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new methods and developments; and is always an earnest supporter of medical ethics, in the best meaning of the term.

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Dr. Wintermute has made himself useful in departments of labor other than that embraced in his profession. In 1888 he aided in the organization of the Pierce County Medical society, becoming,-in company with Drs. Bostwick, Beardsley, Armstrong and Luce -one of its incorporated trustees. 1887, he was appointed by Governor Eugene Semple, a member of the board of regents of the University; and was elected first Vice-President of the Medical Society of the State of Washington in 1889. He is also a past chancellor of the order of the Knights of Pythias, which organization he joined in 1886. In politics, Dr. Wintermute is a Democrat, having always been a staunch upholder of the principles of that party, and doing

all that lies in his power for their advancement.

Dr. Wintermute was married on June 18, 1888, to Miss Florence K. Jones, of the city of Olympia, -a worthy and cultured lady, who removed from Maryland with her family, to that city in 1884.

The success that has crowned the labors of Dr. Wintermute, is but the reward of his energy and industry, which have made the best use of talents of a high order, and developed. a character as true as oak. He is personally of a cheerful disposition; generous to a fault; ready to help in any way to advance the cause of humanity in general, and the best interests of Tacoma and Washington in particular; and as a physician, citizen and man, was long since recognized as one of the potent forces of the community of which he is a part.

W. H. MAGUIRE.

VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.*

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE MORE IMPORTANT VERSIONS AND EDITIONS.

XXII.

The few words of Teutonic origin occasionally to be met with in Erse may be ascribed to the influence of the Scatti, a tribe of Scandinavian or Belgic origin, who, about the time that the Romans left Britain, acquired so much power in Ireland that the country itself became known by the name of Scotia, which name it retained until the Scoti transferred it to their settlements in North Britain about the end of the eleventh century. The Gaelic or Celtic dialect of Scotland, and that of Ireland, are still closely allied, yet they now diverge far more widely from each other than in former times. The Roman letters are often used in Erse compositions, but the Irish have an ancient alphabet of their own, the origin of which is very uncertain. It bears some resemblance to the AngloSaxon, and it has even been questioned whether the Saxons derived their alphabetical system from the Irish, or the Irish from the Saxons. It is probable that the Scriptures were translated into Irish soon after the intro

*Copyright, 1889, by Charles W. Darling.

duction of Christianity into the island, but we possess no definite account of any very early version. A manuscript containing the life of Moses and the patriarchs is described by Vallancey, which seems to be ancient, but it is rather an historical compendium, than a direct translation from the sacred text. There are no positive evidences of the existence of the Scriptures in Erse until the age immediately preceding that of Wickliffe, when a version of the New Testament is said to have been in the possession of Richard Fitzralph, a native of Dundalk, raised in 1347 to the See of Armagh, and hence sometimes called ArmachaFitzralph is himself thought to have been the translator of this version, and in his autobiography he relates how the Lord brought him out of the profound subtleties of Aristotle's philosophy to the study of the Holy Scriptures. Although he was remarkable for the boldness with which he opposed the corruptions of the Church. of Rome, yet he was compelled by the turbulence of the times to conceal

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his new Testament. He deposited the precious volume inside one of the walls of his church, and wrote the following note on the final page :"When this book is found truth will be revealed to the world or Christ will shortly appear." About one hundred and seventy years after his death the church of Armagh was repaired, when the manuscript was discovered in the place where it had been secreted. No vestige of it, however, exists at the present time, although Fox, in his "Actes and Monumentes," published in 1570, says: "I creditably heare of certayne old Irish Bibles translated long since into the Irish tong, which if it be true, it is not other lyke, but to be the doing of this Armachanus," and he adds: "This was testified by certayne Englishmen, who are yet alyve and have seen it."

A German translation of the Old Testament by John Eckius (1537) was published, the same being a corrected version according to the Sixtine edition of the Vulgate.

The first translation of the Scriptures in the Malayan language was made by John Van Hasel, a director of the East India Company. When he had completed a version of the Gospel according to St. Matthew, he delivered the manuscipt to Peter de Carpentier, the chief director of the Company, and therefore this honor belongs to the Dutch. The kingdom of Menanghabon, in the central region of Sumatra, appears to have been the original country of the Malays,

but impelled by a love of adventure they possessed themselves at a very early period of the Malayan peninsula. Malayan is a branch of the ancient. and widely extended language of which the fragments are to be found in nearly all the islands of the Pacific. The Polynesian language, which ranges from the South Sea Islands to the East, as far as Madagascar in the West, bears in the Malay tongue the same proportion as Anglo-Saxon does in English, and words borrowed from Sanscrit and Arabic occupy in it the same relative position as words derived from Greek and Latin do in our own language. Arabic has had an influence in the modification of this language, and nearly all the abstract terms, as well as the religious and political theories of the Malays are derived from the Koran. The Arabic characters have been principally employed in writing Malayan since the conversion of the Malays to Islamism in A. D. 1204. Roman letters are also used by this race of people, especially in some of the Dutch colonies, but this race of people were not far advanced in the science of reading old manuscripts and determining their age from the circumstantial evidence in the absence of any formal authentication. It was not until seventy-nine years after this date that Jean Mabillon, the founder of the science of palaeography, published his "De Re Diplomatica," which describes the character of letters used by all peoples from the earliest periods of time; the

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