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power, or should voluntarily incorporate itself into the empire of another, it would not be compatible with American interests for its colonial possessions in American waters or on the American continent to go with it into that new connection.

America cannot, however, play the part of the dog in the manger. She cannot prohibit the transfer of these islands from one power to another without accepting the alternative. She must, that is to say, stand ready to take possession of them herself whenever they are to be separated from their present owners. This, we may assume, will in each case be effected by peaceful treaty of purchase and cession, though it behooves this country to be not unprepared for more strenuous measures, should alien animosity or other circumstances make them necessary for the protection and maintenance of American rights.

Beyond these possible prospects of expansion, it is not profitable to look. Expansion has never been and never should be an end in itself, but merely a means of working out our highest national destiny. It has in the past proved such a means, absolutely essential and inestimably profitable. It would hereafter be deplorable, and deserving of strongest condemnation, for America to seize upon any additional territory, great or small, through mere lust of land. It would be equally deplorable and worthy of condemnation for America to decline

the acquisition, whether by peaceful purchase or by forcible conquest, of any territory the control of which by us was dictated by humanity or honor, or the possession of which was essential to our own safety, peace, and prosperity.

INDEX

ADAMS, John, share in making | ASTOR, John Jacob, founds settle-
Treaty of Paris, 53.

ment in Oregon, 184.
ADAMS, John Quincy, supports AURY, John, 140.

Jackson in Florida, 145; ungrate-
fully treated by Jackson, 146; ne- BARANOFF, Alexander, 201.
gotiations with Don Luis de BENTON, Thomas Hart, on Cal-
Onis, 147; opposed by treacher- houn's Texas policy, 175; on
ous colleagues, 148; his triumph, Oregon, 192.
149; treatment of General Vives, BERING SEA controversy, 217.
150; forecasts Monroe Doctrine, BLAINE, James G., vigorous policy
153; vigorous Texan policy, 164;

in Hawaii, 240.
maligned by Jackson, 170; Cuban BLOUNT, J. H., “Commissioner
policy, 264.

Paramount" to Hawaii, 250.
ALASKA, history of, 199; decline BONAPARTE, Napoleon, plans

of prosperity, 201; boundary de- French empire in America, 74;
termined by Russia and Great expedition to Louisiana, 76;
Britain, 204; Russia's desire to scorns Jefferson's proposal for
relinquish, 205; negotiations Loui na, 93; sudden change
over, 208; treaty of cession to of policy, 94; offers to sell
United States, 211; government Louisiana, 95.
and status of, 216; Bering Sea BOTTA's History quoted, 47.
controversy, 217; value of the BURR, Aaron, negotiations with
territory, 219.

Jackson, 137.
AMBRISTER case, 144.
AMELIA ISLAND, 140.

CALHOUN, John C., Texas annex-
AMERICA, North, early division of, ation policy, 174; Oregon pol-

3; after French and Indian War, icy, 189; comments on Mexican
28; French and Spanish designs

War, 197
in 1783, 48; under Treaty of CARONDELET, Baron, incites Ind-

Paris, 55; final division, 198. ians to hostility, 67.
AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, seeds CLAIBORNE, W. C. C., at transfer

sown in French and Indian War, of Louisiana, 116; first governor
28; full fruition found only in of Louisiana, 118.

continental domination, 80. CLARK, George Rogers, 33;
ARBUTHNOT case, 144.

scheme for winning Northwest

no

Territory, 35; negotiations with nexation of Hawaii by joint
Patrick Henry, 36; his dual resolution, 259; territorial gov-
commission, 38; beginning of ernment provided for Hawaii,
Kaskaskia campaign, 40; capture 259; government provided for
of Kaskaskia, 41; capture of Tutuila, 262; intervention in.
Vincennes, 43; builds Fort Jef- Cuba ordered, 274; Treaty of
ferson, 45; secession plans and Paris ratified, 287.
intrigues with Spain, 66; in- "CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED,”
trigues with Genet, 68.

ignored by Jefferson in Louisi-
CLARK, William, expedition to

ana, 118.
Oregon, 184.

CONSTITUTION of United States,
CLAY, Henry, Cuban policy, 267. Jefferson's strict construction of,
CLEVELAND, Grover, withdraws 96; interpretation of it through

Hawaiian annexation treaty, Louisiana Purchase, 100; power
250; sends J. H. Blount to to acquire territory, 101;
Hawaii, 250; condemns United limit upon exterior powers of
States action in Hawaii, 251; the nation, 107; power to hold
abandons Hawaiian problem, territory outside of or to incor-
255; recommends sanction of porate it into the Union, '108;
Hawaiian lease to Great Britain, intention of authors, 156; Web-
256; message on intervention in ster's exposition of, 156; ex-
Cuba, 270.

tension of it to Hawaii, 258;
CONGRESS, instructions to Peace principles involved in Samoa,

Commissioners, 48; ratifies 262; principles involved in
Treaty of Paris, 57; votes Treaty of Paris, 295.
$2,000,000 to Jefferson for pur- CUBA, United States policy toward,
chase of New Orleans, 90; rati-

first declared, 153;

Adams's
fies Louisiana Purchase, 97 ; statement concerning, 264; Jef-
debates over Louisiana, 100; ferson's policy, 266; Clay's
power to hold and govern terri- policy, 267; American protector-
tory, IIo; provides government ate over, 268; outbreak of final
for Louisiana, 117; authorizes revolution, 269; destruction of
seizure of Florida, 131; rejects the Maine, 269; grounds for
Texas annexation treaty, 175; American intervention, 272; in-
Tyler's appeal to House against tervention ordered, 274; not to
Senate, 176; annexation of Texas be annexed by the United States,
by joint resolution, 178; Oregon 274; disposition of in Treaty of
treaty, 194; reasons for acquir- Paris, 280; post bellum annexa-
ing Alaska, 212; terms of Alaska tion talk, 288; becomes an inde-
treaty, 214; Hawaiian reciprocity pendent republic, 292; mainte-
defeated, 238; failure to ratify nance of American protectorate,
Hawaiian annexation treaty, 292.
250; refusal to sanction British
lease of Hawaiian island, 256; DAVIS, Cushman K., Peace Com-

Hawaiian annexation missioner, 279; attitude toward
scheme considered, 257; an- annexation of Philippines, 282,

new

DAY, William R., Peace Commis- brister tragedy, 144; treaty of

sioner, 279; attitude toward an- cession, 151; significance of

nexation of Philippines, 282. annexation, 152; legal and con-
DEWEY, George, destroys Spanish stitutional controversies over, 154.
fleet at Manila, 277.

FORSYTH, John, policy concerning
DINWIDDIE, Robert, executor of Cuba, 268.

Spottswood's scheme of expan- Fort NECESSITY, 26.
sion, 16; sends out Ohio Com- FRANCE, early holdings in Amer-
pany, 18; appeals to England, ica, 3; expulsion from America,
19; sends Washington to North- 28: hostility to America in 1783,
west Territory, 20; decides on 49; chagrin at Treaty of Paris, 54;
war, 22; sends Washington with purchase of Louisiana from
troops to Pittsburg, 23.

Spain, 75; regarded as chief foe

of United States, 86; prepara-
ELLICOTT, Andrew, marks Florida tions for war with, 91; again ex-
boundary, 72.

cluded from North American
ENGLISH COLONIES, early extent continent, 95; aggressions upon
and character, 4.

Hawaii, 232; proposal for triple
EXPANSION, first step taken by guarantee in Cuba, 267.

Virginia, 9; results of French FRANKLIN, Benjamin, share in
and Indian War, 28; results of Treaty of Paris, 53; letter to
Revolution and Treaty of Paris, Vergennes, 54.
55; nation's first step under the FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, be-
Constitution, 98; a new era in gun, 27; results, 28.
expansion, 127; President Grant's FRYE, William P., Peace Com-
plans defeated, 238; future pos- missioner, 279; attitude toward
sibilities, 303.

annexation of Philippines, 282.

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FILLMORE, Millard, Hawaiian GADSDEN PURCHASE, 196.
policy, 235.

GALVESTON, United States expedi-
FISH, Hamilton, Hawaiian annexa-

tion to, 140.
tion policy, 239.

GENET, M., intrigues to involve
FLORIDA, acquisition of, made in- America in war, 68; commissions

evitable by that of Louisiana, 128; George Rogers Clark in French
importance of, to United States, army, 69; recalled to France in
129; England's retrocession to disgrace, 70.
Spain, 129; first dispute concern- GODOY, “ Prince of the Peace,"
ing, 130; Jefferson's schemes forced by Pinckney to make
of annexation, 130; Congress treaty, 71.
authorizes seizure, 131 ; our GRAY, George, Peace Commis-
policy dictated by the law of sioner, 279; attitude toward an-
self-protection, 132; outlaws in nexation of Philippines, 282.
Florida, 136; Jackson's invasion, GRAY, Robert, discovers Columbia
139; Aury, and Amelia Island, River, 182.
140; practical conquest by Jack- GREAT BRITAIN, claims Oregon,
son, 143; Arbuthnot and Am- 186; negotiations over Oregon,

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