word of :he verse will no way be so plain, as by referthus: “I was in an error, there was no providence, and ring it both to the high person mentioned before,
therefore I need not trouble niyself about my vows." and to all his inferior potentates and judges, whom [f] Ver. 7.] In these words he concludes his dis he observes from on high, that is, from his throne,
course about religion, with a repetition (as some or from his seat of judgement. Where he ought take it) of the third verse, a little varied and en. to call them to an account, and examine any comlarged; which may be thus paraphrased according plaints that are made against them; or if he do not, to our translation": " To sum up all that con both he and they are observed by the Supreme cerns this matter; since in a multitude of words, as Judge of all, and shall be accountable to him, whether dreams, there must needs be much vanity, there they will or no. fore have a greater reverence of God than to speak [h] Ver. 9.] And now he seems, in this next verse, any thing rashly, or to make larger promises to him to make a transition to the fourth general head, than thou art truly willing to make good.”
(mentioned in the beginning), concerning the vaniIn the Hebrew the words run thus: “ But from a ty of those who place their happiness in getting and
multitude of dreams (or when dreams are multi heaping up a great deal of money. plied) both vanity and words are multiplied; there. It is an obscure versc, both in its connection, and in fore fear thou God.” Which may have this meaning; some of its phrases; and therefore is diversely ex“ They do but merely dream of God, and are not pounded by interpreters. To help out the connecawakened to a lively sense of him, who make either tion, I have made bold to preface a little, and also those vain excuses, or those idle promises ; of to add such a conclusion in my paraphrase upon it, which that thou mayest not be guilty, possess thy soul as I took to be most agreeable to what follows, and with an awful dread of his majesty.” This is ex to what went before. I have expressed also both actly agreeable to the Hebrew, if we take vanities senses of the last clause, which we render, “ The king to relate unto the excuses of ignorance or error be. is served by the field," but may more literally be fore mentioned, and words and promises; and by translated, « The king is a servant (or is addicted) multitude of dreams, understand a great many con
to the fieid.” For anciently the greatest persons ceptions concerning God, more like dreams than did not think it below them to follow 'husband. waking thoughts of him.
ty, (whose just praises Cicero hath given us in his Interpreters explain the words many other ways, Offices, but especially in his book De Senectute),
whom the learned reader may consult. I have fol as we are taught by the examples of Hiero, Philome lowed my own conjectures and shall also pro tor, Attalus, Archelaus, Cyrus the younger, in propound another translation of the words, which seem fane story; and by the example of king Uzziah, in tome very natural and easy, which is this : scripture, 2 Chron. xxii. 10. Which did not at all " When, in abundance, dreams, and vanities, and abate their courage, or dull their wit, but only made words, are multiplied, then fear thou God." That 'the one more patient of toil and labour, and the is, have a great care of thyself, and let the thread other more solid and more serious. Whence it is of God overawe thee, 'Jest thou offend when thy that we find the greatest captains among the Rohead is hot, and full of dreams and vain imagina mans, such as Camillus, Regulus, Fabius, Cato,
tions, which dispose thee to speak abundantly. Cincinnatus, were fetched from the plough; as [g] Ver. 8.] As the foregoing verse concluded his Gideon among the Israelites was from the threshdiscourse about religion, so this concludes the third ing-floor, and Elisha called to the high office of a general head, whereby he demonstrates the vanity of prophet, as he was driving one of the twelve ploughs all things, begun, iii. 17. Which he here admo. his father had going in the field. nishes us, should not too much disturb, much less And therefore Maldonate's translation of these words astonish us; because God will set all right in his is not to be despised, who (and he alone, as I
can find) thinks they are capable of being rendered serves, that undertakes work for another, or any
mers, and loves to see them thrive, together with times accompanied with pain and torment, (as in
at something of this, though it be taken otherwise ing from a deadly wound, as in the case of Ahab,
ther, we are, as it were, individual brethren." that way be, by their very merchandise in the way There are those that comprehend pasturage as well as of their trade, or by their own frauds and subtilties
tillage, under these words, because the ancient in traffic, whereby they over-reach themselves; or
he having bred his son in expectation of an estate,
[o] And whilst they live, (which is the last, ver, 17.), [k] Ver. 11.] The latter end of this verse, also, is they spend their time, perhaps either in filthy lusts
capable of contrary senses, which I have expressed (as Gregory Thaumaturgus understands those words, in the paraphrase, but shall not give an account of eateth in darkness with sile harlots, or in wretched it here, because I see these annotations already niggardice, and sach sordid penuriousness, that grow too large. For which cause I will not note par. the miser even eats up hinself, taking no joy, no ticularly every thing that is observable in the fol. comfort in any thing that he possesses. So darklowing verses, but only touch upon some of them, ness signifies being opposed to light in scripture, under this observation, that he seems to demonstrate which denotes joy and gladness: and thus the the vanity of that sort of happiness which men LXX. here explain it by adding a word, in dark. place in riches, from ten considerations. The two ness and in mourning. It may refer also to this first are contained in the tenth verse, that the de. dis nal habitation (to which I have had respect in sires of such men are unsatiable ; and the more un the paraphrase) in some bye-place, where he hopes satiable they are, the less they enjoy of what they nobody can find him, or in a room whose win. have.
dows are shut up and barred for fear of thieves. The third and fourth in the 11th verse, that if they The last clause of this verse runs thus word for word
will enjoy it, the more they have, the more others in the Hebrew, “Sorrow is inultiplied," (or there must also have of it; and the pleasure of this is very is much sorrow), “and sickness, and wrath ;" the small, being no more than to behold a great many force of which I have expressed in the paraphrase ; people eat and drink at their cost.
and shall only note, that the first word sorrow (as  The fifth, ver. 12. That their servants commonly was observed, ch.i.), includes in itself indignation,
sleep more sweetly than they. For so baofed, (which together with heaviness; and the next word, sick. we translate labouring man), signifies one that ness, includes in it pain and anguish, as was ob