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of the plates she uses in her book to the five dollars. These brass coins about the sudden gleam of light from a hole made size of an English half-penny, bearing in the wall by some bold spirit determined Chinese characters, and with a square hole to find out what the “foreign devil” in the middle, are threaded one hundred was up to. Mrs. Bishop was fortunate at a time on a piece of straw rope. Whole when the crowd showed nothing more hours were often wasted in counting and than curiosity. In one city a mob tried haggling over these strings of cash. Some to burn her out of the inn; in another she kinds of cash were current in certain citwas so badly hurt by stones that she was ies and not in others, and while it seems ill for days. To have to sleep in the same impossible to debase a currency of which room with the pigs, as once happened, or you can get eight pounds for half a dolwith a coffin containing a corpse, as upon lar, the Chinese shopkeepers were quick another occasion, were trifles. In the
In the to detect spurious cash in a string or to cities where foreigners were almost un- refuse pieces not up to standard weight known Mrs. Bishop was always followed and size. The time lost in the examinaby a mob of a thousand or more persons tion and counting of cash was a constant shouting out all sorts of opprobrious vexation. But the Chinaman has used epithets. Even when people were well cash from time immemorial just as he has disposed, their criticism was frank to the used fans and still uses them everywhere. verge of brutality, for her personal ap- Mrs. Bishop saw coolies fanning thempearance does not seem to agree with selves at the treadmill, bearers as they ran Chinese standards of beauty, and although along with chairs, mandarins, on the she wears a No. 3 shoe, her feet were judgment seat, and sentries on guard. considered enormous. Foot-binding, ac- Chinese soldiers plied their fans as they cording to Mrs. Bishop, is still prevalent marched to battle with the Japanese. in the interior of China. Except among According to Mrs. Bishop the curse and the Tartar women and the very lowest danger of China to-day is opium. So far class it is virtually universal, and the shoes as she was able to gather from Chinese of the peasant women seldom exceed four sources, about eighty per cent. of the men inches in length. The “hobble on these and forty per cent. of the women are adhoofs looks as if it must be painful, and dicted to opium smoking. The habit is yet the women walk long distances with- growing more and more common, and out complaint. A Chinese woman with while many opium smokers are by no natural feet is ostracised; a girl with un- means slaves to the vice or wrecks, its bound feet has no chance of marriage, and effects are patent enough to have led a bridegroom, finding that his bride had some observers to attribute the success of large feet when he expected small ones, Japan in the late war to her rigid excluwould be abundantly justified in return- sion of opium from the Mikado's empire. ing her at once to her parents.
China wasted her energy in smoke and One of the obstacles in the way of dreams. One of the great statesmen of travel on the upper Yangtze is the impos- China recently said that opium smoking sibility of understanding the currency of would result in his country becoming the the country. After leaving Hankow the laughing-stock of the world. There are brass pieces known as cash were alone of associations in the large cities organized any value. For one short journey Mrs. for the purpose of fighting this curse, but Bishop took with her seventy two pounds as yet the tide is all one way and allof cash, for which she had paid less than powerful. Some reasons for the grip that
the vice has obtained Mrs. Bishop finds in two
That conditions differ the absence of newspapers and books, and greatly and one theory cannot fit all cases; the poverty of the lower classes.
and that the practical man always disIn writing of the work of Christian trusts the theorist “on principle." In missions in China, Mrs. Bishop gives illustration one may note the test to which warm praise to the work as she saw it. a Connecticut manufacturer put Mr. GilAt the same time she admits that the re- man's list of profit-sharers. He wrote to sults as yet are unsatisfactory. If China each of the thirty odd firms on the list for is to be Christianized, it must be through a verdict on the business advisability of native teachers. The danger at present adopting profit-sharing, and received not is that China, like Japan, may accept a single reply unqualifiedly indorsing it Western civilization, while rejecting the as a “business proposition.” Christian religion.
The present volume avoids this risk of Philip G. Hubert, Jr. unreality. It is in the main, as has been
said, a record of actually existing modifi
cations of the harder conditions of emBOOKS OF SERIOUS PURPOSE ployment abroad and at home—“ well
fare" modifications, as Mr. Gilman calls
pose, the sociologist with a philan- says, the relation of employer to employee. thropic theory is apt to miss his aim. These well-fare modifications embrace Such an ethical novel or philanthropic every sort and kind of departure from the treatise is more than likely to prove an
theory of labor as a mere commodity, experiment in unreality, to paraphrase from establishing libraries and clubthe name given by Mr. Wyckoff to the houses to devices for making life more record of his discoveries in the rôle of comfortable at the factory, or for assisting unskilled laborer. The novelist uncon- employees to become home-owners. The sciously distorts life, the philanthropist showing is most impressive, giving perfacts. It is to be accounted the chief haps forty instances here in the United virtue of Mr. Gilman's A Dividend to States of attempts to “do something” for Labor that it is largely a record and not a the welfare of employees. To the sane treatise. Its author is an authority on optimist these facts are the more encourprofit-sharing He is a conscientious, aging because they are a record of indicareful and thorough investigator. He
vidual initiative as the circumstances of has the judicial temperament. And yet each case suggested; that is, the modificaeven he, when he preaches profit-sharing, tions are the diversely natural up-growths is not convincing to the practical man- of many minds without reference to any to the employer of labor whom, most of particular social theory. The introducall, he wishes to convince. This is for tion to the book is also full of significance.
It recognizes the difficulty (already alA DIVIDEND TO LABOR. A Study of Employees' Wel- luded to) encountered by the theorist in fare Institutions. By Nicholas Paine Gilman. Houghton, Mimin & Co., $1.75.
securing“ straight” facts from the practhe philanthropic manufacturer who is necessary or (in excess) as tolerable; and not a competent man of business is the that their treatment of the Indians was employee's worst enemy. Mr. Gilman kind and just, wholly undeserving the oftsays: "A hard employer who keeps his quoted sneer that Puritans fell on their men steadily at work for years, on the knees and then on the aborigines. The average wage, is much more of a real ben- chapter devoted to John Eliot, the apostle efactor to the operative than a genial em- to the Indians, is a most interesting acployer whose inexperience or lack of count of one of the most pathetic failures capacity closes his factory in a few recorded in history, whether one looks at months." Other features, such as the it from the standpoint of Eliot or of the account of Robert Owen or the discussion praying Indians. On the side are the of profit-sharing, are interesting, but not herculean labors of the man (of which his of equal value. Taken as a whole, the famed translation of the Bible was only an book is one that no student of present incident), his great personal sacrifices, his day problems can afford to miss.
tical man because of the latter's distrust, THE PURITAN AS A COLONIST AND REFORMER. By Ezra Hoyt Byington. Little, Brown & Co., $2.00.
humorously comparing the manufacturer THE MAGNA CHARTA AND OTHER GREAT CHARTERS OF to the Duke of Wellington who once comENGLAND, WITH AN HISTORICAL TREATISE AND COPIOUS
plained that he was “much exposed to EXPLANATORY Notes. By Boyd C. Barrington, Esq., LL.B., of Philadelphia Bar. William J. Campbell.
authors." It also recognizes the fact that
sublime faith and his wonderful personal In these days of the Cromwellian re- influence with the Indians. On the other vival, with popular attention turned to- side are the Indians themselves, gathered ward questions of colonization and expan- in prosperous, self-governing villages, sion, a direct, straightforward narrative, fairly started on a career of civilization, such as Mr. Byington's, of the way the when the reaction of paganism, embodied Pilgrims and Puritans solved these ques- in King Philip's war, left them stranded tions in New England has a very present between the combatants, distrusted equally interest. The Puritan as a Colonist and by both, and finally abandoned to the igReformer is supplementary to “The nominious fate of gradual extinction. It Puritan in England and New England,” is not an episode to strengthen one's faith Mr. Byington's previous study, which met in the profitableness of missionarying. with so favorable a reception. While no The chapters devoted to the practical work pretensions are put forward to original of Jonathan Edwards and to the indifferresearch, the conclusions of the most re- ence of Shakespeare to the Puritan movecent authorities are constantly given, and ment are interesting and informing if not no pains has been spared to make the conclusive. study exhaustive. The style is simple and Ellis, Eyton, Freeman, Stubbs and the tone judicial, if that word properly Rounds, to mention a few conspicuous applies to an author who writes under the names, have pretty thoroughly threshed strongest sympathy with the religious in- out the subject of early English rights tensity of the New England forefathers. from Domesday on. A person not an Certain points, which scholars have in historical expert can hardly expect to add general acknowledged, but which are con- anything of value. Mr. Barrington does trary to popular tradition, are here em- not lay claim to be such an expert. His phasized--for example, that for the most apparent intention is to put the conpart the Puritans came from“
clusions of Blackstone, Coke and Thomplies "; that their ministers were often uni- son on the Great Charter within reach versity men and Church of England of the “ general reader”-something that clergymen, being come-outers only in the hardly seems worth while. . sense of not accepting ritualism as either
Arthur Reed Kimball.
BOOKS OF VARIED INTEREST
of Mr. Bullen's “ Cruise of the Ca- enhanced by the humor of a quaint philchalot” gave birth to what promised to be osophy that punctuates this record of his a new fashion in books of the deep, a rival doings with many a phrase of his, like to the historical romance, but the move- "hit's all right to take boa'ders, jes so you ment died almost in its incipiency, for lack don't let 'em keep house," which was a proof combatants, notably in the field of fic- pos of his methods as a doctor. “Uncle tion. A few sea tales appeared, and were Still's Famous Weather Prediction” intra consigned to instant oblivion, because they duces another darkey whose reputation for lacked the elements of popularity. Cap- “wisdoms” and “knowledges” can best tain Slocum, however, has demonstrated be judged by this unusual ase of the that success can be achieved in all forms plural to emphasize it. Holly and of narrative, if only one has a story Pizen, Mrs. Stuart's latest book, includes tell, and knows how to tell it. His ac- three other sketches of negro life and count of his lonely trip around the world character in her best manner, and makes in his little yawl will be ranked with the an entertaining contribution of fiction to books of its kind that will endure, for he the literature of the South. [The Cenhas a style, simple, straightforward and tury Company, 16mo, $1.25.] vigorous that is admirably adapted to its In Just About a Boy Mr. W. S. subject, and a subject that has the ever- Phillips writes entertainingly of many fresh charm which, for some mysterious trips fishing and hunting with a Western reason or other, never fails to appeal to us, lad whom he found running wild along that of man alone and dependent upon his
the Missouri River. This original young own resources, courage and strength. It American distinguished between a large is the charm of “ Robinson Crusoe.” Cap- fish and a smaller one by calling the tain Slocum’s Sailing Alone Around the former “Uh Ole Balaam" and the latter World demonstrates anew how interest- “Uh Little Rastus,” and had other equally ing solitude can be, when with it comes appropriate names for the wild creatures danger, the need of skill, the test of a of the earth and air. Moreover he knew man’s mettle. Moreover, this daring skip- how to trail quail, which any sportsman per is a Yankee, from Nova Scotia, will admit is a method of hunting them where, he holds, the best Yankees are not generally understood. But the boy born and bred, and therefore 'possessed who explains how “they kind o flutter in of a happy sense of humor. His story th' dust like uh chicken does in th' midtells itself, and therefore is engrossing dle o' th' day, 'n' always come back to reading. [Century Co., Il., 1?mo, $1.50.] 'bout th’ same place at th’same time every
Mrs. Ruth McEnery Stuart's story of day,” knew more about the wild creatures old Uncle 'Riah Washington, the negro than many a mighty hunter. The author's healer, who relieved all manner of physical record of his wildwood wisdom preserves and mental distress by taking it unto him- many interesting and original observaself and who was of such robustiousness tions which will recommend the book to that he managed a dozen different maladies all who follow the brooks and forest paths. at once and overcome all, is a character [H. S. Stone & Company, 16mo, $1.25.] whose interest as one who occupied a The second series of The Law's Lumber
Room, Francis Watt's interesting papers old doctor's little daughter, fought that on the curious laws and punishments of terrific battle with big Bray; Bailey and the the past in England, is a most successful other who stole off through the woods at little volume of carefully selected data night to become "buckeneers;" and those worked into several chapters, written in a who came to grief after that desperate atvery engaging manner, quite as charming tempt to smoke a pipe like Steggles; the for their literary charm as they are valu- boy who turned out bad and was expelled able as concise histories of their subjects. are all fine new editions of the ones we Tyburn Tree, Pillory and Carts’ Tail, went to school with long ago. Gideon, State Trials for Witchcraft, A Pair of the Jew, though, is a character unParricides, Some Disused Roads to Matri- common and interesting enough to demony, The Border Law and The Sergeant- mand a special word of praise from every at-Law are the chapter headings in this man who has not outgrown the proper apbook. Mr. Watt enlivens his detail of the preciation of youth, which is a fine thing ancient and honorable course of the law as well as being proof positive that a man's with many amusing anecdotes of its some- heart is yet young. This lad who extime victims, as of the one Swift wrote of, hibited for three pence, or for two, to who
friends among the fellows, his gold tooth, "... While the rabble was bawling,
which was a false one, of course, and could Rode stately through Holborn to die in his
be unscrewed and taken out-who, when calling ;
the others went broke, bought up their He stopped at the George for a bottle of sack, bats, knives and marbles and afterwards And promised to pay for it—when he came
sold them back at auction realizing such back."
enorinous profits and who, withal, was Or of that remarkable highwayman, scrupulously honest and such a punctilious Claude Duval, for whom Ladies of Qual- little gentleman, is a figure altogether ity came, in tears and masks, to see him unique in the fiction of youth, and Mr. swing, and whose epitaph, in Covent Gar- Phillpotts's picture of him is a masterly den Church, read :
portrait in miniature. [Harper & Bros.,
12mo, $1.25.] “Here lies Du Vall : reader, if male thou art, Lyrics and songs of the seasons, birds, Look to thy purse ; if female, to thy heart."
brooks, and out-of-doors generally make Such bits as these of a humor that up the best part of Mr. Stratton's book, moves one, despite the weird of it, are Sparks and Flames, and will recommend deftly woven into the fabric of all his his- it to the many who are, and not without tories of the savage customs of long ago.
reason, aweary of subjective verse. Surely [John Lane, 16mo, $1.75.)
such lines as these from the poem called Many a man will thank Mr. Phillpotts "June," are very refreshing: for The Human Boy, a book of stories
“ The day delights to dally by, about a group of lads at a boarding school,
And drowse in golden light, which includes types of most of the inter
While with her silver-beaming sky, esting youngsters whom we always have
Loiters the lovely night. been indebted to, and probably always will “ 'Tis June once more within my heart; be, for whatever pleasure attaches to our
Through all my life 'tis June, consideration of these institutions, unfort
And buds of thoughts discordant, part Of
To blossom into tune," unately so generally unsatisfactory. these boys Corkey Minimus, who, for the Mansfield & Wessels, 12mo, $1.00.]