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should invariably be made via the Shasta Route and Northern Pacific Railroad.
These lines offer unrivalled advantages as a route for the business man or tourist. The Southern Pacific Railroad (Shasta Route) passes through the most beautiful sections of California, ROUTE. and in full view of Mt. Shasta. The Northern Pacific Railroad traverses the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and Minnesota, from Portland, Tacoma, and Seattle to St. Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth, passing through the most progressive and interesting sections of the States named,
Vestibuled trains are run daily between Pacific coast points and the East, with through Pullman sleeping car service between PORTLAND, ORE., and CHICAGO, ILL. The equipment is the best obtainable. Through express trains carry EQUIPMENT. accommodations for all classes of passengers. The dining car service is excellent and renders a trip over this line particularly enjoyable.
RATES AND PARTICULARS.
Round trip excursion tickets are now sold by all lines to California and North Pacific coast points at extremely low rates, TRIP with limit of six months and permitting of stopovers. The TICKETS. route should be selected when tickets are procured. Passengers should not fail to make the going or return journey via Northern Pacific Railroad-the Yellowstone Park and Dining Car Route.
Full information, with rates, maps, and other publications can be obtained on application to any General or District Passenger Agent, or
J. M. HANNAFORD,
Genl. Traffic Manager.
CHAS. S. FEE,
G. P. and T. A., N. P. R. R., St. Paul, Minn.
$11000 $8000 $9500
TO YELLOWSTONE PARK. Tickets covers all expenses of the trip from St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth, and Ashland, allowing the tourist ample time to visit principal points of interest.
TO PUGET SOUND. Tickets sold at this rate cover the round trip from Eastern terminals to Tacoma, Seattle, Victoria, or Portland. Passengers are allowed choice of route returning when securing tickets.
TO CALIFORNIA. Tickets should be called for going or returning via Northern Pacific Railroad, thus enabling the passenger to visit the wonderful cities of Helena, Butte, Spokane Falls, Tacoma, Seattle, and Portland, and the most beautiful sections of California and the great Northwest.
J. M. HANNAFORD,
TOAL ASKA. Tickets cover all expenses north of Tacoma, taking the passengers in view of the most splendid mountain peak. and the largest glaciers in the world. This trip through the inland passage can be made absolutely without discomfort from seasickness.
Gen'l Traf. Mgr., St. Paul, Minn.
giving particulars in regard to rates, routes, limits, steamer, reservation, etc., or for any special information desired concerning a trip over the DINING CAR LINE, to any General or District Passengar Agent, Northern Pacific Railroad, or
CHAS. S. FEE,
G. P. & T. A., St. Paul, Minn.
FOREMOST among those who pushed their way into the unknown wilds of the west, were the Jesuit missionaries. Dangers, privations, hardships, death itself in whatever form, were counted by them as but the fine dust in the balance when set over against the value of an immortal soul. Whatever differences of opinion may be entertained of their character and work in the world, but one opinion can prevail as to their heroism, their fortitude, their devotion to duty, and their unflinching fidelity to their trust. These men set about to convert the rude denizens of the western wilds to the true faith. They passed up the St. Lawrence, they navigated the Great Lakes, they traversed the forests of New York, of Canada, of Michigan, and of regions still more remote, bearing with them the cross, facing hardships, and meeting death fearlessly in their zeal. "This rich harvest," they said, "can be gathered only by watering these grounds with sweat, with tears, and with blood." Among them were Mar
These men were the forerunners of their countrymen; and the missionary was soon followed by the trader and the trapper, and these again by the soldier, who erected his military post and established a priority of claim in those distant regions. The French, by their conciliatory policy, following therein the example of the Jesuit fathers, acquired the friendship of the Indian, and the red man remained his faithful ally through many years of struggle and war.
It was long after the time of Cartier's operations in the valley of the St. Law
*A Tribute to Kane: and other Poems." By George W. Chapman. New York: 1860. Page 51.
rence, before any attempts at settlements were made by the French on the western continent. In 1604, DeMonts made a settlement at Port Royal, now Annapolis, in Nova Scotia. The whole region, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the adjacent islands, was named Acadia. In 1608, De Monts sent Samuel Champlain, a man of great daring and enterprise, up the St. Lawrence, for the purpose of opening up traffic with the natives. Champlain formed a settlement at Quebec. The next year he ascended the Richelieu river, and discovered the lake which now bears his name.
Louisiana was first explored by La Salle, a French trader, in 1682. He had proceeded by way of the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and the Illinois river to the Mississippi, and down the Mississippi to its mouth. He took possession of the whole country through which he passed, in the name of Louis XIV. King of France, and named it in New Orleans was founded in 1720. French posts were established along the water communication between Canada and New Orleans.*
*Thus by forming a line of forts, in some measure parallel to the coast, they inclose us between their garrisons and the sea, and not only hinder our extension westward, but, whenever they have a sufficient navy in the sea, can harass us on each side, as they can invade us at pleasure from one or other of their forts."-Dr. Johnson's "Introduction to the Political State of Great Britain; " 1756.
Thus early in their history the English colonies along the Atlantic seaboard found themselves hemmed in by the French claims on the north and west, and the Spanish on the south. The English settlements did not press heavily to the southward, so that except occasional difficulties between the Spaniards in Florida and the English in South Carolina, there was no serious trouble in that quarter; but soon most grievous embarrassments sprang up between the French and the English.
Their earlier difficulties did not originate in any conflict of interests in the new world. There was as yet room for all. But troubles between the parent countries beyond the sea, involved the colonists in difficulties not their own. James II., of England, had come into collision with the prevailing religious sentiment of his people, and the feeling against him became at length so bitter that he was constrained to abdicate his throne and flee to the Continent. He took refuge with the king of France. William of Orange, the son-in-law of King James, became king, and his wife, Mary, queen of England. Their joint reign is known in history as the reign of William and Mary. The French King, Louis XIV., espoused the cause of King James, and the quarrel thus originating in Europe extended across the ocean and involved the colonies. The war, known as King William's War, proceeded with varying success through eight years, and was concluded by the treaty of