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amples which have been left by the pioneers of Washington, of patience, fortitude and endurance, of unswerving integrity, loyalty and patriotism, may long be cherished and deemed perhaps worthy of emulation by this and future generations. The exercise of those high and admirable qualities may not be called for in the precise way in which they became so necessary and useful to those pioneers, their country and the world at large, but triumphs are to be secured in other fields of labor and in other lines of human effort, by the persistent use of the same qualities. The tribute of our highest regard and esteem is especially due to the women who came as mothers, wives and daughters of pioneers. The part taken by them in the early settlement of the country, if not so prominent as that taken by the husbands and brothers, was not less important to the building up of new commonwealths. The world will never know how much was patiently endured by the pioneer women who came to establish homes with their husbands for their children in Oregon and Washington. Whether in the long marches, the heat and dust, the hunger and thirst too often. suffered in crossing the plains, or in the sparsely settled communities in which they located, exposed at all times to every variety of danger and hardship, they never failed to display the courage of the race of heroines to which they belonged. Too often, when husbands were called to scenes

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.. Have the elder races halted? Do they drop and end their lessons, wearied over there beyond the seas? We take up their task eternal, and the burden and the lesson,

Pioneers! O, Pioneers.

"We detachments steady throwing, Down the edges, through the passes, up the mountain steep, Conquering, holding, daring, venturing ast we go the unknown ways, Pioneers! O, Pioneers.

"We primeval forests felling; We the rivers stemming, vexing we and piercing deep the mines within: "We the surface broad surveying; we the virgin soil upheaving,

Pioneers! O, Pioneers."

Thus they pushed forward through the heats of summer and often through the snows of winter, carrying their burden. It is recorded that whilst

men have occasionally been appalled at the obstacles and dangers before them, and have returned to their old homes after beginning the journey across the plains, no woman ever did so, but no matter what the difficulties were which surrounded her, she continued to go forward. The home and family are peculiarly American institutions. With such partners in home building it is not strange that men should have been inspired to face the greatest danger, to succeed in the most

difficult undertakings and to secure the most lofty achievements.

Mr. President, the pioneer age with all its lights and shadows, its sufferings and privation, has passed into history. Its doubts and uncertainties have given place to a growth and development which were never dreamed of by its early settlers. The war-whoop of the Indian has given place to a softer and more delightful music. The slow-moving and dusty emigrant wagon has given place to the palace. car, and time and space are so nearly annihilated that we are to-day nearer to the seat of the government of the United States, in so far as travel is concerned, than was St. Louis fifty years ago. A new and brighter era has dawned upon us. We rejoice in the blessings of peace and prosperity, of progress, comfort, luxury, and intelligence which come in its train. We hope these blessings may be long continued and enjoyed by this and many future generations, but as the era of the pioneers fades from our vision we cannot but render it the love and veneration, the respect, esteem and gratitude of our inmost hearts, and exclaim we look back upon its vanishing years, Hail and Farewell!

as

W. F. PROSser.

VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.*

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE MORE IMPORTANT VERSIONS AND EDITIONS.

XXIII.

1612.

AN edition of the New Testament, together with the Psalms, was printed in French and German by Villier and Le Clercq. A copy is in the library of the Bible Society at Paris.

A translation of St. Matthew, in the Malayan language, made by Albert Cornelisson Ruyl, was given to the chief of the East India Company. When this translation was compared with that of 1602, the former was considered too figurative and the latter too literal. It was therefore viewed as idiomatic, and the translation of Ruyl received the preference. This person therefore continued his work, but he lived to translate only as far as the close of the Gospel according to St. Mark, so his manuscripts were sent to Holland and were printed with the Dutch version at Enkhuyzen.

An edition of the Bible was printed in English at London by Robert Barker. This is a "He" Bible, and the first quarto edition of the 1611 version of King James Bible. It has a title

*Copyright, 1889, by Charles W. Darling.

beautifully engraved on copper by Jasper Isac, and resembles, the "Breeches" Bible in that it has the same title-page, but not the letterpress in the center. The genealogies recorded in the Sacred Scriptures, according to every family and tribe, by John Speed, are bound up with this edition. A copy, which King Charles presented to Archbishop Juxon, is in the library of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The intimacy of Juxon with Laud raised him to high stations, but while his appointments offended the Puritans and drew their indignation against the ministry, the irreproachable conduct of Archbishop Juxon gained for him among the puritans many friends. Sir Thomas Herbert, in his "Memoirs of the reign of Charles Ist" records that his Majesty gave to Juxon his Bible (in which he had written annotations) with the request that he would preserve it as a sacred relic. The cover is decorated with the badge of the Principality, and surmounted by a royal coronet enclosed by an embroidered border,

with the Rose and Thistle upon a ground of blue velvet. This book was therefore bound between the death of Prince Henry in 1612, and the accession of King Charles to the throne in 1625, when such a coronet would be no longer used by him."

1613.

A translation of the Bible out of the original tongues, with the former translations diligently compared and revised, was imprinted in English at London by Robert Barker. There are numerous copies of this edition in existence. Librarian Carter, of the Grand Lodge F. and A. M., reports a copy in the Library of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, a copy is in the State Library at Albany, one in the Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, Chicago, one with H. L. Sheldon, and one in possession R. S. Ely.

A translation of the Gospels, by Bandulovitch, into Dalmatian Servian appeared at Venice. The Servian language is spoken, with a few provincial deviations, in Dalmatia, and in Austrian Crotia, comprising the districts of Carlstadt and Varasdin. The Sclavonic dialects spoken in that part of Europe blend into one another, and are not easily distinguishable in their relative purity. The only real line of demarkation between the language of Servia Proper, and Dalmation Servian, lies in their respective alphabetical systems. The Crotians and Dalmatians belong in general to the Roman.

Catholic Church and use the Latin alphabet. The Glagolitic letters were formerly employed in Dalmatia in writing Old Sclavonic, as well as the modern idiom, and they are a poor imitation of the Cyrillic alphabet.

1614.

An edition of the Bible was printed in Arabic at Rome by Gabriel Sionita, Cardinal Ballarmin, a friend of Sixtus V, and advanced by the pope to the See of Capua, gave his unqualified approval of this work. He called it strictly orthodox, but just what a Jesuit means by such an expression is more than a bigoted Presbyterian like the compiler of this paper can determine. It is taken for granted, however, that Bellarmin understood himself, for he deservedly acquired a great reputation as a controversial writer, and so formidable were the productions of his pen in defense of the Romish church that for half a century there was scarcely a man of ability among the Protestants who did not oppose his opinions. Bellarmin declined to adopt all the tenets of the Jesuits, for he could not embrace the doctrine of predestination, nor many of the expressions of the Romish litanies, but he inclined to the opinion of St. Augustine. In the list of Bibles which Rev. Van Dyke has kindly transmitted from Northern Syria is made mention of an edition of the Bible printed at Arabic, at Rome, by Savarina.

An edition of the Saumur Bible, by

Thomas Porteau, appeared this year, and an Edition of the New Testament, by Pierre and Jacques Chouet, went through the Geneva press.

1615.

An edition of the Bible was printed in English at London by Robert Barker. This is the last edition in quarto of the Genevan version printed in England. The arguments, the notes, and the running titles, are in small Roman type, while the contents of the chapters are in italics. A copy is in the Library of the Young Men's Christian Association at New York, and another copy is with Mr. Robert Shields of Wisconsin. One is also in the possession of the Theological Seminary at Morgan Park.

Barker. This is the last folio edition of the Genevan version printed in England. In Genesis III: 7, "aprons" is rendered "breeches." Luke II: 16,

cratch" is substituted for "manger." Acts XXI: 15, for "we took up our carriages," this reads, "we trussed up our fardels."

An edition of the Bible was printed in English at London by Snodham. A copy is in the hands of Mr. H. J. Atkinson.

1616.

An edition of the Bible was printed in French at La Rochelle by Corneille Hertmann. The prefaces and notes attached to this Bible are attributed to Jaques Marlin, pastor of a church in La Rochelle, and they are in conformity with the resolution of the National Synod of St. Maixent, held in 1609, of which he had been elected Moderator. An edition of the Bible was printed in Arabic by Erpenius at Leyden from an examplar said to have been executed in Upper Egypt by a Coptic bishop in the 14th century.

A Genevan version of the Bible was printed in England, at London, by

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1617.

An edition of the Bible (1611 version) was printed in English at London by Robert Barker, and the Bible of Tremellius and Julius was published in Latin at Geneva by Berjon.

An edition of the Bible (Raschii and

During this year another edition of Kimchii) was printed in Hebrew at Haultin's Bible was printed.

Venice by Lorenzo Bragadin. This is a reimpression of the celebrated edi tion of Bomberg.

The Swedish Bible printed at Stockholm by Reidbeck and Lenoeus in 1534, was revised by order of King Gustavus Adolphus. This warlike monarch, surnamed the Great, possessed virtues which distinguished him quite as much as his heroic valor in the field. After he had made an honorable peace with the Danes and Muscovites, and forced the Poles to evacuate Livonia, he formed an alliance with the Protesants of Germany, and in less than three years over-ran all the countries between the Vistula, the Rhine and the Danube. Such was the enthusiasm which he inspired

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