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the historical abstract, than to national or tent to say that his book affords exposition racial bias. All that he says concerning of the facts and deduction of the logic of the greater mobility, the broader strate- current history that are most opportune; gical scope, and the superior moral poten- not so much for their military instructivetiality of Sea Power as compared with ness as for the undertone they carry of Land Power when both converge upon a reminder to our people of the duties and focus of action far distant from the base responsibilities which circumstances have of either, will be instantly admitted by forced upon them, and of warning as to anyone who knows what the words prac- the consequences that hesitancy even-not tically mean.
to speak of failure—to meet them firmly, All the elements of the art of war enter grasp them broadly, and deal with them into this problem, whether we consider decisively, must entail upon our national war-strength in its primary function as future. The fact that no such hesitancy an agent of compulsion or of conquest, or -much less such failure—is possible in in its secondary though no less important view of the lately expressed temper of our office as a moral agent at the back of people by no means reduces the intrinsic diplomacy and statecraft. As Captain value of Captain Mahan's work. Indeed, Mahan points out, the situation between it must to his further credit be said that England and Russia, viewed as prime fac- when he wrote the views and conclusions tors in the Problem of Asia, is that of an now before us, the verdict of the people overwhelming Sea Power exerted over, say, was yet in the future, and what is history twelve thousand miles of ocean routes and now had some of the aspects of prophecy a colossal Land Power operating over, say,
then. five thousand miles of railway. The Land Captain Mahan's supplementary chapter Power has the advantage in distance and on the “ Transvaal Dispute” is germane in time. But its routes must be first built to the Problem of Asia only in the and then maintained at vast expense, and sense that whatever conduces to the solidtheir capacities for grand strategy and arity of the British Empire must to the logistics are bounded not only by supply extent of its importance in that respect of rolling stock but also by traffic-limits weigh favorably in any scale of Asiatic of tracks. The ocean-routes, on the con- struggle. His attitude upon the merits of trary, are already built, upkeep them- that dispute and upon the results of the selves, and their capacities of transit are war it brought on will be approved by limited only by the ability of the Sea that class of catholic thinkers who perPower itself to build ships. In our own ceive and bow to the tendency of our time experience we have seen that, of the total which is towards the political solidarity cost of throwing a force into the Philip- and territorial integrity of great and repines and of supplying it there, by far the sponsible powers, and against the pretenmajor part is incurred in assembling the sions or even the perpetuity of weak, irretroops and material by land at San Fran- sponsible and effete states, whether small cisco or New York, and a comparatively monarchies or fantastic oligarchies, called minor part in transparting them thence or one might almost say masquerading as by sea so far as mere transit is concerned. -"republics." But his attitude will be
With more space at command the task condemned by that somewhat numerous of reviewing Captain Mahan's analysis in and altogether amusing class of our popuminuter detail would be captivating. But lation who find their chief diversion in under present conditions we must be con- provoking the American Eagle to utter
harmless screams, or in twisting from time libraries of students, but also on the desks to time the not over-sensitive tail of the of men of affairs who aim to keep abreast British Lion.
of the greater events and au courant with Captain Mahan’s Problem of Asia is a the broader concerns of our time. book that should find place not only in the
Augustus C. Buell.
A STRENUOUS LIFE
be regarded as an interesting and by severe privations, he was keenly alive pathetic episode in the recent history of to the apparent injustice of these inequalihumanity. It is pathetic because, not ties in the relative conditions of mankind. withstanding its laboriousness and its After two years of anxious cogitation, it hopefulness, it remains only an episode. came to him “like a flash of light” that It might have been supposed that Henry the root of this world-wide evil was priGeorge's activity, courage and originality vate ownership in land. To correct this of thought would have made a more last- evil, to set right the times that had been ing impression on his time. He was the out of joint these six thousand years, was propagator of a novel doctrine, the apos- the divine call to Henry George. Like tle of a new gospel, the ardent defender Saul of Tarsus, journeying to Damascus, of what he conceived to be the birthright he had been overtaken by a heavenly visof mankind; yet, as the generations go ion, to which, loyal son of truth that he and come, it is likely that his will be re was, he could not be disobedient. Hencegarded as the voice of one crying in the forth he must preach the gospel of uniwilderness.
versal ownership in land. The first thirty years of Henry George's He had made several tentative essays life were spent in frequent transitions in the domains of moral science and pofrom a ship's forecastle to a printer's case. litical economy; and at the age of thirtyTo those who knew him well he gave eight he began the book on which his promise of ultimate success as a public title to fame chiefly rests—“ Progress and writer ; it appeared that his mind, when Poverty.” This work, constructed with ripened by experience, might develop much skill and labor, embodies the Georsome novel form of philosophy; ho was gian philosophy; it is the Alpha and ever a thinker. He was thirty years old Omega of the Georgian gospel. Incidenwhen the sharp contrast of deep poverty tally, George was a disseminator of other and great wealth appealed to his sensitive radical ideas; he advocated the abolition nature as unjust and radically wrong. of tariffs and custom-houses and the adopWhy so vast a difference in the conditions tion of absolute free trade; he favored a of the very poor and the
rich should modification of land laws irrespective of exist in a well-ordered state of human the fundamental theory that private society was to him like the riddle of the ownership in land is altogether vicious;
and to his efforts to introduce into this THE LIFE OF HENRY GEORGE. By his son, Henry
country the so-called Australian ballot George, Jr. With portraits. Doubleday & McClure Co., 8vo, $2.50 net,
our freedom from corrupt practices at the
ballot-box is chiefly due. But his days He believed that even if he died in the and nights were given to the propagation fight, or if killed by the harassments of of his new philosophy.
the office, that event might inure to the Surely, never was a man more thor- advancement of the sacred cause. To him oughly devoted to a life-work than this the truth as he saw it was dearer than life, man. Unselfish, generous and intent on dearer than the spoils of office or the making sacrifice for the betterment of the gauds of power. He might have made condition of mankind, he took no thought his own the lines of Michael Barry: for himself, nor for the frail 'body which “For whether on the scaffold high, he was ready to waste in the struggle for
Or in the battle's van, the furtherance of what he conceived to
The fittest place for man to die be the cause of truth. His famous book
Is where he dies for man.” was sold by the millions of copies ; but In this temper he went into the camthe receipts from these sales he regarded paign and died with his armor on. It had with complacency only because they indi- been agreed that he should make only cated a further spread of his gospel and
four or five addresses during the canvass. gave him means to sow yet wider the seed With his usual impulsiveness, he soon of his thought. Again and again he was
threw discretion to the winds and made induced to ask office at the hands of the four or five speeches every night. A capeople ; but he never consented to take reer that might have been prolonged for this attitude except when he was per- years of useful activity was cut short on suaded that official station would enhance the eve of an election. His life-drama his influence as a preacher of righteous- ended tragically; his mission was closed, ness in the disposition of lands. Of a leaving his revolution suspended in the air. buoyant temperament, he saw in the en- Henry George's character was simplicity thusiasm which his alluring theories
his alluring theories itself; he was only ambitious to have a evoked and his attractive personal quali- hand in securing what he believed to be ties kindled, the indications of the dawn- the rights of the people; he shunned all ing of that better day for whose coming appearance of lionizing; flattery nauseated he watched and waited. Often it hap- him, and honest praise was accepted only pened that warmth of welcome in foreign as a tribute to the power of the truth he lands and curiosity to see and hear him preached. Of a temperament naturally appeared to him an assurance that the sanguine, he regarded as solid and real an day had really come at last. Again and Arcadian theory of life in which other again he said: “The revolution has men saw only an iridescent dream. His started. It cannot be hindered. We are no industry was incessant, and whatever may longer necessary to its ultimate success." become of his scheme concerning land
With some such feeling as this, we may ownership, the work of his pen remains a suppose, he went into his last political part of the literature of his native land. canvass, when, in 1897, he consented, for His biography, written by his son, is a a second time, to be a candidate for the monument of filial piety and affection. office of mayor of the city of New York. It is an elaborate and systematic work. In a little knot of his friends and disciples sparing no detail of private life, however the expediency of his accepting the nomi
trivial; and it is commended to the study nation was discussed; and George's only of all who would gain something from a part in the debate was to cut short as ir- story of nobility of purpose and singleness relevant all reference to his failing health. of aim in life.
THE LITERARY NEWS IN ENGLAND
books has been, there has been probably made his readers more angry nothing of supreme interest except Mrs. than Mr. A. G. Hales, an Australian, who Humphry Ward's “ Eleanor” and Mr. represented the Daily News at the front, Barrie's “ Tommy and Grizel.” Speaking and who has re-issued his letters through as a countryman of Mr. Barrie's, I should Cassell. To Mr. Hales the whole art of like to say that nobody as yet has analyzed concealment is absolutely unknown. With the emotional defects of the Scot, so far delightful colonial candor he says boldly as a woman is concerned, with such mar- what he thinks, and he has many obvelous insight as he. Tommy, I think, jections against our officers, for he has no is a much more common type of man from precedent of class rights to keep his tongue north of the Border than some of his in check. Like most Australians, he has a English critics would believe. Mr. Bar
fine turn for verse,
and many of his letters rie's keen perception of the defective-or in the Daily News, while printed as prose, shall we say eccentric ?-emotionalism were simply blank verse. The position of his countrymen is curiously illustrated of Mr. Hales is exceedingly interesting, in his play,“ The Wedding Guest,” where less for what it is, than for what it porhe brings into action as his leading char- tends in the future. We shall clearly acters an English man and woman, Paul have to admit the Australian into our Digby and Kate Omnaney, leaving the councils with far greater readiness than Scots to fill in the humorous and unes- we have hitherto done; but as he represential background of the story. Mr. sents a young country and a vigorous civBarrie has increased his reputation enor- ilization, it is certain that some of his mously by his new book, and the keenest methods will go very much against the interest is shown in the forthcoming story. grain of the bureaucracy that governs us. The note of the Christmas books has been Mr. Arthur L. Humphreys has jumped the increased excellence of illustrations, into fame as a publisher at one bound by especially in point of color work, for which his issue of Lord Rosebery's book on all sorts of processes of reproduction have Napoleon, which will be published in been used.
French by Hachette. Mr. Humphreys A fillip has been given to books upon sold no fewer than 20,000 copies of Lord the war by the discussions among the va- Rosebery's book. The son of a Baptist rious correspondents who have been out minister, he runs Hatchard's old-fashioned in Africa. Mr. Julian Ralph has already bookshop in Piccadilly. He began his given his opinion of some correspondents career as a publisher by issuing for private at the front with no uncertain sound; but circulation some
very charming little even among those against whom no such quartos, one of which was entitled “Kathcharges as he suggests can be made, there erine Anwill, Her Book.” Then he pubhave been strange little quarrels, the most lished some reprints of famous classics, important of which was Lord Rosslyn's all of them with a remarkable sense of impertinent story about the Household beautiful format. A few doors further Cavalry and the 10th Hussars at Sanna's west of Hatchard's is the shop of SkeffingPost, for which he humbly apologized to ton, publishers to the Queen and the the Prince of Wales, as honorary colonel Prince of Wales, who are peculiarly identified with the Clergy and Church of The suggestion revived apropos of the England.
death of Mr. Thomas Arnold, of Dublin, The Scottish History Society, of which that Matthew Arnold's ancestors were Lord Rosebery is the president, and where Jews of the name of Aaron, has been he recently made a most sarcastic speech finally knocked on the head by Mrs. about the “Encyclopædia Britannica,” Humphry Ward, who declares that the has published some admirable books which main Arnold stock was pure East-Anglian. never seem to get noticed by the great They were simple yeomen and fishing public, or in the ordinary journals of folk from Lowestoft, and it is said that literature. One of the most important their history can be traced back to the issues of the Society has been a history of middle of the sixteenth century. On his the Scot's Brigade in Holland, edited in mother's side, Matthew Arnold was Corthree volumes by Mr. James Ferguson, nish, while through his paternal grandwho wrote a capital book some years ago father he was connected with various on his kinsman, Robert Ferguson, the Irish families. “ Thus he was Eastnotorious “ Plotter.”
Anglian mingled with Celt,” says Mrs. Mr. A. R. Ropes, who, with his sister, Humphry Ward, “and whatever may be has written for Mr. John Murray a novel the case of other Arnolds" there is no dealing with nihilism, entitled “On doubt about the ancestry of Matthew Peter's Island," has had an extraordinarily Arnold and his family. “The other brilliant career. He is not only a learned Arnolds” probably refer to Sir Edwin historian, but is the writer of the lyrics for Arnold, who is of undoubted Jewish almost all the recent pieces at the Gaiety origin. When all is said and done, howTheatre under the nom de guerre of ever, there remains both in Matthew Ar“ Adrian Ross.” Mr. Ropes, who is just nold's and in Mrs. Humphry Ward's outforty-one, is descended from an Anglo- look on life a strange strain of Israel. American family who went across in the Between a Lady Mayoress who is a poet Mayflower. His father came back to this and Mr. George Laurence Gomme, who country in the early half of the century, has just been appointed Chief Clerk to but part of the Ropes family represented the London County Council, at a salary of by the historian of Napoleon, is still on £2,000 a year, London has a greater your side, while other members are mer- chance of being interested in matters litchants in Russia. Mr. Ropes won the erary than it has been for many years. Chancellor's Medal for English verse at Mr. Gomme, who is best known as the Cambridge, with a poem on Temple Bar. editor of the Gentleman's Magazine LiHe won the prize for the English essay. brary' was the original founder of the He was also eleventh wrangler, and first Folk-Lore Society and has written a great in the history tripos. In 1887 he wrote deal on folk-lore and kindred topics. the libretto for a comic opera, “Faddimir." This Christmas he is represented by “ The He is one of our best amateur chess play- Princess's Storybook," published by Con
He edits many French classics for stable. His wife has written a book on the Cambridge University Press, and he “ Traditional Games for Children.” Our has recently been writing to the monthly government offices simply swarm with reviews. One of the most amusing efforts writers. Mr. Edmund Gosse is translator was a ballad in the Contemporary Review to the Board of Trade, where Mr. Austin burlesquing Maeterlinck and the Princess Dobson is also employed. Mr. Frank Maleine.
Marzials, who edited Mr. Walter Scott's