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their masters continue to abuse them, they sometimes kill themselves in their rage, by striking their heads alternately from right to left on the ground.
When these animals are among their native mountains, they associate in immense herds in the highest and steepest parts. Here they frequently climb rocks, along which no man would dare to follow them; and while the rest of a herd feed, one of them is always stationed as a sentinel on the point of some adjacent rock. When this animal observes any one approach, he gives a kind of neigh, and the herd, taking the alarm, run off with incredible speed. They gallop to a considerable distance, then stop, turn round, and gaze at their pursuers till they come near, and immediately set off again. They out-run all the Dogs, so that the inhabitants have no other mode of killing them than with guns.
The Llama which I saw in London in 1805, was supposed to have been at that time about eight months old. It had been taken in one of the Spanish ships which had fallen a prize to our seamen. No animal could, apparently, be more tame or docile; but it was
OWN easily irritated, and on such occasions always ejected its saliva on the offender. It seemed to bear our climate remarkably well.
GROUP OF LLANAS,
The Guanaco is a variety of the Llama. They are found in the southern parts of the Andes. When full grown it is nearly as large as a Horse. The hair is yellowish above and wbite below, the head rounded, ears straight, muzzle pointed, tail short. It is found wild in very large herds in the interior of Aroucano.
The Alpaca has given its name to a kind of cloth fabric made of its wool. The Alpaca is of a maroon brown color varied above with black, and below with white. The hair along the back is long and silky, and almost as fine in the staple as that of the Cashmere Goat.
It is easily tamed and is mild and docile in temper. Several specimens have thriven well in Europe; and it should be introduced into the United States on account of its value in the manu. facture of the Alpaca cloth.
OF THE MUSK TRIBE IN GENERAL.
In the lower jaw they have eight front teeth; and in the upper jaw two long tusks, one on each side, which project out of the mouth.
The Musk animals are inhabitants, alınost exclusively, of India and the Indian islands. Two or three of the species are so exceedingly small, as scarcely to exceed a Rabbit in size. They are very gentle, hut excessively timid: on the appearance of a man they fly with precipitation into the recesses of their native wilds. Like the Camels, they have no horns.
THE THIBETIAN MUSK
This species is destitute of horns. The ears are somewhat large, the neck is thick, and the hair on the whole body long, upright, and thick set. Each' hair is undulated, the tip ferruginous, the middle black, and the bottom cinereous. The limbs are slender, and of a black color; and the tail is so short as to be scarcely visible. The
length of the male is about three feet, and that of the female aoout two feet and a quarter; and their average weight is from twenty-five to thirty pounds.
These animals live retired among the highest and rudest mountains of Thibet, and some other parts of Asia. In the autumn, large flocks of them collect together for the purpose of migration southward, in consequence of the approaching cold. During this migration the peasants lie in wait for them, and either catch them by means of snares, or kill them with arrows and bludgeons. At these times they are often so meagre and languid, from hunger and fatigue, as to be taken without much difficulty; for they have no weapons of defence except their tusks. Their activity is very great, and they are able to take astonishing leaps over the tremendous chasms of the rocks. They tread so lightly on the snow, as scarcely to leave a mark; while the Dogs that are employed in the pursuit of them sink in, and are frequently obliged to desist from the chase. In a state of captivity they live but a short time.
In an oval receptacle, about the size of a small egg, is contained the well-known drug called musk. This bangs from the middle of the abdomen, and is peculiar to the male animal. A full-grown male will yield a drachm and a half, and an old one two drachms. The bag is furnished with two small orifices, the one naked and the other covered with oblong hairs. Gmelin states, that, on squeezing this bag, he forced the musk through the apertures, in the form of a brown fatty matter. The hunters cut off the bag and tie it up for sale, but often adulterate its contents by mixing them with other matter to increase the weight. The musk is even sometimes taken entirely out, and a composition of the animal's blood and liver (for this drug has much the appearance of clotted blood) is ivserted in its stead; but when the bags are opened, the imposition may be immediately detected. The deceit, however, most commonly practised, is that of putting into the bags little bits of lead, in order to augment the weight.
It is generally asserted, that when the musk-bag is first opened, so powerful an odour comes from it, that every person present is obliged to cover his mouth and nose with several folds of linen; and that notwithstanding this precaution, the blood will frequently gush from the nose. When the musk is fresh, a very small quantity of it in a confined place is insupportable; it causes giddiness in the head, and hemorrhages which have sometimes proved fatal.
Besides being of use on account of the musk they produce, the skins of these animals, in many of the countries where they are found, are used as winter-clothing. The Russians scrape off the hair, and have a method of preparing the leather so as to render it as soft and shining as silk; and this leather they adopt as part of their summer-dress.
These animals are found, in Eastern countries, in such numbers, that M. Tavernier informs us, he collected, in one journey, no fewer than seven thousand six hundred and seventy three musk-bags
The Chevrotains, a beautiful group of small animals are classed with the Musk Deer. There are three species, viz: 1. The Meminna ie eighteen inches in length, found in Ceylon, olive gray, dappled with white. 2. The Napu Chevrotain and the Karchil, both smaller than the Meminna, not larger, indeed than a common Hare, are found in Java. The Napu Chevrotain is a most delicate and beautiful little animal, brown above and white below, naked muzzle, short tail
, very slender legs, mild and gentle in captivity but indolent and only inte. resting from its surpassing beauty.
OF THE DEER IN GENERAL.
THESE animals have eight front teeth in the lower jaw. In general they are destitute of canine teeth; but in some of the species a single canine tooth is found on each side of the upper jaw.
This is au active tribe; inhabiting, principally wild and woody regions. In their contentions, both among each other and with the rest of the brute creation, these animals not only use their horns, but also strike furiously with their fore feet. Some of the species are employed by mankind as beasts of draught. The flesh of the whole tribe is wholesome; and that of some of the kinds, under the name of venison, is accounted particularly delicious.
The horns, which are only found on the heads of the males, are solid and branched. They are renewed every year; and, while young, are covered with a skin which is extremely vascular, and clothed with a fine velvety fur, that dries, shrivels, and falls off when the horns have attained their full size.
THE ELK, OR MOOSE DEER.
THE ELK, OR MOOSE-DEER.
This animal is generally larger than the Horse, both in height and bulk. The legs are long, the body is round, the neck short, and the head and ears are long. The hair of the male is black at the points, cinerous in the middle, and at the roots perfectly white. That of the female is of a sandy brown, but whitish under the throat, belly, and flank. The upper lip is square, very broad, deeply furrowed, and hangs much over the mouth; the nose is broad, and the nostrils are large and wide. The horns, which are found only on the males, have no brow-antlers, and the palms are extremely broad. They are shed annually; and some bave been seen that weighed upwards of sixty pounds.
The legs of Elks are so long, and their necks so short, that they can. not, like other animals, graze on level ground, but are obliged to browse the tops of large plants, and the leaves or branches of trees. In all their actions and attitudes they appear very uncouth; and, when disturbed, never gallop, but escape by a rapid kind of trot. In their common walk they lift their feet very high, and they are able, without difficulty, to step over a gate five feet in height.
Their faculty of bearing is supposed to be more acute than that either of their sight or scent. It is consequently extremely difficult to kill them in the summer-time; and the Indians have then no other method of doing this, than by creeping after them among the trees and bushes, till they get within gun-shot. In winter, however, when the snow is so hard frozen as to allow the natives to go upon it in their snow-shoes, they are able frequently to run the animals down; for the slender legs of the Elks break through the snow at every step, and plunge them up to the belly. They are so tender-footed, and so shortwinded, that a good runner will generally tire them out in less than a day.
In summer-time the Elks frequent the margins of rivers and lakes getting into the water in order to avoid the innumerable multitudes of musquitoes, and other flies that pester them during that season. They are often killed by the Indians while they are crossing rivers, or swimming from the main land to islands. When pursued in these situations, they make no resistance whatever. The young ones are so simple, that, in North America, Mr. Hearne has seen an Indian paddle bis canoe up to one of them, and take it by the poll without the least opposition; the poor harmless animal seeming, at the same time, as contented along-side the canoe, as if it were swimming by the side of its dam, and looking up in the faces of those who were about to be