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ashamed to take out of the nurse's arms into her ly condescending to her desires, and fulfilling her own, and openly kiss, and not imagine she should wishes ; vouchsafing a new supply of the power of thereby incur any reproach or contempt.

the Spirit, to support and comfort her in those laThis seems to be the most literal sense of the words, bours of love for his name's sake. Which were so

which may be applied to the open profession great, that she is represented here as spent and
of Christianity, with the greatest confidence and fainting away ; so she had done before, chap. ii. 6.
security, nothing being more innocent and harmless where see the meaning of these words.
than the love and service wherein it engages its [d] Ver. 4.] This verse hath also been twice used
disciples to their Lord and Master, Christ. Who, before, with no difference from what we read here,
the more obedient any person is to God's com. but that now the mention of hinds and roes is left
mands, holds that man or woman the dearer to him, out; and yet he charges them with greater vehe-
even as dear as a brother, sister, or mother, mence than ever. For the Hebrew phrase here
Matth. xii. 50. Which (saith Grotius upon that signifies as much as, what do you de? why do you
place) is the mystical sense of the Song of songs. stir ? &c. that is, by no means ; take heed how
See more in my pre face.

you disturb her. See ïi. 7. iii. s.
[b] Ver. 2.] This dear Lord (i. e. the knowledge [e] Ver. 5.] This seems to be the voice of her com-

of him) she desires here to carry still farther, till panions, or “ daughters of Jerusalem,” mentioned
she had brought him into the house, that is, into in the verse before, (and begins the last part of his
the family of her mother. Which may be applied song), admiring the new change they saw in her.
unto the design of God, to awaken the Jews to be For she was represented before as “ coming out of
lieve on Christ, by bringing in the fulness, that is, the wilderness,” (iii. 6.), but not “ leaning upon
a vast number, “ of the Gentiles," Rom. xi. 25. her beloved," as she is here. Which signifies her
Which the apostle saith there, ver. 15. would be advancement unto a state of greater dearness to him,
6 life from the dead ;” unto wbich the last words and familiarity with him. :
of this verse may be accommodated.

The word mithrappeketh is not found elsewhere, and
For after she had said she would lead him, or bring therefore variously translated by interpreters. But

him down, and then bring him into the house of most agree that it signifies, either closely adhering, her mother, she adds, Thou shalt teach, or instruct or leaning, relying, and recumbing, as they speak; me. Which agrees with what the apostle there which L. de Dieu hath shown is the use of the writes, ver, 12. that if the fall of the Jews was

word in the neighbouring languages. But there “the riches of the Gentiles," that is, enriched are those who think it imports something of pleathem with the treasures of divine wisdom and

sure, (and therefore the Vulgar takes in that sense knowledge, how much more would their fulness with the cther, as I have in the paraphrase), and enrich them! If we refer this clause (as we do) to translate it flowing with the delights. For she hamother before named, the best sense I can make of ving been in the fields and villages, visiting the it is this, By wliom I was educated and instructed. vineyards and other places, (vii. 11. 12. 13.), is And then follows her making him " drink of spi now introduced as coming back from thence into ced wine,” (that is, making a great feast for him, the royal city. Which being seated on high, in Prov. ix. 2. where the most excellent wine made comparison with the plains out of which she came, the chiefest part of the entertainment), such wine she is said to ascend, or come up; but that she as makes those who are asleep to speak, vii. 9. might not be tired with the journey, is represented Which effect the receiving of the Jews again will as leaning upon the arm of her beloved, (or, as produce, as the apostle tells us, when he saith, "It some will have it, lying in his bosom, as St John shall be life froin the dead ;" i. e. a most powerful did in our Saviour's), and laden with the delicious argument to enliven the most stupid souls, and fruit before mentioned, (vii. 13.) Which excited move them to believe in Christ.

the admiration of all that knew her, when they Certain it is, that berakach, spiced or aromatic wine, beheld the grace of her Lord towards her, together

denotes its fragrancy or delicious odour, whereby with her own beauty, riches, ornaments, and hapthe best wines are discerned, as much as by their piness. taste ; and the word we translate juice, signifies The latter part of the verse all the Greek Fathers every where, muste or new wine ; whereby the take to be the voice of the bridegroom, and so do prophets set forth something that works with great many of the Latins. But some of them, and all er power and efficacy than ordinary, Zach. ix. 17.; the Hebrew writers, take them to be the words of and here, I doubt not, relates to something new the spouse, because thee is of the masculine genand unusual ; and in the mystical application, may der. Whichsoever way we take them, the sense is signify a greater fulness and power of the Spirit, very hard to find. If we go the first way, the than had been in former days, working like new most natural sense seems to be, that he pais her wine in the hearts of those that received the

go in mind of the poor and mean condition, out of spel.

which he had taken her, into a state of the greatAnd this is said to be done to him, because, as Theo est friendship with him ; that she might not be

doret noted before, what is done to his members, he vainly puffed up with the acclamations which were takes as done to himself, :

made to her. [s] Ver. 3.) Who is here re'sresented as immediate. But I have followed the Hebrew points in my pa


37. &c.

raphrase, and understood the words of " stirring should lose him, as she had been in danger before, up his love towards her," when they were look

ver. 6. &c. ing after the plantations mentioned, vii. 11. 12. This love is said to be as strong as death ; which is Which was excited by the care and pains she took admirably expressed by Maximus Tyrius, Dissert. in that business, like the pains of a woman in tra

X. 6 Wild beasts are not terrible to it, nor fire, vail; unto which St Paul compares the solicitude nor precipices, nor the sea, nor the sword, nor and care he had about the Galatians, that“ Christ the halter, en die rai. Toda tigas avoir intogástalse, might be formed in them, iv, 19.

&c. but even the most unpassable difficulties Certain it is, that chibbelath is a word which relates are got over by it; the hardest things are pre

to the pangs of travailing women, and therefore the sently mastered, the most frightful easily surLXX. translate it wdlince; so that if I have not con mounted, &c.; it is every where confident, overjectured amiss about the rest, my interpretation of looks all things, overpowers all things,” &c. But the last words is natural enough. For caph simili. none express this like St Paul, Rom. vii. 35. 36. tudinis, (as they call it), is frequently omitted in the scripture, and to be supplied in the sense. Twice There is no difficulty but in the last clause of the in this very book it is wanting, i. 15. vii. 4. "thy verse, (for as “strong as death,"? signifies to be in. eyes are doves,” that is, as doves. And in Prov. superable, so “ cruel as the grave," denotes it not xvii. 2). and in his father David's psalms very to be moved by prayers and intreaties, or any often, Psal. xi. 1. " How say you to my soul, Flee thing else). Where the word rescapepla should noi a bird, (i, e, as a bird), to your hill ;” and to o be translated, " the coals thereof," but, the arrows mit other places, cxix. 119. “ Thou puttest away thereof are arrows of fire; that is, it shoots into all the wicked of the earth, dross," i. e. as or like

the heart, wounds it, and burns there, nay, indross.

flames it vehemently by the wounds it gives; as In like manner I take the last words of this verse, the reverend and learned Dr Hammond hath obser.

There (viz. I stirred thee up) as thy mother tra ved upon Psal. lxxvi. 3. And so the LXX. seem vailed in birth with thee, there, I say, like her that here to understand it, when they translate it wipinlega brought thee forth;" i. e. by such pains as these I avras, " its feathers, or wings, where with it flies, raised up thy love to me.

are wings of fire.". Which wings or arrows of As for what is said by many interpreters, concerning fire, are said, in the last words of all, to be wa

Eve's eating the apple in paradise, and thereby most vehement flame ;" or rather, it should be thus ruining all mankind, there is no reason to think, translated, which are the flames of the fire of the either that she is the mother here meant, or that tap

Lord. So the Hebrew word seems to signify, bepuach denotes an apple, rather than orange, citron, ing compounded of three words, fire, flame, and or such like fruit.

the Lord; denoring mighty and exceeding scorching [f] Ver. 6.] The words also, according to the He flames. Such compositions are not only to be found

brew points, are the words of the spouse, beseeching in other parts of the Bible, Jer. ii. 31. but in the her beloved to keep her always in his mind, as one Punic language also, as Bochartus shows in his voy dear to him. For that was the end of having

Canaan, l. ii. c. 15. the name, or the picture of a beloved person, en. Some translate it, “Such flames are kindled only by

graven on a seal, or jewel, and wearing it next the the Lord.” And then, if there be an allusion to > heart, or upon the arm, that it might testify their the breast-plate of the high-priest, in the beginning great esteem of such persons, and the constancy of

of the verse, I fancy the conclusion may allude to their affection towards them, and that they desired the "fire that went out from before the Lord,” Lev. they might never slip out of their memory. See ix. 24. and devoured the sacrifices, as love doth all Jer. xxii, 24.

manner of difficulties.

This fire was to burn perSome think here is an allusion to the high-priest, who petually upon the altar, and never be suffered to go

carried the names of the children of Israel engra out, Lev. vi. 12. and therefore the best emblem of ven in precious stones, not only upon his breast, but love that could be found. upon his shoulders also, as may be seen, Exod. [8] Ver. 7,1 For it is unexiinguishable, as it here xxviii. 11. 12. 21. and this, " for a memorial be.' follows, “Many waters cannor quench. love." fore the Lord continually,” ver. 29. (which inter Which is a metaphor, whereby profanę authors pretation may be confirmed by the words of the also have set forth the mighty, unconquerable son of Syrach, Ecclus. xlv. 11. who saith, “ Aaron power of love και τις και καινος εμπρησμός, &ς, « What was adorned with precious stones, graven like new kind of conflagration is this? (saith Philostraseals,"). And they think withal, that seal upon tus, in one of his Epistles); I am ready to call for the heart relates to the inward affection ; and seal water, and there is none to bring it, TI To Cosstápor is on the arm, to the outward expressions of love and ταύτην την φλόι απόρώταίον, for a quencher of this esteem.

fire is the most impossible to be found. If one And then follows the reason of this prayer, which bring it from the fountain, or if he take it out of

proceeded from the vehemence of her love, which the river, it is all one, for the water itseif is burnt was grown to the height of jealousy, (which is up by love.": 31 nothing but the highest degree of love), lest she By many waters are sometimes meant jo scripture,

17:29. C.

many afflictions, (as is very well known), which they other, and open to me alone, and she shall never that love frequently endure, before they can accom want any thing necessary to her perfection ; for I plish their desire. But though there should be an will richly adorn her, and make her like the house inundation of them, we are here told they cannot of God himself, which is lined with cedar." overwhelm or overflow it, as the word we translate [k] Ver. 10.1 And then this verse may be thus apdrowned signifies; but it will still live, and be up plied; (being her answer), “I am resolved to do permost, and prevail.

what thou requirest,” (to be siedfast and faithful), And such is its constancy, and satisfaction also, which “ and already perceive the reward of my infidelity, '

ic hath in its own pleasures, it regards not riches at &c. For these words plainly relate to the foregoall, but will rather be poor with one whom it affects, ing, as I have expressed in the paraphrase; unto than enjoy great possessions with another person. which I shall add noihing, for if that be admitted, Nay, it' despises, and that with disdain, the offers there is no difficulty in them. It being known to of a man's whole estate, if that condition be im. every body that shalom, peace, signifies all manner of posed, of forsaking its love. Others may laugh happiness in the Hebrew language ; which is includperhaps at such persons, bat it is all one, they smile ed also in our English word f ivour, whereby we here at them again. So Theodoret and the LXX. under translate it. Forit signifies all the good thingsthat may stand the latter part of this verse, “ If a man give be expected from the favour he bears to any person. away all his substance in charity, they will extremely [1] Ver. 15.] And being thus favoured by him, she despise him” That is, saith he, they that spend 110w promises her diligence in this and the next all they have, and their very lives, for the love of verse) to do him the best service, and to make the God, are set at nought by those that want such love. greatest improvements she could of the talents com. Other interpretations of these words I have express mitted to her. For though Solomon (she here saith) ed in the paraphrase.

let out his vineyard, which he had in Baal hamon, [b] Ver. 8.] Here is another property of divine love, a place near Jerusalem, as Aben-Ezra tells us, (which

which makes us solicitous for those that want it, or is followed by most interpreters, few thinking it to have but the beginnings of it, and may be in dan be near Engaddi), where abundance of people had ger to lose them.

And this seems to be the speech vineyards, and he a very large one ; for it beof the spouse to her companions, who were all ing let to several farmers, every one paid him a thoutroubled for a sister, (that is, some church), which sand pieces of silver, i. e. shekels, (as much as to was of a small growth, and had no breasts, that is, say, it brought him in a 'vast revenue yearly ; for a was not ripe for marriage. For all have breasts, thousand is a sum of perfection, Psal. cxliv. 13. but they do not rise and swell, till they are of such Micah, v. 2 and other places; and the number of an age, that they may be called women, Ezek. farmers or tenants, though not expressed, some xvi. 7. They inquire there what they should do think to be ten), yet she takes up another 'resolution, for her, " in the day when she shall be spoken for ?” which she expresses in the next verse. that is, demanded in marriage ; or " when there [m] Ver. 12 ] Where she saith she will herself look shall be speech concerning her," that is, concerning after the vineyard committed to her trust, and 1100 this defect of hers.

leave it to the care of others. Which scems to be [i] Ver. 9.] Here he returns an answer to that ques. the meaning of the first phrase in this verse, “ My tion; which is, that he and they will take greater vineyard which I have is before me," i. e. under my care for her to raise her stature, and to bring her to eye (as we speak) and special care. Thus God's perfection. For where there are good beginnings, judgements are said to be before David, Psal. xviii. we are not wonit to forsake them, but rather to add 22. that is, he took great care never to swerve from to them, and improve them. As for example, the them. wall of a building which we esteem, we do not It amounts also to the same sense, if we take this phrase suffer to fall to the ground, but strengthen and raise to signify as much as “ it is in my power," Gen. it; nay, adorn it sometimes and beautify it with xlvii. 5. Jer. xl. t. For then the meaning is, she towers and pinacles, which we stick not to gild, kept it in her own hand, or occupation, and did not that they way appear more gloriously. Or if it be farın it out to others. a door of a house, which we value, we let it not · And then the last part of the verse signifies, that if decay, but rather case it with boards of cedar, to Solomon made such a profit of his vineyard, as that make it more durable as well as neat and handsome ; before named, (besides two hundred shekels, which for cedar is not apt to putrify.

each of the farmers got over and above for their This seems to me the most simple exposition of these pains, though he did not dress it himself; what

words, and I do not think fit to trouble the reader would be the increase that she was likely to make with that vast variety which may be found in in by her own care and diligence in the business. That terpreters. But only add, that they may very na is, it was incredible what fruit she would reap by turally be applied unto a soul, or a church, in a state her pains : according to that of the son of Syrach, of imperfection, but built upon Christ the founda. Ecclus. xxiv. 31. &c. “ I said, I will water my tion; in this manner, « Lei her but be firm and garden, and I will water abundantly my garden-bed; constant, like a wall, in her love to me, and I will and, lo, my brook became a river, and my river be. not abandon the care of her ; let but her exclude all came sea," &c.

This seems to me the most natural sense of these two such as those mentioned, iv, 6. Such perhaps was

difficult verses, which Almonazir suggested to my Bether, ii. 17. (where we meet with these words thoughts. And that Solomon, not any other per before), and I have sometimes thought they should son, is here intended, Maimonides himself agrees; be so translated here," the mountains of Besamin ;'' who, in his Treatise of the Foundation of the Law, as there the mountains of Bether. c. vii. hath these words : “ Wheresoever you meet But what these mountains were, we are now ignorant, with the name of Solomon, in the book of Canticles, though this is certain, that the creatures here menit is holy, as the rest of the names there are ; save tioned were bred in the highest mountains of the only in that place, A thousand are to thee, O Solo. country ; as Ælian testifies in the latter end of his mon," &c. Others also add that place, Cant. iii. 7. fifth book : “ The harts in Syria are bred in their « Behold the bed which is Solomon's," &c. Where highest mountains, Amanus, Libanus, and Carmel.” the Masters say it is a common name, as well as For there they were safest and most secure from here.

danger; there it was difficult to pursue them, espeThese two verses are ingeniously applied by some to cially when they climbed up the steepest places.

the far greater increase of knowledge and goodness And therefore the psalmist, and the prophet Hain the church, than in the synagogue ; that is, by bakkuk, when they would represent themselves as Christianity, than by Judaism.

in a state of perfect security, say, God had “ made [n] Ver. 13.] This verse, according to the Hebrew their feet like hinds feet, and made them to walk

points, is the voice of the bridegroom ; who seems upon their (bamoth), high places.” Psal. xviii. 33. to commend the resolution she made in the fore Hab. üi. ult. Which words allude to the inaces. going verse. And he calling her "the inhabitant of sible mountains, which those creatures frequented, the gardens," (which are the same with the vineyard especially the females, that they might there sebefore-mentioned), it signifies her perpetual care cure their young ones.

Besides, as there they about their prosperity. In recompence of which, he could feed and bring forth their young most securebids her, before they finish this interview, to ask ly, so there was the sweetest feeding. what she will of him, and it shall be done for her. In short, Solomon here seems to long for the first Which, in short, is the sum of what the same Al coming of the Messiah, as St John doth for his last; monazir hath long ago conjectured to be the sense who concludes his book of the Revelation, in the of this place.

same manner as Solomon doth this, saying, “Come, [o] Ver. 14.] Unto which she returns her answer, Lord Jesus," Rev. xxii. 20.

in these words, and so shuts up this song. Which There are those who fancy, that in the foregoing seems to me to conclude as it began, with a desire verse, the bridegroom asks her consent, for the perthat the Messiah would come, and make good all fecting their love in marriage ; and desires her, in those things that had been represented in these rap the audience of her companions, to lift up her voice tures.

and sing the nuptial hymn; which she now, say The word berach, which we translate make baste, is they, in this verse, professes herself to be ready to

twice translated by the LXX. duxvéopaci, to go or run do, if he would but be present with her, and assist thorow, to the very end, Exod. xxvi. 28. xxxvi. and direct her to do it aright. And then it is thus 33

And no doubt denotes here most vehement applied, and paraphrased by the fore-named Al. and restless endeavours in a speedy course ; like monazir : that of a roe-buck, or wild goat rather, whose agili. “ Thou commandest me, that I should, with morning ty, both in running and jumping, is celebrated by and evening hymns and songs, celebrate thy omu. all authors, and said to be such as is scarce cre potent wisdom and goodness, &c. Vouchsafe then dible.

speedily to adjoin the eternal force and flame of thy The young hart, (called here opher), is still more swift Holy Spirit unto my voice ; that in spirit, and in

and nimble than the old ; the exceeding great fear truth, and sanctity of heart, I may sing thy praises;
wherein it is, adding wing (as we speak) to its and not only with my mouth, and sound, but in my
feet. Whence Xenophon saith, there is nothing mind and heart especially, worthily worship thy
comparable to their swiftness, when the old ones incomprehensible Majesty."
are absent, and they are pursued by dogs, tóts tax
övdeyd étròs, &c.; then there is no speed like to that Whence it is, that the church, being moved by a di-
of such young harts, as his words are quoted by vine inspiration, saith thus in all her prayers :

Who well observes, (1. iii. c. xvii. part 1. de Animal.), “O Lord, open Thou our lips :

that the sense of the last words, (upon the mountains, And our mouth shall shew forth thy praise.
&c.), is to be made out by adding one word, in O God, make speed to save us.
this manner, “ Be thou like the young harts, run O Lord, make haste to help us."
ning, (or when they run), upon the mountains of
spices, i, e. the mountains where spices grow;




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