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Ryswick in 1697. The principal stipulation of the treaty was that the French king should acknowledge William to be the lawful sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and should make no further attempt to disturb him in the possession of his kingdom.* Queen Mary had died during the progress of the war in 1694. In America, the most important event in King William's war was a successful expedition under Governor Phipps, of Massachusetts, against Port Royal in Acadia. The plunder of this place is said to have been sufficient to pay all the expenses of the enterprise. Nothing else, however, was gained. The English colonists in New York and New England suffered terribly at the hands of the Indian allies of the French. Schenectady, Haverhill, and other places felt the weight of the tomahawk in all its fury. By the terms. of the treaty of Ryswick, both parties were put into possession of the territories they had held at the beginning of the war.
But this peace was not of long duration. King James II. died in 1701, and the French king declared the son of the deceased monarch king of Great Britain and Ireland, under the title of
*After much discussion an article was framed, by which Lewis pledged his word of honor that he would not favor, in any manner, any attempt to subvert or disturb the existing government of England. William, in return, gave his promise not to countenance any attempt against the government of France."-Macaulay.
James III. This act on the part of Louis was in direct violation of the treaty of Ryswick, and was a gross insult to the king and the people of England. The affront was at once resented. William promptly recalled his ambassador from the court of France, and ordered the French envoy to quit his dominions. Parliament voted forty thousand men for the land service and the same number for the navy. But just in the midst of these great preparations, King William died from the effects of a fall from his horse, and the government devolved upon Anne, princess of Denmark, the daughter of King James II. Under her administration the war was carried on, and is known in our history as Queen Anne's War. This contest in its progress involved nearly all the nations of Europe as well as the colonies in North America. It lasted eleven years. It lasted eleven years. The New England settlements in particular were again subjected to the horrors of Indian warfare. In America no important transactions took place, except that Port Royal was again taken from the French. The name was changed to Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne. The war was ended by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. By this treaty, Acadia was ceded to England.
The treaty of Utrecht was followed by a long period of comparative peace. The colonies in America continued to prosper. In 1733, General James Oglethorpe made a settlement south of the Savannah river, where the city of
Savannah now stands. The country he called Georgia, in honor of the king of England, George II. This colony grew and flourished, notwithstanding some difficulties with the Spaniards in Florida. Farming was the great business of the country. Many years later than this period, Franklin thought that for every merchant or artisan in America, there were at least a hundred farmers.* The proportion could not have been less at this earlier period. Some schools had been established, and several newspapers were published. Manufactures and commerce began to receive some attention. This reign of peace and prosperity, how ever, was at length broken in 1744, by what is known as King George's War. This war also originated in certain European politics. Upon the death of Charles VI., Emperor of Austria, his vast dominions, which justly descended to his daughter Maria Theresa, became an object of ambition to several of the powers of Europe. In fact, there was a general scramble for portions of that magnificent empire. Among the rest, Louis XV., of France, desired to place upon the imperial throne a dependent of his own-Charles Albert, the Elector of Bavaria. King George II., was not only king of England, but was also Elector of HanHis attachment to Hanover was
extreme, and as Russel, in his History of Modern Europe, remarks, he "seemed only to value the British crown as it augmented his consequence in Germany."
The king of England was thus interested in behalf of his German possessions, which were endangered, while the people of England were greatly in sympathy with Maria Theresa as against the high-handed proceedings of the French king, who had collected a large army to carry out his designs. In this manner it was that the English people became involved in this continental struggle; and, as before, the quarrel extended to the colonies in America. America. The only event of import
ance in this country during the course of the war, was the capture of Louisburg, on the island of Cape Breton. General William Pepperell with three thousand two hundred men, sailed from Boston for Louisburg in the beginning of April, 1745. A month later he was joined by Admiral Warren with a British fleet and eight hundred men. Siege was laid to Louisburg at the end of May, and at the end of June the
"He was always going back to Hanover. In the year 1729, he went for two whole years, during which Caroline reigned for him in England, and he was not in the least missed by his British subjects. He went again in '35 and '36; and between the years 1740 and 1755 was no less than eight times on the Continent, which amusement he was obliged to give up at the outbreak of the Seven Years' war.""The Four Georges," By W. M. Thackeray George the Second.
whole island of Cape Breton was surrendered to the English. This was an achievement over which the colonists, to whom the victory was mainly due, greatly exulted. Louisburg was an extensive and important fortress. It had cost the French more than five millions of dollars, and on account of its supposed invulnerability it was popularly called the Gibraltar of America." The French were correspondingly mortified, and great preparations were made by them to recover the place. In 1746, the Duke d'Anville was sent with a fleet for that purpose; but storms and disease wrought such havoc in his fleet, that he was compelled to return to France unsuccessful. In 1748, a treaty of peace was
made at Aix-la-Chapelle. Louisburg was restored to the French. In all these wars the English colonists had suffered much, but the wars were practically fruitless of good so far as they were concerned, and the treaty of Aixla-Chapelle left them just where they had been before. The French were still in full possession of Canada and Louisiana, and the boundary lines of the colonial claims were undetermined and subjects of dispute. Peace founded on such an unsatisfactory treaty could be regarded as little more than an armistice, and only a few years later the long and bloody contest known as the French and Indian War broke out among the colonists in America. T. J. CHAPMAN.
THE STATE OF WASHINGTON: THE STORY OF ITS PIONEER DAYS.*
To defray the expenses necessary for an outfit for this missionary party the sum of $3,000 was appropriated by the Methodist Episcopal Church, at a missionary meeting in New York city, held on the 16th of October, 1833, and during the ensuing thirteen years, the same society expended from the voluntary contributions of its members, over $250,000, for the support of this and adjoining missions in Oregon, before the government of the United States asserted its authority over this region, or expended one dollar for even the care and protection of its citizens residing therein, though so much in need of and so richly deserving were they of that care and protection.
It is perhaps proper to state in this place that the Hudson Bay Company did not oppose the introduction and establishment of mission stations within its real or alleged jurisdiction, not anticipating the fact that the vicinity of these stations would in time become favorite locations for American settlers, and no doubt believing that the stay
*The above is a continuation of the address delivered by Col. W. F. Prosser, of North Yakima, before the Washington Pioneer Association, at its annual session at Seattle, June 3, 1890. Will be concluded in the next issue.
of missionaries among the Indians would be only temporary, and probably hoping that the habits of the Indians would be improved, and that they might become more industrious and faithful servants of the company, because of the labors of the missionaries amongst them. It may be also proper to state in this connection that Dr. John McLaughlin, the chief factor now, and until the year 1845, was a man of large, noble and generous principles and impulses, and that although he was at the head of an organization in Oregon which was decidedly and extremely hostile to the introduction of American ideas, or American settlers, yet he rendered great and valuable services first to the missionaries and afterwards to the incoming settlers, oftentimes furnishing them on credit or without charge, with food, clothing and transportation, and too often they were obliged to go to him for the care and protection which should have been afforded them by the government of the United States. Meanwhile the missionary work was progressing in the Eastern States, and in the spring of 1833, Rev. Samual Parker and Dr. Marcus Whitman, of the Presbyterian Church, were dispatched by the American Board of Commissioners for foreign
missions to the same field to examine and report upon suitable locations for missionary work. They traveled with a party in the employ of the American Fur Company, as far as Green river, where they conferred with a band of Nez Perce Indians, whose desire that a mission be established among them appeared to be so great that Dr. Whitman returned to the East to procure a sufficient force for at least two missions, and Dr. Parker continued his journey to the Nez Perce country and thence to Fort Walla Walla, at which place he arrived on the 6th of October. After resting two days at that place he left for The Dalles and Vancouver, where he arrived on the 10th and was cordially received by Dr. McLaughlin, and where he spent the winter with the exception of the time occupied in visiting the Willamette valley and the mouth of the Columbia river for the purpose of obtaining information in regard to the country.
On the 14th of April, 1836, he left Vancouver for the purpose of visiting the Cayuse, Walla Walla, the Nez Perce and other Indian tribes, and thence journeyed east to report the result of his explorations. Whilst among the Walla Wallas, he located the site of the Whitman Mission, at Waiilatpu, and recommended it as a suitable place for a mission establishment. Dr. Parker was among the first to note the great agricultural possibilities of the Walla Walla valley, and nearly forty years before its capacity as one of the best wheat fields in the world, was demon
strated by actual experiment, he wrote concerning it: "How easily might the plough go through these valleys, and what rich and abundant harvests might be gathered by the hand of industry. But even now the spontaneous growth of these vast plains, including millions of acres, yields in such profusion, that not the fiftieth part becomes the food of organic life."
On the 16th of September, 1836, Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife, accompanied by Rev. H. H. Spalding and wife, and W. H. Gray, arrived at Fort Walla Walla, and shortly after, Dr. Whitman located at the place known as Waiilatpu, selected by Dr. Parker, subsequently known as the Whitman Mission, and Rev. H. H. Spalding located a mission station at Lapwai, among the Nez Perce Indians, a place on the Clear Water river, near the present site of Lewiston, Idaho. Prior to 1836, it had been the custom of hunters, trappers and travelers across the plains to leave their wagons at Fort Laramie, but in this year, Dr. Whitman, in journeying to Oregon, brought for the first time, a wagon to Fort Hall, and at Fort Hall one pair of wheels was taken off and the wagon reduced to a cart, and as such it was taken through as far as Fort Boise. Fort Boise. In the following year Mr. Gray returned East for additional missionary forces, coming back in 1838, with Rev. E. Walker and wife, Rev. Cushing Eells and wife, Rev. A. B. Smith, Mrs. Gray and Cornelius. Rogers, all of whom were Presbyterians. Captain John A. Sutter, the well