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like 1890, an off year for Repub- tion, and the demand was made that licans. After my election in 1862, I the President should go down at once was invited by telegraph to come to unless Mr. Seward was recalled. Mr. Washington. When I called on the Lincoln went down, and again nothPresident, he congratulated me ing was done. Mr. Lincoln successmy triumph, and said: “How did you fully handled the wily Confederate do it?" I answered, “It was your Commissioners at this meeting-put emancipation proclamation, Mr. them thoroughly in the wrong, and President, that did it.” In a few mo- so defeated their last desperate efforts ments he said, “Well, how do you to extricate themselves from the fate like the proclamation ?" I answered that all men of judgment then knew that I liked it as far as it went, and to be inevitable if the Union men of added, "but, Mr. President, if I had the nation but did their duty. been Commander-in-Chief, I should Before Mr. Lincoln started for not have given the enemy one hun- Hampton Roads, he said to a friend dred days' notice of my purpose to

of mine “that nothing would come of strike him, at the expiration of that it,” and when he returned to Washtime, in his most vulnerable point, nor ington we knew that the end of the would I have offered any apology for Confederacy was near, and that the doing so great and noble an act." He Union was to remain unbroken. laughed and enjoyed my hit, and after Constitutionally cautious, and by a moment's pause said, “ Ashley, that's political training a conservative, Mr. a centre shot."

Lincoln nevertheless kept abreast of MR. LINCOLN AT HAMPTON ROADS. public opinion, and in his last annual No one event during the entire message to Congress announced with War of the Rebellion alarmed us so a clearness of statement which could much as the meeting at Hampton not be misinterpreted, and with an Roads, between Alexander H. Ste- impressiveness befitting the dignity phens, R. M. T. Hunter and Judge of his great office, thatCampbell, formerly of our United “In presenting the abandonment of States Supreme Court, and the Presi- armed resistance to national authordent and Mr. Seward.

ity on the part of the insurgents as The night I learned that “Blair's the only indispensable condition to scheme," as it was called, was about ending the war on the part of the to be attempted, I went to the White Government, I retract nothing hereHouse and protested against it. When tofore said as to slavery. I repeat it became known that Mr. Seward had the declaration made a year ago, that actually gone down to Hampton

while I remain in my present position Roads alone, every loyal man in I shall not attempt to retractor Washington was white with indigna- modify the emancipation proclama


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tion, nor shall I return to slavery any ernment. As an historical tigure he person who is free by the terms of was, in fact, a product of the great that proclamation or by any of the anti-slavery revolution of which he acts of Congress.

became the recognized leader. But "If the people should, by whatever for the slave-baron's rebellion it mode or means, make it an executive might never have been his lot duty to re-enslave such persons,

The applause of listning Senates to comanother, and not I, must be the in

mand ; strument to perform it."

The threats of pain and ruin to despise ; GREAT EVENTS DEVELOP GREAT MEN. To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, Seldom in the history of mankind

And read his history in a nation's eyes." have great

produced great

MR. LINCOLN AS EXECUTIVE, DIPLOevents. It is great events which de- MAT AND MILITARY COMMANDER. velop great men. But for the rebel- It was my privilege in boyhood and lion our matchless generals, Grant early manhood to meet and to know and Thomas, Sherman and Sheridan, a number of the able statesmen of would have been unknown in history this country who were in power prior as great soldiers, and not one nor all to the War of the Rebellion. of them could have produced such a

During my service in Congress I rebellion. But for that attempted came to know more intimately the revolution scores of men in civil life men who were in public life during who will appear in history as among the Presidency of Mr. Lincoln, and I our leading statesmen, would in all often compared them with the idols of probability have been unknown in my boyhood. I need not tell you the councils of the Republic ; they that I am better able now to judge would have passed their lives in do- character than I was then, and to mestic or business pursuits had not compare them with Mr. Lincoln. the opportunity been given them of As an Executive, charged with the service in the great conflict for saving care and responsibility of a great the nation's life. And Mr. Lincoln government during the War of the himself had not that kind of leader- Rebellion, and with the organization ship which could conspire and plot and direction of great armies, he was and surround himself with followers as I estimate men, an abler and safer to inaugurate a revolution. He was President than Webster or Clay, or pre-eminently fitted by nature to be Ch se or Seward would have been the representative of law and order, under like conditions and surrounded to group and bind together all citi- by like environments. zens of the Republic who were desir- As a diplomat, he was the superior ous of peace and union, and to pre- of Talleyrand, for without duplicity serve liberty and constitutional goy. or falsehood (he moulded, and con

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quered with truth as his weapon and mander-in-Chief of the mightiest candor for his defensive armor.

army then in the world, and practiAs a military strategist and com- cally clothed with unlimited power, mander, he was the equal, if not the he did not magnify himself, nor atsuperior, of his great generals.

tempt to rule with military rigor As a man, he was merciful and just either his country or his party. and absolutely without pride or arro- On the contrary, he sought to know gance ; and to crown all, there was the will of his countrymen with no an atmosphere surrounding his daily thought of party or self. He sought life which made friendships that last to know their will so that he might beyond the grave.

administer the government as the “He was a man, take him for all in all, general judgment of the nation should

I shall not look upon his like again." indicate, but, nevertheless, in accord JACKSON ON HORSEBACK AND LINCOLN with the promptings of his own great ON FOOT.

heart, which demanded that it should During the last half of the first be administered in justice and mercy, century of the Republic two men “with charity for all and malice towfilled the Presidential office whose ards none." personality stands out pre-eminently The thought that dominated him conspicuous above those who imme- was his earnst desire to conform his diately preceded or followed them acts to the considerate judgment of in that office. Every one who hears all loyal men, and thus be able the me will know to whom I refer before better to discharge the duties of his I can pronounce the names of Andrew great office, preserve the Government Jackson and Abraham Lincoln. unimpaired and secure its perpetual

Both Southern born, they were un- unity and peace by enacting into conquestionably the two most striking stitutional law the legitimate results figures of their day and generation of the war. And yet how unlike.

For a moment let there pass in reAs I read history, Andrew Jackson view before your mind's eye the picwas the first of our Presidents who ture of Andrew Jackson as President appeared booted and spurred and on entering Richmond after the close of horseback ; and though his term of the great rebellion (especially if Caloffice was in a time of profound peace, houn had been at the head of the dehe ruled his country and his party feated Confederate Government), and with an iron hand and the autocratic then recall the manner in which every will of a crowned king.

one knows that Abraham Lincoln enAbraham Lincoln came into the tered it. Presidency on the eve of the greatest There can be no doubt that Jackson rebellion in history, and though Com- would have entered it duly heralded


and on horseback amid the booming the wonderful acts of this wonderful of cannon, the waving of banners, man, this was, to me, one among the and surrounded by his victorious ar- most impressive and touching, and my, marching to the music of fife and to-night presents to my mind a picdrum.

ture of moral grandeur, such as the Those who have read of Jackson's world never before looked upon, a imperious will and fiery temper know scene such as the future can only witthat the conquered would have been ness when like causes reproduce such made to feel and remember the iron an occasion—and such a man. hand and iron will of the conqueror. “Ah, if in coming times You all remember how Mr. Lincoln

Some giant evil arise, entered Richmond, on foot, unher

And honor falter and pale, alded and practically unattended. He

His were a name to conjure with !

God send his like again !" thus entered the Capital of the late Confederate Government to teach the As the colossal figure of Lincoln South and the nation a needed lesson casts its shadow down the centuries, —the lesson of mercy and forgive it will be a guide to all coming gen

erations, inspiring, as it did, with If he could, he would have entered courage and hope all loyal men durRichmond bearing aloft the nation's ing the darkest hours of the great banner "unstained by human blood.” struggle for our national life, when

As he walked up the silent and de- heserted streets of Richmond the col

“Faithful stood with prophet finger ored people were the only ones to Pointing toward the blest to be, meet him, and they gave their great When beneath the spread of Heaven deliverer a timid, quiet and unde- Every creature shall be free. monstrative welcome by standing on Fearless when the lips of evil each side of the streets through

Breathed their blackness on his name, which he passed with uncovered

Trusting in a noble life time heads.

For a spotless after fame." During his walk of nearly two miles the colored children, after And his contemporaries, while they a time, drew nearer to him, and at live, and his countrymen for all time, last a little girl came so close that he will cherish the thought that neither took the child by the hand and spoke time nor distance, nor things present, kindly to it, obeying the injunction of nor things to come, can dim the halo that simple and sublime utterance, which surrounds and glorifies the unwhich touches all human hearts : selfish and manly life of Abraham “Suffer little children to come unto Lincoln. me, and forbid them not."

JAMES W. ASHLEY. As I look back and recall many of


TO 1840.




THOSE who have followed the —the panic of 1837—when she came course of this narrative have prob- to herself and perceived what insane ably said to themselves, “It strikes acts she had been guilty of. me that he (referring to the author), The panic of 1837 was bad enough; is inclined to make every year prior but there is a delirium of excitement to 1840 either the commencement, or which sustains men when they see the ending, of some epoch in the life the ruins falling all around them of Chicago." It may be, however, with their own. It is the death-like that my own thoughts have given stillness which succeeds; the oppresbirth to this suspicion; for I do be- sive stagnation which follows, that lieve that there were few years which try the business soul. Chicago had

not really momentous, and been riding in a balloon for several which did not have a traceable bear- years; the balloon had been pricked, ing upon the fortunes of our great and Chicago had fallen to the ground city. Particularly after the canal from a great height. Would she commissioners surveyed their section, sufficiently recover to do something do the years seem to be packed, like on earth? the loam of the prairies, with all While an answer to this question sorts of germs and seeds, awaiting was gradually evolved;while the sales various influences to bring them to at the land office fell from 200,000 or the stature of metropolitan and cos- 300,000 acres per annum to almost mopolitan institutions.

nothing, and while the migration Coming down to the years and from the city was actually causing a months immediately preceding 1840, decrease of its population, it was exthe fact should be made plain that tremely fortunate that the building of these years and months formed pre- the canal went on. The harbor imeminently, the crucial period of provements were virtually at a standChicago's business character. She still; but work on the canal went on had had her few years of speculative —every enterprise had not deserted intoxication, followed by a reaction Chicago! The great Internal Im

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