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North would be either hopelessly di- copy of a letter he addressed to the vided or be compelled to recognize a Secretary of War at Washington : separation.
Steamship Baltic, off Sandy Hook, Mr. Greeley, in his "American Con
April 18, 1861. Aict," quotes Mr. Roscoe Conklin, a The Honorable S. Cameron, distinguished member of the 36th
Secretary of War, and 37th Congresses, and afterwards,
Washington, D. C. a Senator in Congress from the State Sir-Having defended Fort Sumof New York, as saying when the ter for thirty-four hours, until the proceedings of the Convention at quarters were entirely burned, the Alabama referred to in the preceding main gates destroyed, the georgechapter, reached Washington, they wall seriously injured, the magazine were hailed with undesigned exulta- surrounded by Aames, and the door tion by the Secessionists still linger- closed from the effects of the heat, ing in the halls of Congress ; one of four barrels and three cartridges of whom said to him, triumphantly, “ If powder only being available, and no your President should attempt coer- provisions but pork remaining, I cion, he will have more opposition at accepted terms of evacuation offered the North than he can overcome.” by Gen. Beauregard, (being the same The writer can attest that the influ- offered him on the with instant, prior ence of the public meeting, held in to the commencement of hostilities) the North, opposing coercion, was so and marched out of the Fort, on Sundense, at Washington, that like the day afternoon, the 14th instant, with darkness of Egypt in the days of colors flying and drums beating, Pharaoh, it could be felt.
bringing away company and private The Confederates, at Charleston, property, and saluting my flag with South Carolina, uninfluenced by the fifty guns. conciliatory inaugural of President
ROBERT ANDERSON, Lincoln, and being unable to induce
Major First Artillery. Major Anderson in command of the On the 15th day of April, three little garrison (74 men) in Fort days after the attack Sumter, to surrender, opened fire Sumter, President Lincoln issued a upon it, April 12th, 1861, and contin- proclamation, in substance, as fol. ued it vigorously the next night and lows: day, until the Fort was set on fire and “Whereas, the laws of the United badly damaged and Major Anderson States have been for some time past, was compelled to surrender and and now are, opposed, and the exeevacuate the Fort, but he obtained cution thereof obstructed, in the honorable terms. The following is a States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Lousi- served, consistently with the object ana and Texas, by combinations too aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, powerful to be suppressed by the or- any destruction of, or interference dinary course of judicial proceed with property, or any disturbance of ings,or by the powers vested in the peaceful citizens of any part of the marshals by law : now, therefore, I, country; and I hereby command the Abraham Lincoln, President of the persons comprising the combinations United States, in virtue of the power aforesaid, to disperse and retire peacein me vested by the Constitution and ably to their respective abodes, within the laws, have thought fit to call for twenty days from this date. the militia of the several States of the Deeming that the present condiUnion to the aggregate number of tion of public affairs presents an ex. 75,000 in order to suppress said com- traordinary occasion, I do hereby, in binations, and to cause the laws to virtue of the power in me vested by be duly executed. The details for the Constitution, convene both this object will be immediately com- Houses of Congress. The Senators municated to the State authorities and Representatives are, therefore, through the War Department. I ap- summoned to assemble at their repeal to all loyal citizens to favor, fa- spective chambers at 12 o'clock, noon, cilitate and aid this effort to maintain on Thursday, the 4th day of July the honor, the integrity, and the ex- next, then and there to consider and istence of our National Union, and determine such measures as, in their the perpetuity of popular Govern- wisdom, the public safety and interment, and to redress wrongs already est may seem to demand. long endured. I deem it proper to (After the formal conclusion, the say that the first service assigned to proclamation was signed.) the forces hereby called forth will
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. probably be to repossess the forts, By the President: places and property which have been
WM. H. SEWARD, seized from the Union, and in every
Secretary of State. event the utmost care will be ob
AGAIN, “Immediately on the organ. taken part in its cession to the United ization of congress (in Dec., 1784), States. Washington, with a careful discrim- The cession had included the deation between the offices of that body mand of a guarantee to Virginia of and the functions of the State, urged the remainder of its territory. This through its President that congress the United States had refused, and should have the western waters well Virginia receded from the demand. explored, their capacities for naviga. On the first day of March, 1784, Jefftion ascertained as far as the com- erson, in congress, with his colleagues, munications between Lake Erie and Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe, the Wabash, and a complete and per- in conformity with full powers from fect
map made of the country at least their commonwealth, signed, sealed as far west as the Miamis, which run and delivered a deed by which, with into the Ohio and Lake Erie.” some reservation of land, they ceded Bancroft's Constitutional History. to the United States all claim to the
Does anybody doubt after reading territory northwest of the Ohio. this, on which side of the question On the same day, before the deed Washington would be if now living, could be recorded and enrolled among in regard to the construction of the the acts of the United States, JefferHennepin canal ?
son, as chairman of a committee, preThe immensity of the ungranted sented a plan for the temporary govpublic domain which had passed from ernment of the western territory from the English crown to the American the southern boundary of the United people, invited them to establish a States in the latitude of thirty-one continental empire of republics. degree to the Lake of the Woods. It Lines of communication with the is still preserved in the national western country implied its coloniza- archives in his own handwriting, and tion. In the war, Jefferson, as is as completely his own work as the member of the legislature, had pro- Declaration of Independence. He moted the expedition by which Vir- pressed upon Virginia to establish ginia conquered the region northwest the meridian of the mouth of the of the Ohio; as governor he had Kanawha as its western boundary,
and to cede all beyond to the United forever a part of the United States of States. To Madison he wrote: “For America; they shall bear the same God's sake push this at the next ses- relation to the confederation as the sion of assembly. We hope North original States; they shall pay their Carolina will cede all beyond the apportionment of the federal debts; same meridian;" his object being to they shall, in their government, upobtain cessions to the United States hold republican forms; and after the of all southern territory west of the year 1800 of the Christian era, there meridian of the Kanawha.
shall be neither slavery nor voluntary In dividing all the country north- servitude in any of them. west of the Ohio into ten States, Jef- At that time slavery prevailed ferson was controlled by an act of throughout much more than half the Congress of 1780 which was incor- lands of Europe. Jefferson, following porated into the cession of Virginia. an impulse from his own mind, deNo land was to be taken up till it signed by his ordinance to establish should have been purchased from the from end to end of the whole country, Indian proprietors and offered for a north and south line, at which the sale by the United States. In each western extension of slavery should recipient State no property qualifi. be stayed by an impossible bound. cation was required, either of the Of the men held in bondage beyond electors or elected; it was enough for that line, he did not propose the inthem to be free men, resident, and of stant emancipation; but slavery was
Under the authority of to be rung out with the departing Congress, and following the precedent century, so that in all the western of any one of the States, the settlers territory, whether held in 1784 by were to establish a temporary gov- Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, or ernment, when they should have in- the United States, the sun of the new creased to twenty thousand, they century might dawn on no slave. might institute a permanent govern- To make the decree irrevocable, he ment, with a member in Congress; further proposed that all articles having a right to debate, but not to should form a charter of compact, to vote; and, when they should be equal be executed in Congress under the in number to the inhabitants of the seal of the United States, to be least populous State, their delegates, promulgated, and to stand as fundawith the consent of nine States, as re- mental constitutions betweeen the quired by the confederation, were to thirteen original States and the new be admitted into the Congress of the States to be erected under the orUnited States on an equal footing. dinance.
The ordinance contained five other The design of Jefferson marks an articles: The new State shall remain era in thc history of universal free
dom. For the moment more was at- of such an intention, and who was tempted than could be accomplished. again absent when in the following North Carolina, in the following year the question was revived, for June, made a cession of all her west- North Carolina, the vote of Spaight ern lands, but soon revoked it; and was neutralized by Williamson. Virginia did not release Kentucky Six States against three, sixteen till it became a State of the Union. men against seven, prescribed slavery; Moreover, the sixteen years during Jefferson bore witness against it all which slavery was to have a respite his life long. Wythe and himself, as might nurse it into such strength commissioners to codify the laws of that at the end of them it would be Virginia, had provided for gradual able to defy or reverse the ordinance. emancipation.
Exactly on the ninth anniversary When, in 1785, the legislature reof the fight at Concord and Lexing- fused to consider the proposal, Jefferton, Richard Dobbs Spaight, of North son wrote: “We must hope that an Carolina, seconded by Jacob Read, of overruling Providence is preparing South Carolina, moved to “strike the deliverence of these, our sufferout" the fifth article. The presiding ing brethren." In 1786, narrating officer, following the rule of the the loss of the clause against slavery times, put the question: "Shall the in the ordinance of 1784, he said: question stand?" Seven States, and "The voice of a single individual seven only, were needed to carry the would have prevented this abominable affirmative.
crime; Heaven will not always be Let Jefferson, who did not refrain silent; the friends to the rights of from describing Spaight as "a young human nature will in the end prefool," relate what followed: “The vail." clause was lost by an individual vote To friends who visited him in the only. Ten States were present. The last period of his life, he delighted to four Eastern States, New York renew these aspirations of his earlier and Pennsylvania
years. clause; Jersey would have been for In a letter written just forty-five it, but there were but two members, days before his death, he refers to the one of whom was sick in his chambers. ordinance of 1784, saying: “My sentiSouth Carolina, Maryland and Vir- ments have been forty years before the ginia voted against it. North Caro- public ; although I shall not live to lina was divided, as would have been see them consummated, they will not Virginia, had not one of its delegates die with me; but, living or dying, been sick in bed."
they will ever be in my most fervent The absent Virginian was Monroe, prayer." who for himself has left no evidence The ordinance for the government