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upon retiring from the office of presi- every effort for the advancement of dent. the public weal. He is a man of quiet and unassuming demeanor, of trained and logical thought, and whenever he has any views to urge in public or private councils, is always listened to with respect and deference. He is a representative type of the sturdy manhood of his native country and of the spirit of conquest which actuated the foreign-born element that crossed the ocean a half century ago and piercing the wilderness of the western hemisphere turned its barren plains into teeming cities and thrifty farms, laying the foundations of those magnificent American commonwealths, unsurpassed in the wealth and fertility of their products and resources, which have been admitted into the imperishable and indivisible Union within that space of time. His was, in an exalted degree, the courage and perseverance, the unceasing vigalence and tireless energy that make it possible for the people of the northwest to enjoy the advanced civilization which is found in the representative cities of the Rocky Mountains to-day; and he is one of the leaders in the little band of Montana pioneers-every one of whom possesses in a remarkable degree the spirit of subjugation that levels all barriers -who are enjoying the hey-day of life in a serene and peaceful existence amid the scenes of their early triumphs, vicissitudes, conquests, perils and victories.
It is but halting praise to say of Mr. Holter that his career from the moment he dauntlessly entered upon the conquest of those inexorable forces and barriers which meet every young man in a new and undeveloped country, has been an honored and historic one. In the early days when he came to Montana, if the field was potent with opportunities, the times were none the less rife with lawlessness and pregnant with danger. None but those who deserved the success which many of the pioneers have since achieved dared the perils, the dangers, the hazards and vicissitudes of the life. Mr. Holter himself braved hardships that none but an intrepid spirit would have faced. Traveling alone in the then wild and comparatively unexplored regions of the Rocky Mountains, he had many sharp encounters with highwaymen and outlaws, and was once attacked by the notorious outlaw, George Ives and his band, in a pass in the mountains.
Mr. Holter is one of the wealthy men of Helena, and his success in life and the accumulation of his fortune are due to no one more than himself. He carved out a liberal competence for himself and his family from the rugged forces of nature, and the struggle has left the impress of vigorous resolution and tenacity of purpose upon his character. His judgment and prevision have been called into requisition on many occasions of public importance, and he has always been foremost in
Mr. Holter is engaged in many mining enterprises, and his energies are
still keen, his activity undiminished and his faith in the future of the city and State for which he has done so much, unskaken and unblenching. As a far-seeing man of business and affairs, he stands almost without a peer among a class of men noted for profound business ability.
Mr. Holter is surrounded by one of the most delightful and cultured families in Helena. He was married in
Chicago in 1867 to Miss Mary Pauline Loberg, a native of Modum, Norway.
He has six children living, five sons and one daughter. His daughter is married to a son of ex-Governor Hauser. His eldest son is studying at Columbia College, New York; another is at Yale law school and one also at Phillips Exeter Academy. The two youngest sons are still at home. C. P. CONNOLLY.
THE PEACE OF THE HEMISPHERE.
PRESIDENT HARRISON'S REASON FOR INCREASING THE NAVY. REMINISCENCES OF THE
CONSTITUTION, OR "OLD IRONSIDES."
President Harrison's recent utterance in San Francisco, relative to the necessity of an increase in our navy for the peace of the Hemisphere, recalls the career of the Constitution, or "Old Ironsides," the first vessel to inspire the breast of the young Republic with the thought of successful competition, both in peace and war, with England or any other power upon the high seas.
It will be remembered that the Constitution's first achievement, the capture of the English frigate, the Guerriere, astounded Great Britain.
The London Times regarded it as a serious blow to British supremacy, saying "It is not merely that an English frigate had been taken, but
a son of Judge Burnet-Hon. Robert W. Burnet, of Cincinnati.
At the time mentioned in the note Mr. McLean was one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Judge Burnet had but just completed the unexpired term of General Harrison in the United States Senate.
The Navy Department had determined to demolish the Constitution, alias "Old Ironsides," as an "invalid." The fact becoming known to the public, a sentiment immediately sprang up against the destruction of a ship that had won so many naval victories, and which had also won the name of THE "LUCKY VESSEL."
This sentiment was greatly stimulated by the appearance of a poem written by Oliver W. Holmes, so well known as "Old Ironsides." Indeed, the verdict of history is that the ship was saved by this poetic fulmination, the concluding verse of which is:
"Oh, better that her shattered hulk
Should sink beneath the wave';
Set every threadbare sail,
And give her to the god of storms,
Saved by this poem, the old warship was transformed into a schoolship, and is still in use for the of drilling naval cadets-upon the deck so often red with the blood of the brave.
This cane is part of one of its huge ribs. Taking it up tenderly and handing it with care, the impact seemed to
lift the curtain of history, and could see, as in a vision, the glorious part taken by this vessel and its crew in the second war for independence.
RETREAT OF THE CONSTITU
When out upon her first cruise, in July, 1812, came to mind-how that for sixty-four hours she was pursued by five British war-ships clouded with canvas; the Guerriere was one, which was afterward captured by the Constitution, and the Shannon was another, which soon after conquered our famous Chesapeake. But our beautiful ship outrode them all on the watery
The London Times called the Constitution "a bundle of pine boards sailing under a bit of striped bunting, and had declared that "a few broadsides from England's wooden walls would drive the paltry striped bunting from the ocean." This was after the famous flight before the British squadron. But in August the Constitution, with forty-four guns and Captain Isaac Hull, commander, left the port of Boston in search of the Guerriere, and on the afternoon of the 19th of the same month Captain Hull fell in with the Guerriere off the mouth of the St. Lawrence. An engagement soon followed. Hull was fat, and wore very tight white breeches. He anxiously watched the movements from the deck of his vessel. To the question, "Shall we open fire?" Hull answered, "Not yet." The question was repeated when the shots began to tell on the Consti
tution, and Hull again answered "Not yet." When the vessels were very near each other Hull, intensely excited, bent himself twice to the deck and shouted "Now, boys, pour it into them!" When the smoke cleared away it was found that Commander Hull
HAD SPLIT HIS BREECHES
from waistband to knee, but he did not stop to change them during the action. At the end of thirty minutes the Guerriere surrendered. Hull was awarded a medal by Congress, and $50,000 were appropriated as prize money to the gallant crew.
THE CONSTITUTION AND THE JAVA.
Captain Hull generously gave up the command of the Constitution to allow others to win honors upon her. Captain William Bainbridge was appointed his successor. The Constitution was then made the flagship of the celebrated squadron comprising besides the Essex and the Hornet. On December 29, 1812, the Constitution fell in with the British frigate Java, thirty-eight guns, Captain Henry Lambert, commanding. A furious battle ensued, at times "broadside to broadside and yardarm to yardarm," which lasted about two hours, when the Java surrendered. Her officers and crew numbered 446 persons. Bainbridge was wounded and Lambert killed.
The most conspicuous honors were conferred upon Bainbridge. Congress also awarded $50,000 to him and his crew as prize money. This conflict between the Constitution and the Java was the closing naval engagement of the first six months of the war.
THE CONSTITUTION IN 1814. Captain Charles Stewart was the next commander. She left Boston harbor December 30, 1813. On the 14th of February she captured the British war schooner Picton, sixteen guns. February 20, 1815, the Constitution met at the same time the Cyane and the Levant, and after a conflict which lasted forty-five minutes compelled their surrender, taking many prisoners and guns. The next day the Constitution barely escaped capture by three English vessels of war, the Leander, fifty guns; Newcastle, fifty guns, and the Acasta, forty guns. The Constitution arrived safely at New York in April, after the proclamation of peace had been made. She was ceived with the greatest demonstrations of delight, and her crew and commander were honored by Congress and by the Legislatures of many of the States in the passage of resolutions and the awarding of medals. HENRY DUDLEY TULOR.
FRANCE AND ENGLAND.
MR. SESSIONS' SUMMER IN EUROPE AND AFRICA.
WE left Switzerland, as we always do, with regret. There is grander scenery in Alaska-with its great Muir Glacier, which with its tributaries will cover the whole of Switzerland-Yellowstone Park and the Yosemite Valley in our own country, but no place that we have ever visited can equal Switzerland for picturesqueness of view and variety of mountain, lake, river and glacier; with its great Alps and snow capped mountains constantly in sight, as at Zermatt and Rigi, where we can see so near, a fifty mile range around us with the deep, white, glistening snow shining like Peruvian silver-it is a sight one can get no where else in the world.
We stop at Lyons, in France, a growing manufacturing city of 400,000 inhabitants, where we visit the large silk manufactories; we get a splendid view from the hills of the Cathedral and many places of interest in the city. We are glad to start toward Paris on our way home. The "Chemin de Firs" (the cars) are much finer than in England. In Italy and France they are adopting the American system of large carriages, or cars, as we call them, and at each station you will see
a rush for those cars instead of the compartments of the old system, where ten are crowded into a compartment, five on a side, facing each other. Onehalf are obliged to ride backwards, and those who are fortunate enough to get a window must sit up straight with nothing to rest his arms upon, and cannot move to change seats or look out of the window without interfering with somebody's view or treading on their toes. The first class of these large American style of cars are very luxuriant, and seem a delight to us after riding in the old style.
France looks thrifty and growing, with its large manufacturing cities and the excellent crops that are being gathered in the country. All the cars are crowded and everybody seems to be traveling, as with us. The Exposition is doing wonders for France, and all the French, especially the Republicans, are happy. They seem to think its great success is the cause of the downfall of General Boulanger, and places the Republic on a safe basis. The financial aid it gives to France, and the prestige of success which is so wonderful and unexpected-the Monarchists and the various cliques of