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THE CAPRICORN TRIBE_GLOW-WORM TRIBE.
faripacios parts of the grain on which they feed. Corn-lofts are often laid waste by these grubs, whose numbers are sometimes so great, as to devour nearly the whole of their contents. When the grub has attained its full size, it still remains within the grain, hidden under the empty husk. There, being transformed, it becomes a chry. salis; and, when it has attained its perfect state, it forces its way out.
It is no easy matter to discover by the eye the grains that are thus attacked, for, in external appearance, they are still large and full
. If, however, they be thrown into water, their lightness soon detects them.
To rid a granary of these destructive insects, it has been recommended to farmers to spread their corn in the sun, when the Weevils will creep out of their holes; and by often stirring the corn while in this situation, it is supposed they may be completely expelled. It is also said that they may be destroyed by strewing boughs of elder, or branches of henbane, among the corn. In a late Paris paper, a gentleman says, that about the month of June, when his granaries and barns, that had been much infested by Weevils, were all empty, be caused a number of the hills of the large ants to be collected in bags, and placed in different parts about them. The ants immediately attacked the Weevils that were on the walls and other parts, and destroyel them so completely, that in a very short time not a single Weevil was to be seen; and since that period, he says, they never appeared on his premises.
OF THE CERAMBIX, OR CAPRICORN TRIBE.
THE insects of the present tribe are among the most beautiful that are known. Their antennæ are frequently longer than the body. Many of the species diffuse a strong smell perceptible at a great distance; and some of them, when seized, emit a sort of cry, produced by the friction of the thorax on the upper part of the abdomen and wing.cases.
Their larve are found in the inner parts of trees, through which they bore, feeding on and pulverizing the substance of the wood. They are transformed into perfect insects in the cavities they thus make, and never issue from their retreats till they have attained their perfect state.
OF THE LAMPYRIS, OR GLOW-WORM TRIBE.
The name of this insect is derived from the luminous appearance of the posterior part of its abdomen. The males are all winged, but most of the females are destitute of wings. In some of the species the males are not luminous. The larvæ, which feed chiefly on plants and leaves, nearly resemble the females in appearance.
There are about sixty known species, inhabitants of different parts of the world.
TIE COMMON GLOW WORM.
THE COMMON GLOW-WORM.
During the summer season these insects are observed after sun-set in meadows, by road sides, and near bushes.
They are chiefly to be seen during the months of June and July. In the day-time they conceal themselves amongst the leaves of plants.
Each sex is luminous, but in the male the light is less brilliant than in the female, and is confined to four points, two of which are situated on each side of the two last rings of the abdomen. The utility of the bright light of the females is supposed to consist in attracting the attention of the males during the dark, when, only, they are able to render themselves conspicuous. They always become much more lucid when they put themselves in motion. This would seem to indicate that their light is owing to their respiration; in which process, it is probable, phosphoric acid is produced by the combination of oxygen gas with some part of the blood, and that a light is given out through their transparent bodies by this slow internal combustion. By contracting themselves, the insects have a power of entirely with. drawing it: when they are at rest, very little light is to be seen M. Templer, who made many observations on these insects, says that he never saw a Glow-worm exhibit its light at all, without some sensible motion either in its body or legs. This gentleman, when the light was most brilliant, fancied that it emitted a sensible heat.
If the insect be crushed, and the hands or face be rubbed with it, they contract a luminous appearance, similar to that produced from phosphorus. When a Glow-worm is put into a phial, and the phial is immersed in water, a very beautiful irradiation will be found to take place.
The female Glow-worms lay a great number of eggs on the turf or plants on which they live. These eggs are somewhat large for the size of the insects, of a round shape, and lemon color. When first deposited, they are covered with a yellow, viscous matter, which serves to fix them to the plant.
When full grown the larvæ are about an inch long, and so nearly resemble the female in appearance, that it is a difficult matter to distinguish the sexes. When they change to their pupa state, the skin generally splits on the middle of the head and back, and leaves an opening sufficient to give passage to the whole body.
As soon as the larvæ is completely disengaged from the skin, it curves its body into an arc, and is then in a pupa state. It still has much resemblance to the larya. The only indication of life now, is its curvature, from time to time, downwards, and its moving occasionally from side to side.
OF THE ELATER, OR SKIPPER TRIBE. The Elaters fly with great facility, and when thrown upon their tacks, they are able to recover their position without using their feet:
for this purpose the thorax terminates in a strong elastic spine, which is placed in a cavity of the abdomen. The insects, when upon their back, raise up the middle part of their body, so as to leave only the head and tail in contact with the
plane on which they lie. The spine of the thorax is by this motion brought considerably out of its lodgment, and made to press against the side. Being from this position again slipped into its groove, with all the force the creatures are able to exert, the thorax and abdomen come together with so sudden a jerk, as to raise the body from the plane, and enable them to spring round.
The larvæ live and undergo their changes in the trunks of decayed trees.
OF THE DYTISCUS, OR WATER BEETLE TRIBE
THE bodies of these insects are admirably formed for passing through the water with as little impediment as possible, being nearly boat-shaped, and on the surface perfeotly smooth. They inhabit ponds and ditches, but occasionally fly in search of other waters. The males are distinguished from the
females, by having a horny concave Alap or shield on the forelegs. The hind legs in both sexes are peculiarly adapted for the aquatic residence of the insects, being furnished on the inner sides with a series of long and close-set filaments, so as somewhat to resemble fins. In the large species, the elytra or wing.cases of the males are smooth, aud those of the females furrowed.
The larvæ are extremely voracious, feeding on other aquatic in. sects, on worms, and even on young fish. They continue in this state about two years and a half; and when about to change into pupa, they form a convenient cell, and secrete themselves for the purpose in the banks or amongst the weeds.
THE MARGINED WATER BEETLE.
Although water is the principal element in which these insects reside, they are perfectly amphibious. They may occasionally be found in all fresh waters; but are most frequently seen either in such as are stagnant, or where the stream is extremely low.
They are predatory and very voracious, devouring, in great num. bers, not only other water-insects, but also those of the land. They seize their prey in their forelegs, and with these carry it to the mouth.
BOMBARDIER, OR EXPLODING BEETLE.
Although they are able to continue immersed for a great length of time, yet it is necessary for them to rise occasionally to the surface of the water, in order to breathe. They swim with great celerity; and, in flying, they make a hum. ming or droning noise, like other Beetles.
The larvæ have powerful jaws, and six long legs. At the posterior part of their body, which tapers towards the extremity, there are two small, slender processes, situated somewhat obliquely, and moveable at the base. It is by means of these that the larvæ suspends itself at the surface of the water, for the purpose of respiring the air of the atmosphere, which it does through two small cylindrical tubes, situated at the extremity of the tail.
When the larvæ change their place in the water, or seek to escape the attack of their enemies, they give a prompt and vermicular motion to their body, and strike the water forcibly with their tail. They are excessively voracious, subsisting chiefly on the larvæ of dragon-flies, ephmerx, gnats and other insects. When the time of their transfor . mation approaches, the larvæ quit the water, and enter the earth near the banks of the ponds or ditches which they frequent. Here they form a cavity in the form of an oval case, in which they undergo their change into pupe, and afterwards into winged insects.
Thus these little creatures are aquatic animals in the larve state, become terrestrial under the form of pupe, and amphibious when perfect insects.
OF THE CARABUS, OR GROUND BEETLE TRIBE.
THESE insects are very active and voracious, devouring the larvæ of the other tribes, and indeed all the smaller animals they can overcome. They conceal themselves under stones, or moss, and particu. larly under such as happen to be near the roots of old trees. Frequently, however, they are to be seen running about on the roads and fields. Some of the species are destitute of wings.
The larvæ are found chiefly in decayed wood, or under the ground, where they undergo their various changes.
THE BOMBARDIER, OR EXPLODING BEETLE.
This insect conceals itself among stones, and seems to make little use of its wings. When it moves it is hy a sort of jump; and, when it is touched, we are surprised with a noise resembling the discharge of a m'isket in miniature, during which a blue sruoke may bo seen to proceed from its extremity. The insect may at any time
be made to play off its artillery, by scratching its back with a needle. If we may believe Rolander, who first made these observations, it can give twenty discharges successively. A bladder placed near its posterior ex. tremity, is the arsenal that contains its store. This is its chief defence against its enemies; and the vapor or liquid that proceeds from it is of so pungent à nature, that if it happen to be discharged into the eyes, it makes them smart as though brandy bad been thrown into them. The principal enemy of the Bombardier is another insect of the same tribe, but three or four times its size. When pursued and fatigued, the Bombardier has recourse to this strat agem: he lies down in the path of his enemy, who advances with open mouth to seize him : but, on the discharge of the artillery, the enemy suddenly draws back, and remains
for awhile confused, during which the Bombardier conceals himself in some neighboring crevice; but, if not lucky enough to find one, the other returns to the attack, takes the insect by the head, and tears it off.
OF THE LYTTA TRIBE.
THE antennæ of the Lytta are of equal thickness throughout; the feelers are four in number, unequal in size, and the hind ones are clavate. The thorax is roundish: the head inflected and gibbous. The shells are soft, flexile, and as long as the abdomen.
THE BLISTERING LYTTA, OR SPANISH-FLY.
In the south of France, in Spain, and in Italy, these insects are
in great abundance about the time of the summer solstice. They feed on the leaves of trees and shrubs, particularly on those of the privet, lilac, woodbine, elder, poplar, and ash. On the last named tres they are sometimes scen in such swarms, as,
THE BLLOTERING LITTL