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over more hearts, who were not yet subject to thee! for what beauty is like to that, or what pleahim, ver. 11. &c, where the 8th part of this song sure comparable to those which thou impartest to them begins, and continues to the fifth verse of the next that are in love with thy delights. See Annot. [f] chapter.
Ver. 7. This thy stature is like to a palm-tree, and
thy breasts to clusters of grapes.] Whose tall and upCOMPANIONS, OR DAUGHTERS OF JERUSAL: M. right stature adds much to all this beauty! and makes !are: iby feet with shoes, Othee resemble the goodly palm-tree ; within whose
prince's daughter! the joints of thy thighs boughs, those clusters hang, to which we may comare like jewels, the work of ibe hands of a cunning work- pare thy breasts between thy arms. See Annot. [g] man.) And now that she appears again, like the Ver. 8. I said, I will go up to the palm-tree, I will take daughter of the great King, in all royal apparel, bolil of the boughs thertof : now also thy breasts shall be (Psal. xlv. 13.), who can choose but admire the beau- as ilustres of the vine, and the smell of thy nose like apty of the meanest thing belonging to her! The very ples;] Which seem to be stretched out to receive us shoes of her feet are most lovely, and so are all the into thy embraces, and invite me and all my company ornaments of her thighs, which were made by no with a joint resolution to say, We will take hold of common or careless artist, but by one that hath here- the boughs of this tree; we will get up into i:, and in shewn the best of his skill. See Annot. [-] taste of its fruit : and now shall be happy indeed, and
Ver. 2. Thy navel is like a round goblet, which enjoy those sweet delights which flow from thy wanteth not liquor ; thy belly is like an beap of wbeat, breasts, and from the breath of thy mouth ; far more set about with lilies.] Which other excellent artisis refreshing and comfortable than the choicest fruit that have equalled in that part of thy vesture, which covers this good land affords. See Annot. [h] the middle of thy body ; in the very centre of which Ver. 9. And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine is a fountain, within a curious work rising up like a for my beloved, that goeth down sweetly, causing the lips heap of wheat, encompassed round about with lilies. of those that are asleep to speak.] : For the richest and See Annot. [b]
most generous wine, which when we have tasted, we Ver. 3. Thy two breasts are like two young roes that say, Let it be sent to the best of friends, is not more are twins.] Above which, thy-two breasts rise up so comfortable to the bodily spiriis, though it be so purely white, and exactly round, and every where of powerful as to make old men brisk, nay, to enliven such just proportions, that two young kids which were those that are at the point of death, than thy words formed together, and brought forth at the same time, are to raise and restore the souls of those who imbibe are not more like one another, or more lovely than the sense of them into their minds. See Annot. [i] they. Sée Annot. [c]
SP: USE Ver. 4. Thy neck is as a tower of ivory ; thine eyes Ver. 10. Ian my beloved's, and his desire is towards like the fish-pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath.rabbim; me ] | If there be any thing in me that is pleasing to thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon, which looketb 10- you, and deserves such ses, ascribe it all to him ward Damascus :] Thy neck also lifts up itself, with from whom I received it; for, as I have often said, the same or greater beauty, wherein we before beheld I am his entirely, and he is pleased to be entirely it, (iv. 4 ), being no less sinooth and purely white, mine, having espoused himself unto me with great than it is straight and well shaped. And the same desire, Psal. xlv. 11.
See Annot. [k] famous pools at the great gate of Heshbon, also, are Ver. 11. Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the not more quiet and clear than thy eģést; which are as field ; let us lodge in the villages.] And O that he, pure and free from all perturbation, as they are fair (without whom I can do nothing), would accompany and large; between which thy well-proportioned nose me in the charitable design 1 have, to go and visit rising up, adds as much beauty and majesty to thy other people, besides you, o ye daughters of Jeru face, as the tower of Lebanon (whose top shows it- salem! Let us go, my beloved, unto those poor despiself above the trees) doth to that noble forest. See sed people that live in the fields and country-villages; Annot. [d]
let us not only go to them, but dwell among tvem. Ver. 5: Thine head upon thee is like Carniel, and the See Annot.  hair of thine head like purple : the King is held in the Ver. 12. Let us get up early to tbe vineyards ; let us galleries.] And now that we take a view of thy head, see if the vine flourish, whether the tender grape appear, we seem to be come to the top of Mount Carmel, and the pornegranates bud forth : there will I give ibee which is not more richly adorned by nature, than its my loves.] Lettis diligently visit the vineyards, that excellent form is by art; which hath contrived the have been newly planted there, and bestow our ulmost royal ornaments for it, and made thee an object most care upon them; let us see if they give any hope fit for the king's affection; who be holding, thee from of good fruit, in promoting which, I will give thee a his palace, is fixed in contemplation of thy beauty. proof of my extraordinary love. See Annot. [m] Ste Annot. [e]
Ver. 13. The mandrakes give a smell, and at our Ver. 6. How fair and bow pleasant art'thcu, O love, gates are all manner of pleasant fruits, new and old, for delights!] Which cannot be described, but only wbich I have laid up for thee, O my beloved.] And admired, and constrains all to say, O how happy art behold the happy success of such care and diligence ! thou! and how happy are they who are acquainted with the most excellent fruit is already ripe, and meets us
with its refreshing smell; there is nothing so choice be applied to Christians going chearfully to worship
to have had in their eyes, that apparel of wrought
gold, mentioned Psal. xlv. 13. and represent that ANNOTATIONS.
part of it which covered the belly to be of raised or
embossed work, resembling an heap of wheat; by [a] Ver. 1.] They who earnestly solicited the re- which it is possible may be meant, many sbeaves of
turn of the spouse, in the conclusion of the former wbeat embroidered round about (as the king's daugh-
seems to incline the sense.
all reason we ought not to expound the next words LXX. translate it, a great bowl or bason, is used
like the moon. And the Chaldee paraphrast underWhich agrees with what follows, « The work of the stood it to be of this figure, when he applies it " to
hands of a cunning workman.” Where workman also the head of their school, who stood in the knowledge
ture, (as it may be called), is very hard to say. It The Chaldee paraphrase applies all this to the people's may be applied to the two sacraments, which the
going up three times a year to the public feasts, as church adıinisters to her children, the font in bap-
&c. Which I mention, because it shews that ithe xxi. 39.), whose office it was to instruct the people.
nifies people, or inhabitants, who were taught by
compared, in all probability, is the same with that, law and judgement in the gates of their cities. Da.
worship. We do not read any where in scripture
for oμμάτων υγρότης, the shining moisture of the word zopbe here intimates ; which we translate look.
divai yuppão pia, and therefore to be one of the nymphs. resembling the top of Carmel. Which was another
celebrated, which were in the very entrance of the covered with great variety of flowers and trees.
speaks of Moab, in which country Carmel itself
in the next words, by comparing her nose to the tower other authors, who compare the heail of a delicate
among the locks of hair that fall upon the cheeks. flowers, which are never wanting in the summer,
counted a considerable part of beauty; and an indi. the same manner Achilles Tatius, l. i. saith of his
very being double-dyed. Vid. Menoch de Repub. Hebr.
easily climbed. 1. i. c. X. 11. 6.
And the clusters to which the breasts are here comBut the LXX. make the last words a distinct sentence, pared, some think are notbing but the fruit of this
as we do, in this manner : “ The king is tied or tree, viz. dates ; for it is not expressed in the Hebound in his walks." That is, when he walks in brew what clusters these were, the word grape his palace-royal, and beholds her beauty, he stands being added by our translators of the Bible. still, and cannot take his eyes off from her, being Who supposed, as others do, that vines ran up the captivated with it, and tied as fast to her as the palm-tree in those countries, which agrees well with hair of her head is to the lace that binds it.
what follows in the next verse, where the “ clusThe former part of this verse is applied by the Chal- ters of the vine” are mentioned, as a fit emblem of
dee Paraphrast to the “ king, (the head of the peo- her breasts. Which were described before, ver. 4. ple), who shall be just like Elias, who was zealous but now mentioned again, to shew that they lookfor the Lord of hosts, and slew the false prophets ed not merely at the beauiy, but the usefuluess of vpon Mount Carmel ;” and the latter part of it to that which is meant thereby. And Theodoret the “ poor, who shall be clothed by him in pur- makes this pious observation upon it: That “though ple, as Daniel was in Babylon, and Mordecai in the church be described as sublime, and reaching up Shushan "
to heaven, (as his words are), yet she accommo[f] Ver. 6.] This verse may be either taken for a dates herself to the weakest and lowest souis ;
commerdation of love, which had thus adorned stretching out the breasts of her doctrine to all that her, and raised her to this pitch of happiness; or
need it. For the bunches of the palm-tree," saith of her who is called love in the abstract, to express he, “hang down very low.” Which must be unmore vehemently how lovely she was, and what derstood, not of their hanging down near the earth, pleasure they took in beholding her beauty.
but below the bough, which are all at the top, and The first word, fair, may relate to the rare composition very high. For which reason Menochius (1. vii. de
of the whole body; and the next word, pleasant, or Repub. Hebr. c. viii. n. x,) thinks it not to be true, sweet, or comely, (as some translate it), to her grace- which Aben-Ezra here note3, that the vines in ful motion, gesture, and sweet conversation. And Palestine were joined unto palm-trees, because the the sense, in short, is this : " O how desirable do palm-tree hath not boughs fit to support the branches the pleasures which thou impartest make thee !" of the vine. Theodoret's note here is very pious, that we become [h] Ver. 8.] I take this verse to be still the voice of
thus beautiful and lovely, (though deformed before), the same persons, though in the singular number, by delighting in charity, and making doing good our (as appears from the mention of the beloved, ver. 9. highest pleasure.
which shows it is not he that speaks here, but some  Ver. 7.] This verse is a reflection upon the other person.) For one spake in the name of the
whole foregoing description, as appears by the first rest, (as Daniel did in the name of his other three word, zoth, this ; as if they had said, “ To all this brethren, Dan. ii. 30. 36.) ; or the whole choir is thy stature is proportionable.” Which is compared considered but as one person, who desired to have to the palm-tree, because it shoots up straight as fellowship and communion with the church in her well as high, and therefore sets forth that part of benefits. Of which having tasted, they say, “Now loveliness which consists in tallness. Which was also thy breasts shall be as clusters of the vinc;" that always thought a great addition to beauty, and was is, now we shall enjoy those delicious pleasures beone reason why women wore ornaments upon the fore mentioned, ver. 6. very top of their heads, as well as high shoes, to That which we translate nose, in the last clause of the make them appear the taller. The noblest palm- verse, the Vulgar translate countenance, (or mouth ratrees of all other were in Judea, (especially about ther), agreeable enough to the Hebrew, and most Jericho), as Pliny writes, l. xlii. c. 4. From agreeable to the rest of the words. For that which whence it was, that in future times it became an is smelt, is the breath coming out of the mouth, comemblem of that country, as we find in that medal of pared to the fragrancy of citrons, oranges, peaches, the emperor Titus, with a captive woman sitting or other sorts of tappuach, which is a name (I obunder a palm tree, and the inscription of Judæa serve above, ii. 5.) common to all such fruits, as well capta.
as those we peculiarly call apples; and indeed signifies Our learned countryman, Sir Thomas Brown, (in his any fruit that hath a fragrant odour breathing from it.
Miscellan. Tracts, p. 78.), hath ingeniously observed, And this may be thus mystically expounded : “ And that they speak emphatically when they say they now shall we delight to hang upon the breasts of · will ".go up to take hold of the boughs” of this tree. the church, and the breath or spirits of the aposFor it must be ascended before one can come at the tles ; sweeter than grapes, or the smell of any other boughs, which it bears only at the top and upper fruit." parts. But the trunk or body of it is naturally [i] Ver. 9.] Which is farther explained in this verse. contrived, densis, gradatisque corticum pollicibus, ut Where the “ roof of the moutb," i. e. the words orbibus, (as Pliny speaks,) with rings in the bark, which come from thence, is compared to the most
excellent wine, which was so choice, that it was preters, and only add this note of my own, That fit only to be presented to him, to whose love they the gospel was first preached in cities mostly, and owed all they had, (or so delicious, as our trans'a- from thence spread itself in time into the neighbourtion hath it, that it went down glibly), and so gene- ing villages; in which idolatry lasted so much longer rous, that it put spirits into those that were quite than in cities, that they gave the name of paganism spent with age, nay, raised those who were in a to it. manner dead. So this character of the best wine [m] Ver. 12.] This verse supposes those fields (ver. runs word for word in the Hebrew: “]t goeth 11.) not to have been quite uncultivated, but that straight to my beloved, and causeth to speak the there were vineyards (that is, churches, in the mystical lips of old people, or of those that sleep," that is, sense) planted in them. And her desire is, that he are dead. For this word jeschenim, our translators would accompany her in visiting them early, that is, thought may either signify olil men, or men asleep); very diligently, as the word signifies in many places. though exact grammarians will not allow it, but Thus, in Ecclus. xxxix. 5. it is said of a just man, make a great difference between jeschenim and jis. that he will give his heart “ to resort early to the chanim. The first of which, (which is the word Lord that made him." Which is suitable to what here), they say, never signifies old men, but only the psalmist saith, Psal. v. 1. and Jeremiah, xxi. 12. sleepers.
xxv. 2. 3. Thus Theodoret here expounds it, “ It But if we wave this nice distinction, the words may behoveth us to make us all fitting diligence in visitalso be thus translated ; " which makes
ing those that have already received the preaching ; speak with the lips of the ancient,” i. e. sentences, whether they bring forth more than leaves, and esor most excellent sayings. I omic other glosses, pecially whether any beginning of charity appear awhich may be found every where.
mong them." For so he expounds, "If the pome. [k] Ver. 10.) Here now the spouse, after long si- gravates bud forth.” And this, saith he, is the
lence, puts an end to the encomium, modestly ac- greatest expression of love to him, which he makes knowledging there was nothing in her that could the meaning of the last words, « There will I deserve it, but only as she was his, who could not give thee my loves.” For what care we bestow be praised enough.
upon them, he accounts as done to himself, accord. The words in effect we have met withal twice before, ing to his own words, “ In as much as ye have
ii. 16. vi. 3. For the meaning of the latter part, done it to one of the least of these, ye have done it « his desire is towards me,” is no more than this, unto me." (as Mr Mede hath observed upon Dan. xi. 37.), The vines may signify the lesser sort of people, and # He is my husband." Only there seems to me to the pomegranates the greater. be an allusion here to Psal. xlv. u. “(The king. [n] Ver. 13.) The word dudaim is found only here, shall greatly desire thy beauty,” &c.) unto which So- and in Gen. xxx. 1.1. Where we read, how Ja. lomon, as I take it, hath a respect all along in this cob's wives contended for them, as a most precious, poem.
that is, a rare and delicious fruit. For none can  Ver. 11.] And now she turns herself from them imagine they strove about th.it now called by us
to him, (beginning a new part of this song!, and mandrakes, which have a stinking smell, and very of. being augmented with those new companions who sensive ; or about any ordinary flower, such as vio. had joined themselves unto her, she desires him (with- lets or jasemin, (by which some expound this word), out whom nothing could be effected) to go along which they might have sent out their maids to gather 1:ith her into the fields and villages, that is, to easily any where. Ludolphus, therefore, in his late those places which were not yet become his gasden, Ethiopic History, (1. i. c. ix. n. 23.), hath happily of which they had been speaking hitherto. Or they conjectured, that it signifies the fruit which the Awere but preparing for it, by the culture he had be rabians call mauz or muza, (called by some the In
which from the follow. dian Fig), which in the Abyssine country is as big ing verse seems to be the meaning.
as a cucumber, and of the same form and shape, Cepharim, villages, are opposed in scripture to citics, fifty of which grow upon one and the same stalk,
i Sam. vi. 15. and signifies small towns and ham- and are of a very sweet taste and smell; from lets, as we speak, 1 Chron. xxvii. 25. Neh. vi. 2. which cognation as he calls it) of a great many upAnd the word nalinab, let us lodge, signifies to on the same stalk, he thinks it took the name of jutarry, and to make one's dwelling or abode in a duim. Which some derive from dod, either as it place, Psal. xci. 1. and may be applied to the set. significs love, or a breast, with which they fancy iling of the gospel in those regions where it was but this fruit to have had some resemblance. newly planted. So Theodoret glosses: “Let us So the sense of this verse is, that they found more now take care of the meanest and most abject souls there than they expected ; or, that by her care the that have lain long neglected, which are tropically most excellent fruit was produced from people of called the fields and village3." Most apply to the the best rank, (who may be understood by this most Gentile world, in this manner: “We have stayed rare sort of fruit), and that every where, so that long enough in the city of Jerusalem, and in Judea ; they needed not to be at the trouble to go far to let us go now to the heathen," &c. : I pass by gather it. For at their very gates there were miother applications, which may be found in inter. garlim, all precious spices, (mentioned before, ir
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