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for it, That the trouble which Saul gave him was posed, as the foregoing, by David, and delivered before his great sin, and so he was full of coofi. by him to the master of music in the tabernacle) Jence; but that of Absalom was after it, which may probably refer, though it be not in the tiile made him cry out in this doleful manner.
expressed, to the universal apostacy of the people,
in the rebellion of Absalom, froin the allegiance Ver. 1. HOIV long wilt thou forget me, 0 LORD? for they owed to him, and from the duty they owed to
ever? How long wilt thou hide thy face God. from me!] What a sad condition is this, O Lord, into which I ain fallen, and in which thou seemest to Ver. 1. THE fool bath said in his heart, There is no neglect me! I have waited a long time for some
God : they are corrupt, they have done glimpse of thy favour, but can see no sign of de abominable works, there is none that doeth good.] Though liverance, nor' tell how long thou intendest to delay the wicked are not yet so impudent as openly to deny it.
God with their mouths, yet such is their abominable Ver. 2. How long shall I take counsel in my soul, filthiness, so shameless are they in their wickedness, having sorrow in my heart daily? How long shall mine so universally depraved, that their secret thoughts sure enemy be exalted over me?'] O how afllictive is it, that are, God takes no notice what they do, or that he will there is no end of my anxious thoughts! but I am not judge them for it. always casting in my mind, with a heavy heart, Ver. 2. The Lord looked down from heaven upon where I shall shift for my life, and can think myself the children of men, to see if there were any that did in no place secure. The power of my enemy is very understand, and seek God.]
understand, and seek God.] But let them know, that great, and threatens, like a tempest hanging over my he exactly observes them; and that all the ways of head, every moment to fall upon me. o when shall the sons of men are naked and bare before his
eyes : I see it dispersed ?
though, alas! there is nothing now to be seen but Ver. 3. Consider and bear me, O LORD my God: ignorance and contempt of his majesty. lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death.; Thus Ver. 3. They are all gone aside, they are altogether I sigh perpetually to thee, O Lord, the onnipotent become filtby : there is none that doeth good, no not one.] Ruler and just Judge of the world ; beseeching thee to The whole nation hath lost all sense of their duty ; commiserate my affliction ; and, as thou hast done and, like a body without a spirit, is so rotten and often; to answer my prayer. Thou seest with what putrified, that it is hard to find one that has any sense dangers I am encompassed, and how. forlorn and dis- of goodness in him. mal my condition is: endue me with wisdom and Ver. 4. Have all the workers of iniquity no knowcircumspection, that I may escape these dangers ; ledge ? who eat up my people as they eat bread, and call and revive and cheer me under these sad aMictions, not upon the LORD.] Sirange! that they should all lest my spirit sink within me, or the enemy destroy be thus senseless, as not only to injure and oppress
my poor innocent people, but to be cruel and void of Ver. 4. Lest mine enemy say, I have prevailed against all pity toward them, and to throw off likewise all him : and those that trouble me rejoice when I am religion ! moved.] Let not him that persecutes me boast of his Ver. 5. There were they in great fear: for God is success, as he certainly will, unless thou affordest me in the generation of the righteous.] What a terror will thy conduct and comfort, which I hunbly again im- it be to them, to see the divine vengeance seize on plore, that they who join with him may not have them when they think themselves most secure so for the pleasure to see me fall, and insult over my mi- he, who is the righteous Judge, will not desert those sery.
who are faithful to him, but graciously deliver them. Ver. 5. But I bave trusted in thy mercy; my heart
Ver. 6. Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor : shall rejoice in thy salvation.] I am unworthy in- because the LORD is bis refuge.] Your confusion, o deed of thy favour, but hope thou wilt magnify ye atheistical fools, will be the greater, because you thine own mercy, in which I have placed an entire mocked and jeered at that poor despicable party of confidence, that I persuade myself I shall have the men, who resolved to adhere to piety and virtuous joy to see thee deliver me out of all these distresses. loyalty, and to wait patiently upon God, and trust in
Ver. 6. I will sing unto the LORD, because he bath him alone for safety. dealt bountifully with me.] Which shall be acknow .
7. Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out ledged with the most chearful hymns of praise and of Zion! When the Lord bringeth back the captivity of thanksgiving to the Lord, who hath dealt so well with bis people, Jacob shall
rejoice, and Israel shall be glad, me, as to render to me, not according to my merits, Who is mighty to save, whatsoever you think, and rebut according to my hope and trust of bis inconcei- sides by a special token of his presence in Mount
Sion. O that it might please him to send us deliver.
ance from thence, and to restore us again to the PSALM XIV.
happy enjoyment of that place from whence we are
banished! It would turn our sad lamentations into the To the chief musician. A Psalm of David.
most chez.rful thanksgivings; and fill not only Judah,
but all the tribes of Israel, with joy and gladness The ARGUMENT. This psalm (which was com 2 Sam. xix. 9. &c.
A Psalm of David.
Michtam of David. THE ARGUMENT.-This Psalm, in which he excites. THE ARGUMENT.-A most excellent psalm of David,
the people to the study of solid virtue, was com more precious than any jewel, and worthy to be posed by David, either when he brought the ark inscribed on a marble pillar, to endure to all pos-, to Mount Sion, (2 Sam. vi.), or when he was resto terity. For, beside admirable expressions of his red thither again, (as he desired in the conclusion of faith and confidence in God, though he was most the foregoing psalm), after the rebellion of Absa. violently persecuted by Saul, and forced to fly into Jom, 2 Sam. xix. Then it was very seasonable to foreign countries), it contains a prophecy of the admonish them to live better, as became those who resurrection of our Lord Christ from the dead. were under the government of God, (as Theodoret excellently speaks), and had received such a great Ver. 1, PRESERVE me, O God: for in thee do 1 put deliverance from him.
my trust.] Thou seest, О most mighty
God, with what dangers I am encompassed : defend Ver. 1. LORD, who shal? alide in thy tabernacle and protect me, I beseech thee, for I depend upon
who shall dwell in thy holy hill.?] Lord, thee alone for safety. what an happiness is it, that thou wilt be pleased to Ver. 2. O my soul, thou hast said unto the LORD, dwell among us in this mountain, wherein thou hast Thou art my LORD: my goodness extendeth not to thee;) pitched thy tabernacle! But who shall have the ho. I ever did so, as my conscience testifies; and therenour of being admitted into thy society, and enjoy all fore, I hope thou wilt still continue my gracious God. the privileges of a true worshipper of thee?
Not that I can merit any favour of thee, or by any Ver. 2. He that walketh uprightly, and worketh good that I can do, requite thy kindness to me : righteousness, and speaketb the truth in bis heart.] I. Ver. 2. But to the saints that are in the earth, and to hear thee answer, (methinks), as if a voice came the excellent, in whom is all my delight.) But if thou from thy holy oracle, saying, Not all that are de-. wilt be pleased to protect me, I will employ, all my scended of Abraham, nor every one that offers me sa power, (when I come to the throne), to protect the pious crifices, and observes my appointed rites, but he who in the land : worthy men, who excel in, virtue, shall completely endeavours to please me in all the parts of be preferred and honoured ; for they are the persons a holy life, exercising justice and mercy to his neigh. who are inost dear to me, and in whose company bour, as well as piety to me ; and taking care he alone I delight. wrong not his neighbour in words, no more than in Ver. 4. Their sorrows shall be multiplied that basten deeds.
after another god : their drink-offerings of blood will Ver. 3. He that backbiteth not with bis tongue, nor
I not offer, nor
tbeir names into my lips.] They doth evil to his neighbour, nor taketh up a reproach multiply idols, (here in this place whither I am against bis neighbour.] He that doth not abuse his driven, i Sam. xxvi. 19.), and are zealous in the sertongue to calumny and detraction, nor is any other vice of another god : but I will never forsake thee, way injurious to his neighbours who neither re. by partaking with them in their abominable sacrifiproaches his neighbour himself, nor lightly believes, ces, in which the blood of men is offered, not by increases, or spreads the reproaches which are begunswearing by the name of any of their false gods. by others :
Ver. 5. The LORD is the portion of mine inberitance, Ver. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemne.l; but and of my cup: tbou maintainest my lot.] The Lord be bonouretb them that fear the LORD: be that swiar of heaven and earth is the God whom I serve : he, eth to bis own burt, and changeth not.] Who never who is the supreme dispenser of all things, hatı courts men for their riches and power, if their wicked- given me a kingdom for my portion, where he him. ness makes them despicable; but honours those who self is worshipped ; and he will defend and maintain are truly pious, though never so poor ; and who hath my title to it, while I adhere to him: such a respect to religion, that whatsoever he promi Ver. 6. The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant ses by oath he will perform, though he loses never places ; gea, I have a goodly heritage.] As I am re. so much by keeping his faith.
solved to do ; for there is no place so pleasant as that Ver. 5. He that putteth not out his money to usury, where he is worshipped; no country comparable to nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth that, (for all manner of good things), which he hath. tbese things shall never be moved.] He who orders his settled upon me, though I am not yet possessed of private affairs so exactly, that he makes no gain of it. the money he lends to his poor brethren, (Exod. xxii. Ver. 7. I will bless the LORD, who hath given me. 25. Deut. xxiii. 19. 20.), and behaves himself so well counsel : my reins also instruct me in the night-season.] when he is in public office, that no gift can corrupt I will therefore praise the Lord, and acknowledge his him to condemn the innocent, or absolve the guilty. love ; who hath hitherto guided me to behave myself, He that lives after this manner, need never fear to so prudently, that my enemies have not been able to fall from my favour,
surprise me. In the darkest night of aMiction, when VOL. III.
I could not see my way, he hath secretly inspired my sence : let thine eyes behold the things that are equal.] mind with wise thoughts, and admonished me what Who hast long suspended thy sentence ; and let my course to take for my preservation.
enemies pursue me as if I was guilty ; but I humbly Ver. 8. I have set the LORD always before me : be intreat thee at last openly to acquit me, and to shew cause he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.]. This that thou regardest the greatness of no man's person, hath ever been my practice, to conceive God always but only his uprightness and integrity. present to me: and since he is still nigh to support Ver. 3. Thou bast proved mine beart, thou hast visitand defend me, the fiercest assaults of my enemies ed ine in tbe night, thou hast tried mey and sbalt shall never be able to deject me from that dignity find nothing : I am purposed that my mouth shall not which he hath designed for me.
transgress.] Thou art privy to the inmost thoughts of Ver. 9. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory re- my heart s in the greatest retirements thou seest what jčiceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope.] In con I design ; and bast tried me also (as gold in the fire) fidence of which I feel not only a perfect satisfaction, by many afilictions, which thou didst never find to but joy and triumph of heart. My tongue cannot but make me think of any unlawful courses for my preboast of it; and be my condition never so weak and servation : but still I have been what I pretended, and low, I shall rest in hope to be raised up again. my words and secret thoughts have always agreed to
Ver. 10. For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell ; ther wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.] Ver. 4. Concerning the works of men, by the word of For thou will not suffer me to remain always in this my lips I have kept me from the puths of the destroyer.] forlorn condition, nor let him whom thou hast anoint. I know what men are ape to do in such circumstances, ed to be king be destroyed by Saul; (much less let but the respect I bear to thy commandments hath that great King perish, whom thou hast promised of preserved me from those murderous practices, which my seed; but though they kill him and lay him in the violent man would have boldly attempted, (1 Sam. his grave, thou wilt take hiin from thence, and raise xxvi. 8.) him from the dead, before his body be in the least Ver. 5. Hold up my goings in thy paths; that my corrupted).
footsteps slip not.] And
I beseech thee still confirm me Ver. 11. Thou wilt show me the path of life : in thy in this resolution, that no temptation may make me presence is fulness of joy, at iby right band there are forsake that tract of virtue in which I have hitherto pleasures for evermore,] Thou wilt shew me the way persisted. to escape out of all these dangers, (and do much more Ver. 6. I have called upon tbee, for thou wilt bear for the Messiah, who, being raised from the dead, me, O God: incline thine ear unto me, and hear my shall live eternally); and not only preserve my life, speech.] And in which I doubt not to be safe ; for I but satiate me with joy, when thy favour hath settled have never cried unto thee, but thou hast granted my me on the throne, by that Almighty power which is request, and wilt not now, I hope, refuse to conde. able to dispense everlasting happiness; (and will scend unto it, but admit of this appeal which I make certainly exalt the Messiah to reign at thy right hand to thee, and do me right. in endless joy and pleasure, after all his grievous suf Ver. 7. Shew thy marvellius loving-kindness, Oibou serings).
that savest by thy right hand them which put their trust in thee, from those that rise up against them.] Thy
mercy will appear most wonderful in my preservation PSALM XVII.
from this imminent danger wherein I am. Magnify it,
therefore, Othou whose property it is to interpose THE ARGUMENT.-A prayer of David ; wherein he thy mighty power for the deliverance of such as con
humbly represents to God his innocence in those fide in nothing but thy omnipotent goodness, from things whereof he was accused, (of affecting the
those who rise up against them to destroy them. kingdom, I suppose, and seeking the life of Saul,
Ver. 8. Keep me as the apple of the eye : bide me un1 Sam. xxiv. 9.) ; and therefore beseeches him to
der the shadow of thy wings] I commend myself to grant him deliverance from his persecutors and ca- thy watchful providence ; beseeching thee to defend lumniators, (Saul, it is most likely, and those that
me with the same care that we do the tender part in * set him on): see Theodoret.
the midst of our eye.
As å hen covers her chickens
under her wings from the ravenous bird that hovers Ver. 1. HI EAR the right, O LORD, attend unto my
E AR the right, 0 LORD, attend unto my over them to devour them ;
cry: give ear unto my prayer, that goeth Ver. 9. From the wicked that oppress me, from my not out of feigned lips.] I am oppressed, O Lord, with deadly enemies, who compass me about.] So do thou, o such false accusations, that I have no way but to ap- Lord, protect me, (who fly unto thee for safety), from peal to thee, who art the righteous Judge of the the wicked that are about to seize on me and spoil world; beseeching thee to deal with me according to me ; from those deadly enemies, which have beset the justice of my cause. It is my most earnest re me round, with eager hopes and desires to destroy quest to thee, and I desire no favour of thee, if these lips have spoken any deceitful words against Saul, or Ver. 10. They are inclosed in their own fat : with do now dissemble with thy majesty ;
their mouth they speak proudly.] Who are so stuffed Ver. 2. Let my sentence come forth from thy pre. with worldly goods, and have thriven so long in their
Like a young
ungodly courses, that they are grown extremely proud course of the long persecution and opposition he of their power; and not only haughtily threaten my met withal, before he could get the kingdom. For destruction, but presumptuously brag as if they had which singular providence he still gave particular already accomplished their desire.
thanks to God after every deliverance or victory Ver. 11. They bave now compassed us in our steps ; which he vouchsafed himn : but at last, (so great they have set tbeir eyes bowing down to the earth ;] was his piety), he made one general acknowledgeAnd indeed they have now gotten me and my
follow ment of God's goodness to him, when he was ers into a very great strait, (1 Sam. xxiii. 26.), and peaceably settled upon his throne, in delivering him which way soever we turn ourselves, we are in danger from the Philistines, the Syrians, and other nations, to fall into the hands of those who have stedfastly re who rose up against him, (and that in a miraculous solved our atter ruin.
manner, as he describes it, ver. 13. 14. &c. where Ver. 12. Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, Theodoret observes, that in his time God scattered and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.] No the enemies of Christians by the like dreadful dion can be more desirous to tear a lamb in pieces, tempests); but especially from Saul, who (as he than Saul is to make a prey of me.
was the first, so was the most violent, implacable, lion in his den, he watches when an opportunity will and dangerous of all his enemies. offer itself, that he may fall upon me, (1 Sam. xxiii.
The sense of the Psalm is this. 7. 8. xxiv. 2. &c.)
Ver. 13; Arise, O LORD, .sappoint bim, cast bim Ver. 1. I will love thee, O LORD sy strength.] I down : deliver my soul from the wicked, wbich is thy
love thee, O Lord, to whom I owe my sword ;] Delay no longer, therefore, O Lord, but safety and preferment, with the most passionate and speedily appear to defeat him. Throw him down to ardent affection : and I will never cease to love thee the ground when he thinks to fall upon me: and thus, as long as ever I live. though thou hast suffered the wicked to wound me sore Ver. 2. The Lord is iny rock and my fortress, and ly, yet let him not kill me, who depended upon thy my deliverer ; my God, my strength, in whoin 1 trust; power, which is able to deliver me.
my buckler, and í be horn of my salvation, and my bigh Ver. 14. From men which are tby band, o LORD, tower.] For it was not the caves and lurking places, from men of the world, which have their portion in this (1 Sam. xxii. 1. 5. xxiii. 23.), nor the fortresses and life, and whose belly tbou fillest with thy bid treasure : strong holds, (xxiii. 24. 19. 29.), the rocks and imthey are full of children, and leave the rest of their sub- pregnable forts, (xxiv. 2 ), the high mountains and stance to their babes.] He hath many, I know, that steep hills to which I Aed, (xxvi. I.), that preserved join with him to destroy me; but they are only mor me from my enemies; but the Lord Almighty, whom ial men, O Lord, who can do nothing but what thou I made my refuge, and whom I acknowledge for my permittest them, for my correction ; worldly men, deliverer : to his gracious providence, and powerful who look no farther than this present life, and desire protection, I ascribe my safety, and will never conno other satisfaction, but to be very rich, to have a nu. fide in any other security ; he defended me in the merous posterity, and to leave them great estates most dangerous assaults of my enemies; he repelled when they can enjoy them no longer.
all their forces, and placed me out of the reach of Ver. 15. As for me, I will behold thy face in righ. their violence. teousness: 1 shall be satisfied, when I awake with thy like Ver. 3. I will call upon the LORD, who is worthy to ness.] Which prosperity I do in nowise envy them, be praised : so shall I be saved from my enemies.] Praibut think myself happy that I can approach into thy sed, therefore, be the Lord, unto whom I humbly compresence, and with a good conscience wait for thy fa. mended myself by prayer (as I mean to do always) vour : nothing doubting, but when thou shalt shew in my distresses, and he delivered me from all my thyself in thy majesty and power, it will be abundante eneinies. ly to my satisfaction.
Ver. 4. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the
floods of ungodly men made me afraid.] When there PSALM XVIII.
appeared no way for my escape, but they thought that they had me as sure as a bird taken in a net;
when whole troops of ungodly men poured in upon To the chief musician. A Psalm of. David, the servant of the Lord, who spake unto the Lord the words of me, as a torrent that threatened to sweep me quite
away ; this song, in the day that the Lord delivered him from
The sorrows of hull compassed me about : the the hand of all his enemies, and from the band of Saul ; and he said,
snares of death prevented me.] When I had no more power over myself, than a dead man bound band and
foot in his grave; (so suddenly was I entangled in THE ARGUMENT.-A psalm composed by David, their deadly snares, 1 Sam. xxiii. 26.)
(whom the Lord chose to serve him in governing Ver. 6. In my distress I called upon the LORD, and the children of Israel), and delivered by him to cried unto my God : he heard my voice out of his temph, the master of the music in the tabernacle, for a per- and my cry came before him, even into his ears.] This petual conmemoration of God's gracious care over was iny belief in such grievous straits : I made my him, and preservation of him, through the whole usual addresses to the Lord, and with great earnesi
ness supplicated my most merciful God, who had so of many and great dangers, which like a deluge were often delivered me : and, though he be so infinitely ready to overwhelm me. above us in his heavenly palace, he did not despise Ver. 17. He delivered me from my strong enemy, and my petition, but it was admitted into his presence, from them which hated me : for they were too strong for and found a gracious audience.
me.] He delivered me first from that mighty giant Ver.
Then the earth shook and trembled; the founda- Goliah, and then from Saul, whose power I was not tions also of the hills moved, and were shaken, because he able to withstand ; and afterwards from the Philistines was wroih.] For he instantly appeared in a sensible and Syrians, and many other nations, whose forces manner to confound my enemies; who saw his wrath- were far superior unto mine, and whose hatred instiful displeasure in the dreadful tempest which fell gated them to do all they could to destroy me. 11 pon them, and made the very earthtremble under Ver. 18. They prevented me in the day of my calamithem.
ty: but the LORD was my stay.] When I was weak Ver. 8. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and and unable to resist, they suddenly invaded me; but fire out of his inouth devoured : coals were kindled by the Lord would not suffer them to overthrow me: it.] There was nothing to be seen but fuming smoke (1 Sam. xxiii. xxiv. &c.) and devouring fire ; which at his command shot out Ver. 19. He brought me furth also into a large place: burning coals among them.
he delivereil me, because he delighted in me.] But Ver.
9: He bored the heavens also, and came down : brought me out of those straits into a state of perfect and darkness was under his feet.] His glorious majesty liberty. He delivered me, (when they thought they also visibly shewed itself, bowing the heavens, (the had pent me up so close that I could not escape them), place of its residence), and coming down in a thick because he had a kindness for me. cloud, which was spread as a carpet under it.
Ver. 20. The LORD rewarded me according to my Ver. 10. And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly : yea, righteousness, according to the cleanness of my hands hath be did Ay upon the wings of the wind.] Some of the be recompensed me.] He knew also that I was unjustly principal angels were its chariot, wherein it rode very persecuted; and therefore rewarded me according to swiftly; and a rapid wind was the token of their pre- the integrity of my heart, and the purity of my acsence, (2 Sam. v. 24.)
tions; which were never guilty of that whereof they Ver. 11. He made clarkness his secret place : his pa- accused me. vilion round about him were dark waters, and thick Ver. 21. For I have kept the ways of the LORD, and clouds of the skies.] A great darkness obscured it; for have not wickedly departed from my God.] For I never round about it were the rest of the heavenly ministers took any unlawful courses for my deliverance ; but disposed to attend upon it in watery vapours, and thick when Saul fell into my hands, I would not kill him, clouds of the sky.
because he was the Lord's anointed, (1 Sam. xxiv. Ver. 12. At the brightness that was before him his 10.) thick clouds passed, hailstones and coals of fire.] Who Ver. 22. For all his judgements were before me, and I going forth from his glorious presence, sent hailstones did not put away his statutes from me.] For I laid his and coals of fice (as in the days of Joshua, x. 11.) precepts before me, as the rule of my actions; and did in the face of
not bid them stand aside, when it seemed to be my Ver. 13. The LORD also thundered in the heavens, interest not to observe them: and the Highest gave his voice; hailstones and coals of Ver. 23. I was also upright before him: and I kept fire.] Which were followed with such terrible thun- myself from mine iniquity.] But chose rather to suffer der, (like that in the days of Samuel, 1 Sam. vii. 10.), any thing than lose my integrity : and how unjustly mixed with more hailstones and fiery exhalations, as soever my enemies dealt with me, I would not imi. declared the greatness of his majesty, and the mighti- tate them; but though I could not hinder theirs, kept ness of his power.
myself from mine iniquity. Ver. 14. he sent out his arrows, and scattered Ver. 24. Therefore hath the LORD recompensed me acthem; and he shot out lightnings, and discomfited them.] cording to my righteousness, according to the cleanness of These were the arrows wherewith he scattered them: my hands in his eye-sight.] And therefore hath the there needed no other darts to discomfit them. Lord, who administers all things with the exactest
Ver. 15. Then the channels of waters were seen, and justice, and the greatest goodness, heard my prayer, the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, (1 Sam. xxvi. 23.), and dealt with me according to O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.] For my innocent intentions, which would not let me deeven the earth itself was rent and torn by them; they file my hands with the blood of Saul, when it was in cleft it asunder, and penetrated so deep, that the se my power to be revenged of him. cret abysses of it were discovered through the breaches Ver. 25. With the merciful thou wilt shew thyself that were made ;, when thou, O Lord, in great indig- merciful, with an upright man thou wilt shew thyself nation didst rebuke my enemies.
upright.] Such is the gracious method of thy proviVer. 16. He sent from above, be took me, he drew me dence, O Lord, who wilt do good to those who do out of many waters.] Nothing but such a power from good to others, and do them justice also (against their above could have preserved me, which the Lord was oppressors and calumniators) who preserve their inte. pleased graciously to extend to me: he laid hold on grity; me, and kept me from sinking; he snatched me out Ver. 26. With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure,