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throws additional light upon her lovely girlhood:

"Wms Burg, ye 7th of Oct., 1722." "DEAR SUKEY :-Madam Ball of Lancaster and Her Sweet Molly have gone Hom. Mamma thinks Molly the Comliest Maiden She Knows. She is about 16yrs old, is taller than Me, is very Sensable, Modest and Loving. Her Hair is like unto flax. Her eyes are the color of Yours and her Chekes are like May blossoms. I wish you could See Her."

The world well knows of the marriage of Mary Ball, March 6, 1730, to Augustine Washington of "gentle blood and long derived lineage ;" but whether that event occurred in America or England is not, I believe, an ascertained fact. After the death of Jane Butler, November 24, 1728, the first wife of Augustine Washington, the latter went to England to look after his estates, and it is supposed by some writers that the marriage may have transpired in England, possibly at Cookham, Berkshire, where at one. time the Washingtons and the Balls lived contemporaneously, and it is a fact that in 1728 Mary Ball went to England with her brother.

When George Washington was about seventeen years old he made the fol

lowing entry in his mother's Bible :

:

"George Washington, Son to Augustine and Mary his wife, was born ye 11th day of February, 1731-2 about 10 in the morning, and was Baptized on the 3rd of April following, Mr. Beverly Whiting & Captain Christopher Brooks Godfather, and Mrs. Mildred Gregory, Godmother."

Such a woman had charge of such a son from birth to manhood. Indeed, her angel-presence was always with him and over him, until her saintly death.

Mount Vernon, with all its inspiring associations, was saved to the world by the appreciative women of the United States, whose sacred possession is now under the management of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. It is befitting that the same gentle sovereigns should take in hand. the business left so long unfinished and magnificently mark the neglected grave of Mary Ball Washington.

No fame in this world is purer than hers; and than hers no name is more worthy of everlasting remembrancesave that of the Mary whose Son was born to be the Redeemer of mankind. HENRY DUDLEY TEETOR. Denver, July, 1891.

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THE STATE OF WASHINGTON: THE STORY OF ITS PIONEER DAYS.*

III.

WASHINGTON TERRITORY.

Prior to the 3d of March, 1853, when the territory of Washington was organized by act of Congress, the country now included within its limits was known as Northern Oregon, and had been divided by the Oregon legislature into six counties, those of Vancouver, Lewis, Jefferson, King, Pierce and Island. Up to that date having been included in the territory of Oregon, its history before that time must necessarily be identical with that of Oregon. Up to that time also the Willamette valley, being the principal Oregon settlement, was the objective point of nearly every immigrant coming to this part of the coast. Arriving in that valley immigrants usually distributed themselves in all directions seeking for permanent locations. In many instances settlers remained for several years in that valley, and as the country became known and Indian troubles were lessened or removed, they proceeded to new locations, many thus finding their way to Washington

*The above is the completion of an address delivered by Col. W. F. Prosser, of North Yakima, before the Washington Pioneer Association, at its annual session at Seattle, June 3, 1890.

territory. Aside from the establishments of the Hudson Bay Company and the missions of the various denominations in the territory, the first settlement by the Americans in what is now the state of Washington, was made at Budd's Inlet, now known as Tumwater, near Olympia, at the head of Puget Sound, by M. T. Simmons, James McAllister, David Kindred, Gabriel Jones and George W. Bush, with their wives and children and two single men, Jessie Ferguson and Samuel B. Crockett. About the same time John R. Jackson settled ten miles. north of the Cowlitz landing. Fifteen days were required by the Simmons. party to open a road from the Cowlitz to Budd's Inlet, a distance of less than sixty miles. One of the great difficulties experienced by the pioneers of Oregon and Washington, particularly west of the Cascade mountains, was the construction of roads through the almost impenetrable depths of their forests. The name given to the first settlement was New Market, which was subsequently changed to Tumwater, the Indian name for waterfall. The settlers here obtained their first supplies from Fort Nisqually, a post of the Hudson Bay Company.

In 1846, Sidney S. Ford and Joseph Barst located at the junction of the Skookum, Chuck and Chehalis. On the Sound Charles H. and Nathan Eaton located on Chambers' Prairie, Edward Sylvester and Levi S. Smith at the site of Olympia. In 1847, there were few settlers arriving in the territory, owing chiefly to the Indian troubles. Amongst them were three brothers named Davis, Samuel Cool, A. J. Moore, Benjamin Gordon, Leander C. Wallace, Thomas W. Glasgow, Samuel Hancock, William Packwood, John Kindred, J. B. Logan, P. F. Shaw, Robert Logan, A. D. Carnifex, Thomas M. Chambers, with his sons David, Andrew, Thomas and McLekan, George Brail and George. Shazar. In 1848 there were but few accessions to these settlers, chiefly on account of hostile feelings among the Indians, partly occasioned by the prevalence of the measles for which the white settlers were held responsible. During that time, however, Thomas W. Glasgow explored the Sound and took a claim on Whidby island, being the first settler there. In 1849 and the years immediately succeeding, the settlement of the territory was seriously interrupted by the rush made from all quarters to the gold mines in California. This effect was in some degree counteracted by the stimulus given to the manufacture of lumber on the Sound, growing out of the demand for that article in California.

The pioneer in this industry was M. T. Simmons, who erected a sawmill at Tumwater in 1847. The second was

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erected by James McAllister in 1853. A. S. Abernethy erected a sawmill at Oak Point on the Columbia river, in 1848-9. In the winter of 1852-3, Henry L. Yesler put up a steam sawmill at Seattle, which turned out from 10,000 to 15,000 feet per day. Since that time the lumber business has been gradually and rapidly increasing, until now it amounts to an annual production of more than 500,000,000 feet. In the meantime the hostility of the Indians became more marked and outspoken, and in the year 1849, Fort Nisqually was attacked by Snoqualimich Indians, under their chief, Patkanim, whose purpose was to take the fort and exterminate all the white settlers in that part of the country. In the course of this attack Leander C. Wallace was killed and two other Americans, Walker and Lewis wounded, the latter mortally.

The repulse of this attack, with the subsequent capture and hanging of Quallawort and Kassass, two Indian chiefs, the prompt action of Governor Lane, of Oregon, and the establishment of Fort Steilacoom, put an end for the time being to this Indian outbreak. The first steps taken to consider the subject of organizing a separate territory north of the Columbia, were taken on July 4, 1851, at a public meeting held at Olympia. On November, 25, 1852, after various meetings had been held on the subject, a convention of delegates met at Monticello and prepared a memorial to Congress, which was forwarded to Washington, D. C., and presented to that body by Delegate

Lane. A bill had been previously introduced by the committee on territories, at the suggestion of Lane, to create the Territory of Columbia. The name was subsequently changed to Washington, passed and was approved by the president on March 3, 1853. The new territory included all of Oregon north of the Columbia river and the forty-sixth parallel, and Olympia was made the seat of government. Major Isaac I. Stevens was appointed ⚫ the first governor, and in point of ability, integrity and patriotic purpose, he was eminently well qualified to fill the first official position in the new territory. Governor Stevens was appointed by the secretary of war to conduct the exploration of the route of the proposed Northern Pacific railroad from the head of the Mississippi river to Puget Sound. Arriving at the summit of the Rocky Mountains September 29, 1853, Governor Stevens proclaimed his entrance into Washington territory and the assumption of his duties as governor. Arriving at Olympia on the 28th of the following November, judicial districts. were defined, judges assigned them, legislative districts apportioned, election precincts established and an election ordered.

In February, 1854, the first territorial. legislature met at Olympia, a code was adopted, several new counties created and the organization of the territory completed. Amongst the members of that first territorial legislature was our worthy fellow pioneer, L. F. Thompson, of Pierce county. Thirty-six years

afterward he was elected a member of the first legislature of the State of Washington, proving in his own proper person that Ponce de Leon would probably have found the fountain of perpetual youth in Washington instead of Florida had he extended his explorations to this State. By the census taken in 1853 by J. Patton Anderson, then U. S. Marshal for the territory, it appears that its population numbered at that time 3,963, of whom 1,682 were voters. The first general election in the territory was held on the 30th of January, 1854. The first legislature met on the 24th of February following, and organized by the election of G. N. McConaha, President of the Council, and F. A. Chenoweth, Speaker of the lower House, in both of which the Democratic party had a majority. Their first bill was passed on March 1st, providing for a code commission, which consisted of Edward Lander, Victor Monroe and William Strong. Governor Stevens in his message called the attention of the legislature to the importance of measures for extinguishing the Indian title to the lands of the territory, to the necessity which existed for roads to Walla Walla, the Columbia river, Bellingham Bay, to the need of the Northern Pacific railroad, and to the vast capabilities of Puget Sound.

He further recommended that a special commission be appointed to report a school system, and that Congress be asked to appropriate lands for a university, with other suggestions on minor matters. Many of the rec

ommendations of the governor were carried out, more or less, as suggested by him. The legislature adjourned on the 1st of May following, after passing 125 acts and electing territorial officers. Meanwhile the Indians were becoming more and more troublesome, but the efficient action of Governor Stevens, who was ex-officio superintendent of Indians affairs, assisted by the co-operation of a few United States troops at Fort Steilacoom, prevented any special outbreak in 1854, and the early part of 1855. The discovery of gold near the northern boundary of the territory east of the Cascades, led many white men in that direction, some of whom were murdered by the Indians. Becoming bolder in their acts of hostility, they most atrociously murdered Andrew J. Bolon, a United States Indian agent and a most just and excellent man. In the fall of 1855 our esteemed president, Colonel G. O. Haller, then a major of the Ninth Infantry, United States army, was despatched with a small force to arrest and bring in the murderers, but the attempt was unsuccessful owing to the mountainous character and extent of the country.

While these acts of warfare were in progress east of the Cascades, the Indians fell upon the settlements in the White river valley and barbarously murdered, on the 28th of October, H. H. Jones and wife, George E. King and wife, W. H. Braman, wife and child, Simon Cooper and another man, whose name is unknown.

The other settlers escaped to Seattle twenty-five miles distant. All the settlements in King county, outside of Seattle, were destroyed. This place had been settled in 1852, by A. A. Denny, C. D. Boren, William A. Bell, D. S. Maynard and their families, with D. T. Denny and Charles C. Terry, followed in October of the same year by H. L. Yesler, and in the following year by many other settlers, some of whom are yet honored citizens among us, but time and space will not permit specific mention of their names. At the time of the White river massacre those who escaped to Seattle with the townspeople, made energetic and finally successful efforts to defend the place. In this they received valuable assistance from Captain Gansevoort, commanding the sloop of war Decatur, which fortunately happened to arrive in Elliott bay at the time. On December 27, 1855, the Indians finally abandoned their attempt to capture Seattle. The war was continued, however, until the month of August, 1856. Of the details of that war, and of the many brave and gallant men who lost their lives therein, or in the succeeding war of 1858-9, whether as officers and soldiers of the United States army, or of the volunteer forces of Oregon and Washington who were called into the service of their country and for its defence, or whether they were civilians and private citizens, it is not necessary for me to speak, and they are already a part of the history of the northwest coast. It

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