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opposition having predicted failure for the enterprise-that everybody seems happy. We find the same great crowd in Paris as when we were here in June, and all the avenues leading to the Exposition are so crowded that it seems to us like a continual holiday with the masses all out. And so it is; every day, Sundays included, from 100,000 to 350,000 visit it every day, in all to date about 30,000,000, three times as many as in 1878 when we were there. The profits were $1,600,000; it has just closed. We spend a week more going over the Exposition, and find new pleasure in examining the various exhibits of the different countries. South America seems to have done wonders in the characteristic buildings, so imposing in their architecture as to invite one to enter them, where we find a splendid display of all her woods, minerals and peculiar products. It is a shame to say it, but it is nevertheless true, that this great Republic with its 65,000,000 inhabitants had nothing to equal it. Why, no one can tell. She has lost a great opportunity. But I hope, whoever lives to see 1892-the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, will see somewhere in the United States an Exposition worthy of our great wealth and industrial and educational growth, that we may redeem ourselves in the eyes of the nations of the earth. Secular education is doing a splendid work in France. In 1882, according to M. Jules Ferry, there were 5,341,000 chil
dren at elementary schools. In 1887, there were 5,526,000. The total cost of elementary schools to the state was 173,000,000 francs, or about $3,800,000.
We make the ascent of the great Eiffel tower, 1,000 feet high, and made of iron. It was a holiday, the feast of the assumption, and there were great crowds-over 300,000--on the grounds, and it took five or six hours for one to wait his turn to go up in the American Otis elevator. We stop at the first section going up, and look down upon the Exposition and the surrounding country. The awful height above and the apparent depth below give one a singular sensation of helplessness. The maze of stays and girders seem hopelessly confused. Though the handrail is high enough, still there are thoughts of going over which are anything but pleasant. However, perseverence is well paid for when one steps out on the top platform. A mountain one thousand feet high is thought to be merely a hill, but there is no comparison between a thousand feet of mountain and a thousand feet of Eiffel tower. The absence of any ground falling away from one's feet or of surrounding mountains gives a sense of isolation and unnaturalness new to any but a balloonist. It takes a few moments to muster enough nerve to walk to the edge of the platform and look over; it requires a strong head to do that. An apparently smooth band of metal (though it is really a network of bars) falls away at a steep angle to the ground. There,
huddled together, seem to be a few skylights glistening in the sun; in reality these are the Exposition buildings; and it takes some time before one can realize that that winding rivulet is the silver Seine, with its twenty or twenty-five little steamers looking like toy steamers with midgets for passengers. I am not familiar enough with the public buildings of Paris which I see to recognize them. My mind is too much occupied with the overpowering sense of my insignificance to think of anything else. But I get a stranger to show me with his field glass the "Pont de Jena" and other bridges, which become less and less definable. The towers of "Notre Dame" are scarcely distinguishable, and we have to look several times to find out where to locate the "Arc de Triomphe." The "Campagna" of Paris is a grand sight, with its cities and villages, and Versailles the capital of France in view; and I walk around and look at the different views several times. Paris itself is but a mat in a carpet of green and blue; the whole panorama is one long to be remembered. The only distinguishable moving objects are small clouds of white smoke traveling slowly along, the railways themselves not even existing in a line. Above all, an almighty silence reigns, which is most oppressive. Photographs and silver and metal models of the tower are sold, and quite a trade is carried on in various articles by ladies on the tower. Letters and postals are written and stamped with a
picture of the tower, and put into a postal box and sent all over the world as mementoes of the occasion. There was quite a storm while we were descending which seemed to shake the tower, and we were glad to get on terra firma once more.
Yankee like, some American comes forward now, I understand, and proposes to build a two thousand feet tower for the Exposition in America in 1892. Edison was the great lion of the day in Paris, while we were there. He was received with as much honor and distinguished consideration as any king or potentate would be, and we are glad that he is an American citizen. He bears his honors gracefully and modestly, and does honor to our country by his wonderful inventive genius.
The French are a wonderfully cheerful people, and it does one good to see them. We Americans are so busy making money, that we have not time to be cheerful. I think all of the one hundred thousand Americans who have visited the Exposition will come away feeling that the French are teaching us the very wholesome and important lesson of cheerfulness. It is better to assume a cheerfulness if one does not really possess it, than to go through the world complaining and fretting and mourning. But the French cheerfulness is not assumed, it is natural. No nation in modern times has suffered such overwhelming defeat, such humiliating misfortune as the French suffered but a few years since at the hands of the Germans.
But which is the most prosperous nation to-day, the French or the German? We have been through France thoroughly in the last four months and have been surprised at her growth and progress in her great cities and in her manufacturing and agricultural districts. We have also been through Germany, and the growth of the latter from 1878 is not equal to that of France. The French are very industrious, and it is this cheerful industry which makes the French such a charming nation. The French workingmen always seem in good spirits; always cheerful, always polite. There seems to be something going on constantly. The peoples of the world may well carry home from this great Exposition something of the good nature and cheerful spirit of Republican France.
On our return to London, where we have visited eight or ten times, we concluded to take a tour of Southwestern England, which is so rich in cathedrals, and visit Canterbury, Salisbury, Winchester and Gloucester. They are all so rich in architectural proportions, in history, tombs and monuments of the past that I will not undertake to describe them; but they will remain forever indelibly impressed on my memory. We have an interest in all English history, and the historian can find a rich field in the study of the twenty or more prominent old cathedrals which are scattered through England. Some of them are located in small villages, but wherever there
is a bishop and a cathedral, that constitutes a "city," be it ever so small. There is no bishop and no cathedral in the cities of Birmingham and Manchester, and they are only "towns," and none are cities unless they have a cathedral and a bishop.
We pass through Berkshire county where my ancestors embarked for America in 1638-and in Gloucesterbut find none of my name there; but in the county of Gloucester adjoining, I find a large family-several distinguished people-among these the Mayor of the city, eighty years of age; his wife built a "Home of Hope," and a number of the family are officers and workers. The object of the Home is to look after and care for "Destitute, Friendless and Fallen Young Women." It has been in operation fifteen years, and is a great success in reclaiming the fallen and helping the friendless. The Home is under the direction and guidance of a daughter of the projector and patron and not of a society. One of my name is a manager and partner in a large manufacturing company with his father and brothers; he is a philanthropist, and gives his time largely to lecturing on various subjects; he is an acknowledged preacher among the Society of Friends, receiving no salary for his services. One of his sons is soon to be married to a young lady in Ireland, and he was having engraved on his silverware, etc., the coat of arms of our name, the "Griffin," which history says, "is an offspring of the lion and the eagle.
ing gallery extending from one side of the choir to the other, a distance of twenty-five yards, where if a person whispers on one side of the gallery every syllable can be heard on the other side, although the passage is open in the middle, and there are large openings in the wall for a door and window. Some one engraved on the wall these lines:
Its legs and all from the shoulder to the head, is like an eagle, the rest of the body is that of a lion. This creature was sacred to the sun, and kept guard over hidden treasures." Sir Thomas Browne says, "it is emblematical of watchfulness, courage, perseverance and rapidity of execution." A good heraldic crest for our family. May we be worthy of it. The old Cathedral here is the Gloucester Cathedral; it is an architecture and history extremely interesting, and was founded by Osric, viceroy to King Ethelred, in 681. John Hooper, bishop in 1551, was burned as a heretic by the Papists in 1555, and a statue and monument have been erected to his memory, and the old house and window fronting it is seen where the Papists compelled his wife to look out and see his body burned to ashes. My friend's little girl who was with us, said: "I would not have looked; I would have shut my eyes." A gable A gable roofed house near by is pointed out in which Bishop Hooper staid the night before he was burned. In imagination we can see the old man emerging from the doorway accompanied by the Queen's officers and guarded by soldiers, making his way through the crowd down the narrow street to the stake in St. Mary's Square.
In the old cathedral is a monument of Dr. Jenner, who conferred upon the world his discovery of innoculation for the small-pox. There are a number of handsome memorial windows in the cathedral. There is a whisperThere is a whisper
"Doubt not but God, who sits on high,
The secret prayers can hear, When a dull wall thus cunningly
Conveys short whispers to the ear."
The tower is the most stately and magnificent of its kind in the world, an example of Gothic architecture in. its most improved state.
"The extremely beautiful effect of large masses of architecture by moonlight may be considered as a kind of optical illusion. Thus seen, the tower of the cathedral acquires a degree of lightness so superior to that which
it shows under the meridian sun that it no longer appears of human construction." The above from Dalloway on English Architecture.
Our little girl wanted to ascend the tower, but the Dean would not consent. She said, "Let us tip him with a sixpence, and he will do it."
We were shown the birthplace of Robert Raikes, the founder of Sunday Schools, his first Sunday School room, and various other places of interest connected with his life and death here. Some have disputed his claim to starting the first Sunday School, and have
said that his school was organized for the purpose of teaching children to read on Sunday; but such is not the
fact; the object of his first school was to teach children from the Bible. F. C. SESSIONS.
JAMES S. WINTERMUTE, M. D.
DR. James S. Wintermute has not only seen the city of Tacoma emerge from its embryotic condition to its present height of prosperity, but has done all that lay in the power of one man to secure that result. He came of ancestors who bequeathed him those mental and moral qualities which have aided him to the high degree of success he has attained, and given him a wide personal popularity in the city of his chosen home. He was born at St. Paul, Minnesota, on April 27th, 1860, the son of Peter Wintermute, a native of the state of New York, whose ancestors emigrated to America from Germany in 1736, and Jane Stimson, a daughter of one of the oldest and wealthiest families of Hamilton, Ontario. He received his early education in Western Ontario, and with his father's family migrated to Yankton, Dakota, 1870. During 1878, he was exchange cashier in Stimson's Bank, Hamilton, Ontario, and in 1879 commenced the study of medicine at Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he remained during the ensuing year. He graduated in medicine from the Rush Medical College, Chicago, in Feb
ruary, 1883; after which he completed, a course of mineralogy and assaying, under one of Chicago's most prominent chemists and assayers.
In 1883, Dr. Wintermute crossed the continent via the Union Pacific Railway, and from San Francisco proceeded north to Portland, Oregon, taking passage on the "Queen of the Pacific, upon one of the earliest trips made by that boat. He reached Tacoma on the 19th of April of the year named, and from thenceforth has been counted among its most useful and patriotic citizens, entering into all its interests with a hearty good will, and with a sincere belief in the greatness of its future. greatness of its future. In 1887 he revisited the East, and spent considerable time at the Massachusetts General Hospital, at Boston, reviewing surgery, and the more thoroughly fitting himself for increased professional usefulness in the future. During the last few years he has confined himself largely to the study and practice of surgery and has won unusual success in that important field. Although so well grounded in his profession, he is continually a student, learning all the