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afforded by Toomer, the gamekeeper of the late Sir H. P. St. John Mildmay, actually breaking in a black New Forest Sow to find game, back and stand, nearly as well as a pointer. This Sow, when very young, took a great partiality to some pointer puppies that Toomer, then under-keeper of Broomy Lodge, in the New Forest, was breaking. It played and
often came to feed with them. From this circumstance it occured to Toomer, to use his own expression, “that, having broken many a Dog as obstinate as a Pig, he would try if he could also succeed in breaking a Pig.” The little animal would often go out with the puppies to some distance from home; and Toomer would entice it further by a sort of pudding made of barley-meal, which he carried in one of his pockets. The other he filled with stones, which he threw at the Pig whenever she misbehaved, as he was not able to catch and correct her, in the same manner as he did his Dogs. He informed Sir Henry Mildmay, who communicated to me this account, that he found the animal very tractable, and that he soon taught her what he wished, by this mode of reward and punishment. Sir Henry Mildmay, informed me that he had frequently seen her out with Toomer, when she quartered her ground, stood when she came on game, having an excellent nose, and backed other Dogs as well as he ever saw a pointer. When she came on the cold scent of game, she slackened her trot, and gradually dropped her ears and tail
, till she was certain, and she then fell down on her knees. So staunch was this animal that she would frequently remain five minutes and upwards on her point. As soon as the game rose, she always returned to Toomer, grunting very loudly for her reward of pudding, if it was not immediately given to her. When Toomer died, his widow sent the Pig to Sir Henry Mildmay, who kept it for three years, but never used it except for the purpose of amusing his friends. In doing this, a fowl was put into a cabbage net, and hidden among the fern in some part of the park, and the extraordinary animal never failed to point it, in the manner above described. Sir Henry was at length, obliged to part with this Sow, from a circumstance as singular as the other occurrences of her life. A great number of Lambs had been lost, nearly as soon as they were dropped, and a person having been sent to watch the flock, the animal was detected in the very act of devouring a Lamb. This carnivorous propensity was ascribed to her having been accustomed to feed with the Dogs, and to partake of the flesh on which they were fed. Sir Henry sent her back to Mrs. Toomer, who sold her to Mr. Sykes, of Brookwood in the New Forest, where she died the usual death of a Pig, and was converted into bacon.
The senses of taste and smelling are enjoyed by these animals in great perfection. Wind appears to have great influence on them; for when it blowe violently they seem much agitated, and run towards their sty, sometimes screaming in the most violent manner. Natur.
alists have also remarked that, on the approach of bad weather, they will bring straw to the sty, as if to guard against the effects of wind. The country people have a singular adage, that “Pigs can see wind."
That Swine are extremely tenacious of life is known to almost every person who is acquainted with their manners. The
most curious instance that I have met with of this, in any writer, is in Josselyn's account of two voyages to New England. I shall insert the passage, though I by no means intend to vouch for its truth. “Being at a friend's house in Cambridgeshire, the cook-maid making ready to slaughter a Pig, she put the hinder parts between her legs, as the usual manner is, and taking the snout in her left hand, with a long knife stuck the Pig, and cut the small end of the heart almost in two, letting it bleed as long as any blood came forth; then throwing it into a kettle of boiling water, the Pig swam twice round about the kettle; when taking it out to the dresser, she rubbed it with powdered rosin, and stripped off the hair, and as she was cutting off the hinder petty-toe, the Pig lifted up his head with open mouth, as if it would have bitten. Well, the belly was cut up, the entrails drawn out, and the heart laid upon the board, which, notwithstanding the wound it received, had motion in it above four hours after. There were several of the family by, with myself, and we could not otherwise conclude but that the Pig was bewitched.”
The females go four months with young, and have very numerous litters, sometimes as many as twenty at a time. These animals live to a considerable age, even to twenty-five or thirty years.
In the island of Sumatra there is a variety of this species, that frequents the impenetrable bushes and marshes of the sea-coast. These animals live on Crabs and roots: they associate in herds, are of a gray color, and smaller than the English Swine. At certain periods of the year they swim in herds, consisting of sometimes a thousand, from one side of the river Siak to the other, at its mouth, which is three or four miles broad, and again return at stated times. This kind of passage also takes place in the small islands, by their swimming from one to the other. On these occasions they are hun. ted by a tribe of the Malays, who live on the coasts of the kingdom of Siack, and are called Salettians.
These men are said to smell the Swine long before they see them, and when they do this they immediately prepare their boats. They then send out their Dogs, which are trained for this kind of hunting, along the strand, where, by their barking, they prevent the Swine from coming ashore and concealing themselves among the bushes. During the passage the Boars precede, and are followed by the fe. males and the young, all in regular rows, each resting its snout on the rump of the preceding one. Swimming thus in close rows, they form a singular appearance.
The Salettians, men and women meet them in their small, flat
THE ETHIOPIAN HOG.
boats. The former row, and throw large mats, made of the long leaves of the Pandamus odoratissima, interwoven through each other, before the leader of each row of swine, which still continue to swim with great strength, but, soon pushing their feet into the mats, they get so entangled as to be able either no longer to move, or only to move very slowly. The rest are, however, neither alarmed nor disconcerted, but keep close to each other; none of them leaving the position in which they were placed. The men then row towards them in a lateral direction; and the women, armed with long javelins, stab as many of the Swine as they can reach. For those beyond their reach, they are furnished with smaller spears, about six feet in length, which they dart to the distance of thirty or forty feet with a sure aim. As it is impossible for them to throw mats before all the rows, the rest of these animals swim off in regular order, to the places for which they set out, and for this time escape the danger. As the dead Swine are found floating round in great numbers, they are picked up and put into larger boats, which follow for the purpose.
Some of these swine the Salettians sell to the Chinese traders who visit the island; and of the rest they preserve in general only the skins and fat. The latter after being melted, they sell to the Maki Chinese ; and it is used by the common people instead of butter, as long as it is not rancid, and also for burning in lamps, instead of cocoa-nut oil,
THE ETHIOPIAN HOG.
This animal, in its general appearance, is much allied to the Common Hog; but is distinguished from it by a pair of large semicircular lobes or wattles, situated beneath the eyes. The snout also is much broader, and very strong and callous.
These creatures inhabit the wildest, most uncultivated, and hottest parts of Africa, from Senegal to Conga; and they are also found on the island of Madagascar. The natives carefully avoid their retreats, since, from their fierce and savage nature, they often rush
them unawares, and gore them with their tusks.
They reside principally in subterraneous recesses, which they dig by means of their nose and hoofs. If attacked and pursued, they rush on their adversary with astonishing force, striking like the common boar, with their tusks, which are capable of inflicting the most tremendous wounds.
A Boar of this species was sent, 1765, by the governor of the Cape of Good Hope to the Prince of Orange. From confinement and attention he became mild and gentle, except when offended ;, in which case even those persons to whose care he was entrusted, were afraid of him. In general, however, when the door of his cage was opened, he came out in perfect good-humor, gaily frisked about in search of food, and greedily devoured whatever was given him. He was one day left alone in the court-yard for a few minutes, and on the return of the keeper, was found busily digging into the earth, where, notwith
standing the cemented bricks of the pavement, he had made ao amazingly large hole, with a view, as was afterwards discovered, of reaching a common sewer that passed at a considerable depth below. It was not without much trouble, and the assistance of several men, that his labor could be interrupted. They at length, however, forced him into his cage ; but he expressed great resentment, and uttered a sharp and mournful noise.
His motions were altogether much more agile and neat than those of the common Hog. He would allow himself to be stroked, and even seemed delighted with rough friction. When provoked, or rudely pushed, he always retired backward, keeping his face towards the assailant, and shaking his head or forcibly striking with it. When, after long confinement, he was set at liberty for a little while, he was very gay, and leaped about in an entertaining manner. these occasions, he would, with his tail erect, sometimes pursue the fallow-deer and other animals.
His food was principally grain and roots; and of the former he preferred barley and wheat. He was so fond of rye bread, that he would run after any person who had a piece of it in his hand. In the acts of eating and drinking he always supported himself on the knees of his fore feet; and would often rest in this position. His eyes were so situated as to prevent his seeing around him, being interrupted by the wattles and prominences of his face; but, in compensation for this defect, his senses of smelling and hearing were wonderfully acute.
Dr. Sparrman, when he was in Africa, pursued several Pigs with the old Sows, with the intention of shooting one of them; but though he failed in this object, their chase afforded him singular pleasure. The heads of the females, which had before appeared of a tolerable size, seemed on a sudden to have grown larger and more shapeless than they were. This momentary and wonderful change astonished him so much the more, as, riding hard over a country full of bushes and pits, he had been prevented from giving sufficient attention to the manner in which it was brought about. The whole of the mystery however, consisted in this : each of the old ones, during its flight, had taken a Pig in its mouth; a circumstance that also explained to him another subject of his surprise, which was, that all the Pigs which he had just before been chasing along with the old ones, had vanished on a sudden. But in this action we find a kind of unanimity among these animals, in which they resemble the tame species, and which they have in a greater degree than many others. It is likewise very astonishing that the Pigs should be carried about in this manner between such large tusks as those of their mother, without being hurt, or crying out in the least. Dr. Sparrman was twice afterwards witness to a similar occurrence
The flesh of the Ethiopian Hog is well flavored and not unlike that of the German Wild Boar.
The Babyroussa inhabits the Molucca Islands and Java. It is
do site remarkable for possessing four tusks, two of which proceed from the upper jaw, and do not pass out between the lips, but through an aperture in the skin, half way between the end of the snout and eyes. The sockets of the two upper tusks are curved upwards, and give a singular appearance to
TO the skull of the animal. It looks
a ferocious animal, nor do its looks contradict its habits, as it is very savage, and cannot be hunted without danger. Yet when taken young it can be tamed without much difficulty, and conducts itself much after the manner of a well-behaved
Pig. Only the male possesses the remarkable double pair of tusks, the female being destitute of the upper pair, and only possessing those belonging to the under jaw in a rudimentary degree. It lives in troops, as do most of the Hog kind, and thus does much damage to the cultivated grounds, especially to the maize, a plant to which it is, unfortunately, very partial. It is a good swimmer, and often voluntarily takes to the water in order to cross to another island. The size of the animal when full grown, is about that of a very large Hog.
THE COMMON, OR COLLARED PECCARY.
The Common, or Collared Peccary, is an inhabitant of South America. This animal is both dreaded and hated by the resi. dents, for it is so exceedingly fero. cious, and so utterly devoid of all sense of fear, that it will always charge at any object that comes in its way; an Elephant would not scare it, if an Elephant were to be transported to South America. So it puts to fight those whom it attaeks, and they fly before it in