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APOTHECARIES' MEASURE. 20 grains make.... 3 scruples make.. 8 drachms make. 12 ounces make...
ARCHITECTS' OR BUILDERS' MEASURE. This measure is used in measuring surface painting, plastering, brick work, shingles and other roofing, etc., or any surface having length or breadth. 144 square inches make....
.1 square foot. 9 square feet (3x3) make.
1 square yard. 10 feet square (10x10) make.
(100 ft.) 1 square. ALE OR BEER MEASURE. Milk, cider, vinegar and other cheap articles are sold in small quantities by this measure. Milk in many places is also sold by wine measure. 2 pints make....
.1 quart. 4 quarts make..
.1 gallon. 9 gallons make..
.1 firkin. 2 firkins or 18 gallons make..
1 kilderkin. 2 kilderkins or 36 gallons make.
1 barrel. 142 barrels or 54 gallons make..
.1 hogshead. 143 hogsheads or 72 gallons make.
.1 puncheon. 142 puncheons or 108 gallons make.
UNITY. 12 units make....
1 dozen. 20 units make....
.1 score. 12 dozen make.
1 gross. 12 gross make.
.1 great gross.
PAPER. 24 sheets make....
1 quire. 1042 quires make..
.1 token. quires make.
.1 ream. 2 reams make....
1 bundle. 5 bundles make..
1 bale. COPYING. 75 words make....
.1 folio sheet of Common Law. 90 words make....
.1 folio sheet of Chancery.
FOLDED SHEETS. Folio, 1 fold, 2 leaves... Quarto, 2 folds, 4 leaves. Octavo, 4 folds, 8 leaves. 12mo, 6 folds, leaves. 16mo, 8 folds, 16 leaves., 18mo, 9 folds, 18 leaves. 24mo, 12 folds, 24 leaves. 32mo, 16 folds, 32 leaves.
8 pages. .16 pages. 24 pages .32 pages. 36 pages. . 48 pages. .64 pages.
SIZE OF SHEETS. Flat Letter....
.10 x 16 Flat Fools Cap..
..13 x 16 Flat Cap.
.14 x 17 Legal Cap.
.13 x 16 Crown
.15 x 19 Double Flat Letter.
.16 x 20 Demy
.16 x 21 Double Demy.
.21 x 32 Folio Post....
.17 x 22 Cardboard (allowing 34 inch for trimming) 22 x 28 Check Folio (Royal).
.19 x 24 Extra Size Folio..
.19 x 23 Double Cap...
.17 x 28 Medium, writing.
.18 x 23 Medium, printing.
18 x 24 Double Medium.
.23 x 36 Regular Bank.
.19 x 24 Double Royal..
.24 x 38 Super Royal...
..20 x 28 Elephant
23 x 28 Double Elephant.
.27 x 40 Columbier
23 x 34 Imperial
.22 x 30 Imperial
22 x 32 Book
.24 x 36 Atlas
. 26 x 33 Antiquarian
.31 x 53 The size of the paper used will indicate the dimensions of the folded sheets, Royal, Octavo, Crown, Quarto, Medium, Folio, etc., etc., etc.
DRAWING PAPER-SIZES. Cap
.1942 x 1542 inches. Medium
24 x 19
inches. Super Royal.
3734 x 2244 inches. Imperial
.29 x 2144 inches. Columpier
.3334 x 23 inches. Atlas
.33 x 26 inches. Theorem
inches. Double Elephant.
inches. Uncle Sam..
48 x120 inches.
Primarily, for the convenience of the railroads, a standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1883, by which trains are run and local time regu. lated. According to this system, the United States, ex. tending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 15° of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour, commencing with the 75th meridian. The first (eastern) section includes all terri. tory between the Atlantic coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. C., the latter being its most southern point. The second (central) section includes all the territory between the last-named line and an irregular line from Bismark, N. D., to the mouth of the Rio Grande. The third (mountain) section includes all territory between the last-named line and nearly the western borders of Idaho, Utah and Arizona. The fourth (Pacific) section covers the rest of the country to the Pacific coast. Standard time is uniform inside each of these sections, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly one hour, Thus at 12 noon in New York City (eastern time), the time at Chicago (central time) is 11 o'clock a. m.; at Denver (mountain time), 10 o'clock a. m., and at San Francisco (Pacific time), 9 o'clock a. m. Standard
time is 16 minutes slower at Boston than true local time, 4 minutes slower at New York, 8 minutes faster at Washington, 19 minutes faster at Charleston, 28 min. utes slower at Detroit, 18 minutes faster at Kansas City, 10 minutes slower at Chicago, 1 minute faster at St. Louis, 28 minutes faster at Salt Lake City, and 10 minutes faster at San Francisco.
PUNCTUATION MARKS AND RULES
FOR USING THEM
The period [.] denotes the close of a sentence. A period is placed after every declarative and imperative sentence. All abbreviations are followed by period, also all numbers in the Roman notation.
The colon [:] is placed between the chief divisions of a sentence, when these are but slightly connected, and they are themselves divided by some other mark. A colon is used after a sentence which announces a distinct quotation, and is placed between clauses when the connection is so slight that any one of them might be a distinct sentence.
The semicolon [;] indicates a longer pause, and also divides compound sentences. A succession of clauses depending on one principal expression, should be separated by a semicolon; is also placed after an expression which introduces particulars. When a clause especially explains the meaning of some other expression, it is separated from that expression by a semicolon, and one is used to divide a sentence into sections, when the various parts are not sufficiently independent to require a colon.
The comma (,) denotes a slight pause, and divides a sentence into its component parts. A comma is placed between the particulars mentioned in a succession of words all in the same construction, one is placed between each pair of words, when each pair is in the same construction, also before and one after every parenthetical expression, and is used before a quotation closely connected with the preceding words. Expressions re
peated must be separated by a comma, as must also a phrase or clause which explains, in any degree, the meaning of any other phrase or clause. All modifying expressions, unless closely connected with the rest of the sentence, are separated by a comma. A comma must be used in sentences which would otherwise be misunderstood, and placed where a word is understood, unless the connection is close.
The interrogation point [?] is placed after every sentence which denotes a direct question, and after each successive particular of a series of questions related in seuse but distinctive in construction.
'The exclamation point [!] denotes wonder or astonishment. An exclamation point is placed after every exclamatory sentence, clause, phrase or word. Where special emphasis is required, several exclamation points may be used. An exclamation point, enclosed in parentheses, is used to denote peculiar surprise. Most interjections take an exclamation point after them.
The dash [-] indicates a sudden change of subject. A sudden turn in a sentence is shown by a dash. An omission of the middle numbers in a regular series, or of a word, or part of a word, is denoted by a dash, one is usually placed before the answer to a question, when they both belong to the same line, and is often used instead of the parenthesis marks; it is also commonly used before an expression repeated for special emphasis, and always follows the sentence which introduces a quotation, when the quotation commences a new paragraph. A dash is often used to avoid too many paragraphs.
Quotation marks [""] indicate a verbatim quotation. Every quoted passage is enclosed in quotation marks. Quotations consisting of more than one paragraph have the first quotation mark at the beginning of each paragraph, but the second is used only at the end of the last paragraph. When a quoted passage requires special attention, the first quotation mark may be used at the commencement of each line. When one quotation includes another, the latter has but half the first quotation mark before it, and half the second mark after it.