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three years.

of the northwestern territory, shorn fixed for the discussion of the affairs of its proscriptions of slavery, was of the west. adopted, and remained in force for The report that was before Congress

Later in the session, was Jefferson's scheme for "locating Jefferson reported an ordinance for and disposing of land in the western ascertaining the mode of locating and territory;" and it was readily referred disposing of the public lands. The to a committee of one from each State, continental domain, when purchased Grayson being the member from Virof the Indians, was to be divided by ginia and King from Massachusetts. the surveyors into townships of ten King, seconded by Ellery of Rhode geographical miles square, the town- Island, proposed that a part of the ships into hundreds of one mile rejected antislavery clause in Jeffersquare,and with such precautions that son's ordinance for the government of the wilderness could be mapped out the western territory should be reinto ranges of lots so exactly as to pre- ferred to a committe; all that related clude uncertainty of title. As to in- to the western territory of the three heritance, the words of the ordinance southern States was omitted; and so, were: “The lands therein shall pass too, was the clause postponing the proin descent and dower according hibition of slavery. to the customs known in common law On the question for committing this by the name of gavelkind."

proposition, the four New England Upon this ordinance of Jefferson, States, New York, New Jersey and most thoughtfully prepared and writ- Pennsylvania, voted unanimously in ten wholly by his own hand, no final the affirmative; Maryland by a mavote was taken.

jority, McHenry going with the South, Gee ist Bancroft's History of the John Henry and William Hindman Constitution of the United States, p.

with the North. For Virginia, Gray153.

son voted aye, but was overpowered

by Hardy and Richard Henry Lee. Supplementing the action of the The Carolinas were unanimous for the continental Congress in regard to Jef- negative. So the vote stood, eight ferson's ordinance of 1784, is the action States against three; eighteen memof Congress in regard to the disposi- bers against eight; and the motion tion and survey of the national do- was forth with committed to King, main of the west.

Howell and Ellery. Bancroft, who has devoted much On the 6th of April King, from his attention in his work on the Constitu- committee, reported his resolution, tion to the west, in speaking upon which is entirely in his own handthis subject, among other things,says: writing and which consists of two The sixteenth of March, 1785, was clauses: it allowed slavery in the .

THE NATIONAL LAND LAWS.

66

Northwest until the first day of the church with the State; but the reseryear 1801, but not longer; and it "pro- vation for the support of schools revided that always, upon the escape of ceived a general welcome. Jefferson any person into any of the States de- has proposed townships of ten miles scribed in the resolve of Congress of square; the committee of seven; but the 23rd day of April, 1784, from the motion of Grayson, that they

hom labor or service is lawfully should be of six miles square, was claimed in any one of the thirteen finally accepted. The South, accusoriginal States, such fugitive might tomed to the mode of indiscriminate be lawfully reclaimed and carried locations and settlements, insisted on back to the person claiming his labor the rule which would give the most or service, this resolve nothwithstand- free scope to the roving emigrant; ing." King reserved his resolution to and, as the bill required the vote of be brought forward as a separate meas- nine States for adoption, and during ure,after the land ordinance should be the debates on the subject more than passed. “I expect," wrote Grayson to ten were never present. The eastern Madison, seven States may be found people, though “amazingly attached liberal enough to adopt." But there to their own custom of planting by is no evidence that it was ever again townships," yielded to the comprocalled up in Congress.

mise that every other township should On the 12th of April the committee be sold by sections.

The surveys for framing an ordinance for the dis- were to be confined to one State and posal of the western lands made their to five ranges, extending from the report, it was written by Grayson, Ohio to Lake Erie, and were to be who formed it out of a conflict of opin- made under the direction of the geogions, and took the chief part in con- rapher of the United States. The ducting it through the house. As an bounds of every parcel that were sold inducement for neighborhoods of the were fixed beyond a question; the same religious sentiments to confeder- mode of registry was simple, convenate for the purpose of purchasing and ient, and almost without cost; the settling together, it was a land for a form of conveyance most concise and people going forth to take possession clear. Never was land offered to a of a seemingly endless domain.

poor man at less cost or with a safer Its division was to be into town- title. For one bad provision, which, ships, with a perpetual reservation of however, was three years after reone mile square in every township for pealed, the consent of Congress was the support of religion, and another for the moment extorted; the lands, for education. The house refused its as surveyed, were to be drawn for by assent to the reservation for the sup- lot by the several States in proportion port of religion, as connecting the to the requisitions made upon them, and were to be sold publicly within ginia was a crown colony its importthe States, But it was carefully pro- ance increased by leaps and bounds so vided that they should be paid for in that it soon became the foundation of the obligations of the United States, her prosperity. The rapid developat the rate of a dollar an acre. To se- ment of the habit of using tobacco cure the promises made to Virginia, America's most welcomed gift to the chiefly on behalf of the officers and Old World – that the large profits soldier who took part in conquering that it offered to the tillers of the the Northwest from British authority soil, led in the first place to a large it was agreed, after a discussion of four immigration from England; and in days, to reserve the district between the second place to the wide scatterthe Little Miami and the Scioto. ing of the population along the tide

The land ordinance of Jefferson, as water district of the colony, and inamended from 1784 to 1788, definitely land as far as the eastern slopes of settled the character of the national the Blue Ridge." land laws, which are still treasured Hening says, that “culture of toup as one of the most precious heri- bacco seems to have been a favorite tages from the founders of the repub. object with the first settlers, and was lic. See Bancroft's History of the the only staple commodity to which Constitution.

they could be induced to turn their TOBACCO IN OLD VIRGINIA.

attention. In order to improve its There is not in human history a quality various laws were passed limmore striking example of the utter in- iting the number of plants to be culfatuation of a people than is to be tivated by each hand and the leaves found in the history of Virginia re- to be gathered from a plant. garding tubacco. Its discovery and Other details in the process of introduction into England created making it were also prescribed by the such a demand for it that it soon be- legislature, and to insure a just comcame almost the sole staple of pensation for the labor of the planter, production in the plantation, and the price at which it was to be sold every means was made use of at was fixed by the assembly at differhome and abroad to stimulate its ent times. growth.

The first idea of inspecting tobacco A recent historian says that “ It is is contained in an act passed in 1630, principally to the introduction of to- before any warehouses were estabbacco into the markets of Europe, that lished. The process was very simple, Virginia owes its place in history. and the penalty for offering unmerThis plant began to be tilled during

chantable tobacco in payment equally the government by the London Com- severe. pany, but during the period when Vir- If a planter offered to pay away or barter any bad tobacco, the command- 1662, 2 Hen. 166, it was enacted that er of the plantation (an officer who “ whereas oftentimes many babling united with the powers of a justice of women often slander and scandalize the peace, the supreme military com- their neighbors, for which their poore mand of the settlement) with two or husbands are often brought into three discreet men, were directed to chargeable and vexatious suits and view it, and if found of bad quality cost in great damages. to cause it to be burnt, and the owner “Bee it, therefore, enacted by the auwas prohibited from planting any thority of the aforesaid, that in actions more tobacco until authorised by the of slander occasioned by the wife as general assembly.

aforesaid, after judgment passed for At the next session the law was the damages, the woman shall be punamended so as to make it the duty ished by ducking, and if the slander of the commander to issue his order be soe enormous as to be adjuged at either verbally or in writing to two a greater damage than five hundred 'sufficient men'to view the tobacco, pounds of tobacco, then the woman to who were in like manner, to burn it, suffer a ducking for each five hundred if of bad quality. The same law was pounds of tobacco adjudged against reenacted in the revisal of 1632. In the husband if he refuse to pay the 1633, warehouses, then called store- tobacco." houses, were established, and the in- WIVES BOUGHT WITH TOBACCO. spectors were to be composed of that The part that tobacco played in the member of the King's council whose early settlement of Virginia is thus residence was nearest any warehouse, depicted by one of the historians of and the commissioners of the several that commonwealth as follows: “In plantations as assistants.

early years the voyagers to far off VirIn 1623-4, 21st James, ist monthly ginia had been simply adventurerscourts were organized “in the corpor- men adventuring to seek their forations of Charles City and Elizabeth tunes, but with no intention of setCity for the decyding of suits and con- tling and passing the remainder of troversies not exceeding the value their lives in the new land. They of one hundred pounds of tobacco." looked upon the country as a place in i Hening, 125, 133.

which they can make no long tarry

ing, and neither brought their famTHE BABLINGS OF WOMEN PUNISHED BY WOMAN AND MAKING

ilies with them nor established their HUSBAND PAY 500 POUNDS OF homes there. They hoped to return TOBACCO. .

in a few years with improved fortunes By the act of 1661, 2 Hen. 75, every to England; but this was not the County Court was directed to have spirit that founds commonerected a ducking stool, and by act of wealths."

DUCKING THE

THE

new

Sandys clearly saw that unless Vir. wives for the settlers-persons of ginia was looked upon as home, the unexceptional character who had enterprise would miscarry, and the volunteered for the purpose. best means of making it such was A singular feature of the arrangeplain to him.

ment was that their husbands were What the Virginians required as a to purchase them. The expenditure stimulus to exertion, was to have of the company in sending them out wives and children depending upon was considerable, and it was required them.

that those who selected them or were With these they would perform , selected by them should repay the honest labor cheerfully and not look cost of their outfit and passage. This back toward England when the hand was fixed at one hundred and twenty was on the plow. Wife and child pounds of tobacco—about eighty dolwould make the home in the new lars. On payment of that amount the land what home had been in the old. settler was entitled to a wife. HenThe result was that ninety young wo- ing's Statutes at Large, Vol. I. sent out by Sandys as

ELLIOTT ANTHONY.

men

were

TRINIDAD UPON THE LAS ANIMAS.

HER COAL FIELDS-A GREAT PAY ROLL.

When the locomotive, “ David H. thus built, and thereby promoted, Moffat," (and the first to enter Col- may be named four distinctive or inorado), left Cheyenne in 1872 for dividual cities: Denver, Colorado Denver, its wheels continued to re- Springs and Manitou; Pueblo; and volve, not only until it reached the Trinidad. city of Trinity upon the river of Colorado has, therefore, Denver, Lost Souls, but until it had crossed of world-wide reputation; Colorado the entire Rocky Mountain range. Springs and Manitou, as National

The Denver & Rio Grande Rail- Health Resorts; Pueblo as a manuroad, as the pioneer enterprise of the facturing metropolis, and Trinidad kind in the State, in building its basal possessing the characteristics, to a line along the mountain, fixed its degree, of them all. southern terminus at the latter point, Much as I have travelled over the situated about three hundred miles State, and much as has been attemptfrom Cheyenne. Upon the railway ed at pen description, I confess sur

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