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South. He was gradually reduced to the verge of starvation, and then accepted a position in the Naval Construction Depart. ment of the Confederacy. He was put to work superintending the cutting of timber in the woods near Portsmouth, and while there he and a companion seized an engine and ran it through to Norfolk. The road was picketed by rebels and the telegraph informed them of Mr. Butt's escapade. They fired volley after volley at him as he went past, but none of the bullets hit him. From Norfolk he made his way North.

ville, and says he, Paine, why don't you read law?" Says I, “Read law!" ' Says he, “You just go to reading law.” And I thought about it. After I left him, and was riding on alone home to Garrettsville, and when I got there I went down three miles afoot to Judge Tilden, and borrowed the first volume of Blackstone, and I got to reading law. If there is anybody to blame for it, it is Judge Ranney.

An official decision has been rendered, as to when the War of the Rebellion officially commenced and ended. In connection with the act of Congress authorizing a retired list for privates and non-commisioned officers of the army who have served thirty years and upward, the Secretary of War has issued a general order in which it is held that the war began April 15, 1861; that war service" includes service rendered as a commissioned officer; that the war ended August 20, 1866; but to entitle the applicant to double time for service after April 2, 1866, it must appear affirmatively that such service was rendered in the State of Texas.

THERE died in Brooklyn, New York, some weeks ago, a man who showed considerable resolution and courage, in defense of his principles, during the War of the Rebellion. Although born in Virginia, George W. Butt was an earnest Union man, and he refused in Jefferson Davis's presence to take up arms against the North. He was outspoken in his loyalty to the Federal cause and finally had to come to this side of Mason and Dixon's line. Previous to that, he, with eight others, had been kidnapped and lodged in Libby Prison. Mrs. Butt went to the Confederate President's office, and after much hard work got an order for her husband's release. Mr. Butt refused to accept his discharge unless his companions were liberated at the same time, and his demand was at last acceded to, but a provision was inserted in the order to the effect that Mr. Butt must not leave the

Tủe literature of prophecy, as to the future of America, is rich and varied, and the late Charles Sumner performed a great service, when he collected the most notable specimens. Here, for instance, was Sir Thomas Browne, an Englishmen of some note, who was born on October 19th, 1605, and died on October 19th, 1682. Two years after his death was published a tract from his pen, in which occurs a prophecy as to the future greatness of America. "As a much admired author," says Sumner, some of whose writings belong to our English classics, his prophetic prolusions are not unworthy of notice. They are founded on verses entitled “The Prophecy,"purporting to have been sent him by a friend, among which are the follow ing: " When New England shall trouble New Spain, When Jamaica shall be lady of the isles and the main; When Spain shall be in America hid, And Mexico shall prove a Madrid; When Africa shall no more sell out their blacks To make slaves and drudges to the American tracts; When America shall cease to send out its treasure, But employ it at home in American pleasure; When the New World shall the Old invade, Nor count them their lords but their fellows in trade; Then think strange things have come to light, Whereof but few have had a foresight."

The famous prophecy of Bishop Berkeley, penned about 1726, may be appropriately quoted here. It appeared in a noble poem, entitled: "Verses on the Prospect of Plantcountry must necessarily be divided into separate States and Kingdoms."

I say


From the Marquis D'Argenson, a noble of France, about 1745: "Another great event to arrive upon the round earth is this. The English have in North America domains great, strong, rich, well-regulated. There are in New England a parliament, governors, troops, white inhabitants in abundance, riches, and mariners, which is worse. that some bright morning these dominations can separate from England, rise and erect themselves into an independent republic. What will happen from this? Do people think of this ? A country well regulated by the arts of Europe, in condition to municate with it by the present perfection of its marine, and which by this will appropriate our arts in proportion to their improvement; patience. Such a country in several ages will make a great progress in population and in politeness; such a country will render itself in a short time master of America, and especially of its gold mines." He then speaks of the extension of commercial liberty, and improvement in the means of communication, and adds: “And you will then see how the earth will be beautiful. What culture. What new arts and new sciences. What safety for commerce. Navigation will precipitate all the people toward each other. A day will come when one will go in a populous and regulated city of Cali. fornia as one goes in the stage-coach of Meaux." From these words one would almost imagine that the writer had a foreknowledge of the American republic, the wonders of steam, the railroad, and the great mechanical achievements of the Nineteenth century.

ing Arts and Learing in America,” and was as follows:

"The Muse, disgusted at an age and clime

Barren of every glorious theme
In distant lands now waits a better time,

Producing subjects worthy fame.
"Westward the course of empire takes its way;

The first four acts already past,
A fifth shall close the drama with the day;

Time's noblest offspring is the last."

“It is difficult,” says

er, “to exaggerate the value of these verses, which have been so often quoted as to become a commonplace of literature and politics. There is nothing from any oracle, there is very

little from any prophecy, which can compare with them." Said Daniel Webster, at the laying of the corner-stone of the national capitol, on July 4th, 1851: “It was an intuitive glance into futurity; it was a grand conception, strong, ardent, glowing, embracing all time since the creation of the world, and all regions of which the world is composed, and judging of the future by just analogy with the past. And the inimitable imagery and beauty with which the thought is expressed, joined to the conception itself, render it one of the most striking passages in our language."

In Burnaby's “ Travels through the Middle Settlements of North America, in 1759 and 1760,” which was published in 1775, is found the following significant passage: “An idea, strange as it is visionary, has entered into the minds of the generality of mankind, that empire is traveling westward; and everyone is looking forward with eager and impatient expectation to that destined moment when America is to give the laws to the rest of the world.” The same wise author, in 1796, after America had won her independence, and adopted her form of constitutional governinent, declared that: “The present union of American States will not be permanent or last for any considerable length of time," and that "that extensive

ANOTHER great Frenchman, Montesquieu, in 1748 : “If this nation (France) sent out colonies, it would do it more to extend its commerce than its empire. As people like to establish elsewhere what is found estab

lished at home, it would give to the people County Lyceum of History and Natural of its colonies its own form of government, Science, Mt. Holly, N. J., and Prof. Oliver and this government carrying with it pros- P. Hubbard, of New York. Hon. David F. perity, we should see great peoples form Day, of Buffalo, was elected a corresponding themselves in the very forests which it sent member, them to inhabit."

A dispatch from New Orleans, under date At the March meeting of the Oneida His. of February 26, declares that the oldest torical Society, Dr. M. M. Bagg reported the church building in Louisiana and the Missis. receipt of a number of books, among them sippi Valley, was in danger of dropping into being several from the late Mrs. Catherine the water at any time. This the church of Rockwell, on religious subjects. The same St. Francis, in Ponte Coupee parish. The lady gave a sea captain's outfit of 250 years church was erected in 1737, It stood originago and an old mail bag. Mrs. McConnell ally a long distance back from the river, and also gave a finely framed photograph of the there seemed no possibility that the Missis. first railroad train. Gen. Darling reported sippi would ever reach it. At that time it under correspondence in relation to the was the only church in that section of the World's Fair as follows : “I have to report country, and the only one between New that the work of this society in the World's Orleans and the Atlantic settlements. Its Fair is under the consideration by the com. congregation has grown steadily smaller by mittee, and that active steps will be taken to death, removals and disasters, until finally it see that the history of this section of the could no longer support a pastor, and it was country, as well as its archæology and pro- closed save at rare intervals when a priest gress, are properly represented. To this end, visited it to celebrate mass for the few Catho. and to our regular work, the influence of lics who still remain the vicinity. Around it every member is desired. We ask each to is a graveyard, in which for a century and a help increase the membership, and thus aid quarter the dead of Ponte Coupee and the us materially in our plans and progress.” neighborhood, numbering thousands, have

been buried, and which once contained some DANIEL BATCHELOR offered the following

handsome monuments. The river has de. resolution : That a committee be appointed stroyed this graveyard piecemeal, and there to take into consideration the propriety and is nothing left but crumbling bricks and rubadvisability of removing the remains of Gen. bish, for the bones of the dead have been Nicholas Herkimer from the farm of Dan. carried away by the currents. Last year the ube, Herkimer county, to the monument Mississippi came within a few feet of the grounds at Oriskany. The resolution was Church, when an effort was made to raise adopted and Hon. Samuel Earl, Hon. Titus money to remove the building, but this was Sheard, of Herkimer, and Hon. Henry J. found impossible. This year another caving Coggeshall, of Oneida, were appointed by in of the bank is imminent. "When it the Chair as such committee. Gen. Darling comes, the Church of St. Francis, only eight proposed the following names for member- years younger than the famous Old South ship: As a resident member, J. K. Chamber. Church of Boston, will be carried away by layne, and as corresponding members B. F. the elements." H. Shreve, Secretary of the Burlington



To the Editor:

The Missouri Historical Society, located in St. Louis, has an archæological collection whose worth is to be measured by quality rather than quantity, as the 17,00) specimens displayed in the cases are selections from five times their number. It is largely local, three-fourths of the pieces being the finds of Missouri and Illinois-the remaider represents various localities in the United States.

Of axes, celts and like objects, there are over 500, and a fine show they make On the whole, the axes fashioned by the ancient people of Missouri, appear to excel all others in workmanship. Tools, implements and other objects made from soft iron ore, number about

Discoidal stones, pipes, bird and animal forms, hammers, balls, thumb stones, pitted and grinding stones, needles, awls, sinkers, shell ornaments, pendents, banner stones, implements of wood, bone and copper, in a word, the multitude of objects in use among the primitive populations are here exemplified by several thousand specimens. The show of pottery comprises about 450 examples, procured for the most part in Southeast Missouri and thereabouts. The custodian of this museum estimates that 1,500 well-chosen specimens will be required for a complete representation of the aboriginal clay manufacturers of the country.

This fine collection of pottery is chiefly the gift of Col. Geo. E. Leighton, it


gentleman of culture and wealth, who has taken interest in fostering this Department of American Historical Antiquities.

The exhibit of chipped stone-chiefly flint, so called-estimated at 13,000 examples, is assuredly very fine, and of the highest interest, as will be readily seen from the fact that the present actual number represents the best that could be got out of 60,000 pieces. Rigid care has been exercised to exclude whatever was doubtful as to place of find. The suite of flint knives, perhaps a dozen all told, 18 inches long to io inches, is probably unequalled in the world. Case after case displays flint implements of all sizes, some of huge dimensions-forms, and supposable use, grouped according to outline, and systematically arranged. More than 60 distinct forms are here shown, in their simplest and rudest examples as well as the most specialized. It is estimated by those in charge that there are over eighty different, well-defined forms or shapes of chipped stone, excluding blanks. The keeper of this museum conjectures that perhaps 30,000 well-chosen examples might possibly suffice to represent adequately the chipped stone of the United States,

Classification by form is followed in this collection, though not exclusively; but in every instance in which it is allowed to govern it is pushed to the extreme limit. Whether what is aimed at can be reached is

not absolutely certain, but if patience and skill suffice to insure success then all will be well.

The money value of the archæological department of the Missouri Historical is not one of the points on which a visitor can obtain information from those in charge; but it is pretty safe to say that the collection as

a whole, represents about $20,000. The work was started, it appears, nearly twenty years ago with $27. It is an illustration of what perseverence may, in time, accomplish, though it should be added that in this instance effort has always been guided by thorough knowledge of the subject matter in hand.

J. X. F.

AMONG THE BOOKS. "THE VIKINGS IN WESTERN CHRISTENDOM, true Viking age, and the actual history of the

A. D. 789 ro 888.” By C. F. Keary, M. Scandinavian folk, as recorded by themA. F. A S., author of “Outlines of Primi- selves. While Viking expeditions continued tive History," etc., etc. With Maps and to be made during the historical period, they Tables. Published by G. P. Putnam's took on a different character from those of Sons, New York,

the earlier age, and no longer absorbed the

larger part of the activity of the people. It is an interesting period of the world's • Thus," says Mr. Keary, “though the exhistory, that is covered in this study of the pression Viking Age, is often employed with strong and stirring nation of the north; a much wider significance, it would, I think, period when the Scandinavian peoples were be an advantage could its use be confined to in a state of growth, but had not yet reached just this epoch in the life of the Northern their full stature. Their national history has people and no other; to their age of Storm not, therefore, begun; but there is enough and Stress, the age of their formation." known of the epoch embraced within these One phase of history is dwelt upon with lines, to make a story of deep interest, and great stress by the author, in the discussion far from being fancy or guess-work, as to its of his theme, and that is its view as a long most important features. “The Viking Age struggle between Christianity and the of the Northern Folk,” says the author, “dif- heathenism of the North. The whole story fers from the corresponding epochs in the of the advance of the new religion of the history of other nations in this that it is East, through Rome, and on up to the North, illuminated by a faint ray of real history lent is traced with great care, and with an un. from the pages of contemporary but alien usual insight into the needs, the dangers and chroniclers, the chroniclers, I mean, of Chris- the conditions of the time. We see the tian Europe. Were it not for this faint gleam, Northern lands lying in darkness, with Odin, the earliest age of the Vikings would have and Balder, and Thor. Then the creed of remained for us as a mere tradition, some- heathen Germany; the advance of Christenthing known to have been, but not present- dom; and the first contests between the two. able in any realizable form; much, in fact, It is a story that must be read, before one what the Dorian Migration is in the history can understand either the growth of the of Greece." Yet he feels the necessity of Christian church, or of the great nations that drawing a distinction between the earliest or have beer. erected with Christian truth as

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