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Of unextinguish'd hate, and whelm with us
In one eternal ruin all mankind."

Thus spake the chief, and the universal host In lengthen'd acclamations rang the dome. As the fond parent, who to distant Ind Had sent his only son to amass that wealth Which various evils teach mankind to love, But which mankind too frequent at the expense Of health and conscience heap; him when from far


149. Of health and conscience heap:-The allurements and temptations which have been laid in the way of the British youth upon their arrival in Bengal are so ably delineated by one, whose judgment will scarcely be called in question, that I do not think I can render a more acceptable service to those who are unwilling to overlook the means in the attainment of the end, than by presenting them with the following extract from the celebrated Speech of Lord Clive, March 1772.

"The passion for gain is as strong as the passion of love. I will suppose that two intimate friends have lived long together; that one of them has married a beautiful woman; that the friend still continues to live in the house; and that the beautiful woman, forgetting her duty to her husband, attempts to seduce the friend; who, though in the vigour of his youth, may, from a high principle of honour, at first resist the temptation, and even rebuke the lady. But if he still continues to live under the same roof, and she still continues to throw out her allurements, he must be seduced at last, or fly. Now the banyan is the fair lady to the Company's servant. He lays his bags of silver before him today, gold tomorrow; jewels the next day; and if these fail, he then tempts him in the way of his profession, which is trade. He assures him that goods may be had cheap, and sold to great advantage up the country. In this manner is the attack carried on; and the Company's servant has no resource, for he cannot fly. In short, flesh and blood cannot bear it. Let us for a moment consider the nature of the education of a young man who goes to India. The advantages arising from the Company's service are now very generally known; and the great object of every man is to get his son appointed a writer to Bengal; which is usually at the age of sixteen. His parents and relations represent to him how certain he is of making a fortune; that My lord such a one and My lord such a

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The happy parent sees, whom even hope
Had given up for lost, and ill report
Of founder'd merchantman, the ecstatick flood
Pours from his aged cyes with nature's joy;
So joy'd the archfiend, when Moloch's haughty soul
Return'd to its allegiance; (well he knew 155

His favourite's sovereign worth, next to himself
He was regarded as the eye of hell;)
And thus with gladden'd countenance rose, and said ;
"Thrones, Princes, Powers! since thus ye have

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one acquired so much money in such a time; and Mr. such a one and Mr. such a one so much in such a time. Thus are their principles corrupted at their very setting out; and as they generally go a good many together, they inflame one another's expectations to such a degree, in the course of the voyage, that they fix upon a period for their return before their arrival.

"Let us now take a view of one of these writers arrived in Bengal, and not worth a groat. As soon as he lands, a banyan, worth perhaps one hundred thousand pounds, desires he may have the honour of serving this young gentleman at four shillings and sixpence per month. The Company has provided chambers for him, but they are not good enough; the banyan finds better. The young man takes a walk about the town; he observes that other writers, arrived only a year before him, live in splendid apartments or have houses of their own, ride upon fine prancing Arabian horses, and in palanquins and chaises; that they keep seraglios, make entertainments, and treat with champaigne and claret. When he returns, he tells the banyan what he has observed. The banyan assures him he may soon arrive at the same good fortune; he furnishes him with money; he is then at his mercy. The advantages of the banyan advance with the rank of his master, who in acquiring one fortune generally spends three. But this is not the worst of it: he is in a state of dependance under the banyan, who commits such acts of violence and oppression as his interest prompts him to, under the pretended sanction and authority of the Company's servant." Debrett's Debates, vi. 219-220.


Το wage in bold defiance open war,

Know that your prince approves the great design; 'Tis this alone can save us, for 'tis writ

Within the book of Fate, that he who long
Hath reign'd triumphant o'er the minds of men
Shall reign no more; 'tis on Columbia's plains 165
The victor shall be vanquish'd hence it comes
That the chief powers of heaven do now unite
To aid Columbia's cause and Washington:
And hell too must unite; no petty feuds
Must now disgrace our cause; concord alone
Enabled us the Eternal to oppose,

And uproar heaven; 'tis this alone can save
Our power on earth; for 'tis to this we owe
Empire, dominion, principality :


Let hell then but unite, and hell succeed.
What though from heaven the Omnipotent suspend
His golden chain, and all the planets hang
Revolving round their centre, and there pois'd
Seem to endure eternal; yet the force

Of hell has ne'er been tried but with success


On earth, and why not now? Put forth your


Ye mighty chieftains! arm without delay;

Arrest these traitorous, these rebellious sons
Amid their mad career; Virginia,

Where fate hath now enclos'd them, be their grave!
But above all direct your choicest darts
Against their chiefs; the warriours Lee, and Wayne,
Schuyler, and Putnam, prudent Sullivan,


The thunderbolt La Fayette, mighty Greene,
The too successful Gates, with Pomeroy,
Ward, Mifflin, Morgan, and Pulaski's might,
Moultrie, St. Clair, the other Washington,
Lincoln, and D'Estaing, valiant Rochambeau,
Sumpter, with Marion, and Cadwallader,
And many warriours more. Nor yet forget
Their various statesmen, whose prudential care
Supplies the warriours' wants: here above all
Mark that sage Nestor, Franklin, whose deep mind
With more than Argus' vigilance pursues
Our intricatest movements; he alone
Is in himself a host, a Washington.
Fondly I hop'd in British Wedderbarne




192. the other Washington, -Lieutenant-colonel Washington.

195. And many warriours more.-Some few are mentioned hereafter; but it would be endless to record the Butlers, Pinckneys, Knoxes, Spencers, Heaths, Thomases, Stirlings, Moores, Thompsons, Campbells, Gregorys, Trumbulls, Clintons, Maxwells, and the long list of worthies who defended the liberties of their country, and the rights of mankind.

198. sage Nestor, Franklin,-Lord Chatham's opinion of this great statesman and philosopher was, that he was "one whom all Europe held in high estimation for his knowledge and wisdom, and ranked with her Boyles and her Newtons; who was an honour not only to the English nation, but to human nature." See Ramsay, i. p. 153, and ii. p. 61; and compare Dr. Franklin'sAnswer to the Queries of Mr.Strahan, published in his works.

202. Wedderburne-In the celebrated examination of Dr. Franklin before the privy-council, Jan. 1774, Mr. Wedderburne, who was then solicitor-general, and counsel for the defendants," delivered one of the most extraordinary invec tives (abounding in the most odious personalities against Dr. Franklin) that was on any occasion perhaps ever heard in the council-chamber,"-" and stands upon record as the grossest insult ever offered to a great and venerable character, the most distinguished ornament of his age and country." Among

To find this sage's equal, but in vain ;
For Franklin when to Wedderburne compar'd
Is to a twinkling star the full-orb'd moon.
Mark too financier Morris, who doth seem
To have found the talisman of making gold.
Nor let from your harpyian fangs escape


other effusions of this implacable enemy of America, he scrupled not to say of Dr. Franklin-" He has forfeited all the respect of societies and of men. Into what companies will he hereafter go with an unembarrassed face, or the honest intrepidity of virtue ? Men will watch him with a jealous eye, they will hide their papers from him, and lock up their escritoires. He will henceforth esteem it a libel to be called a man of letters: homo trium literarum." The dignified superiority of the American philosopher never manifested itself more clearly than by the following remark; " that though the invectives of the solicitor-general made no impression upon him, he was indeed sorry to see the lords of the council, who constituted the dernier court in colonial affairs, so rudely and indecently manifesting the pleasure they received from it." See Belsham's Hist. of G. III. vol. ii. p. 35, 36. 114; Franklin's Works, Acc. of Gov. Hutchinson's Letters; Ramsay, i. 92-3.

206, Financier Morris,―There are few, very few individuals to whom America was more indebted for her preservation than to this eminent and enlightened patriot. At a time when the derangement of the American finances appeared irremediable, when credit and confidence were annihilated, and nothing was heard but the distresses of the army and the clamours of the people, this able politician and financier nobly stepped forward, and by" bringing his private credit in aid of the public resources; by pledging himself personally and extensively for articles of the most absolute necessity, which could not be otherwise obtained," restored order and alleviated miscry. In general Greene's army he employed an agent whose powers were unknown to that officer;" and whenever it appeared impossible for the general to extricate himself from his embarrassments, this agent was instructed to furnish him with a draft on the financier for such a sum as would retrieve the urgency of the moment. Thus was Greene frequently rescued from impending ruin by aid which appeared providential, and for which he could not account." Life of W. vol. iv. p. 514. 618. 626-7.

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