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THEODOOR DE Booy, archæologist and explorer, died February 19, at his home in Yonkers. Mr. De Booy had been in charge of the West Indian archæological work of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City, since 1911. Last year he was in charge of an expedition sent out by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, which penetrated unknown regions in Venezuela and Colombia. Few men knew the West India Islands and their archæology as Mr. De Booy knew them. A skillful and tireless worker, with the faculty of making friends wherever he went, he proved a most successful collector. He was the author of several papers on the archæology of the West Indian Islands, and a short time before his death he brought out, jointly with John T. Faris, the book The Virgin Islands, Our New Possessions, and the British Islands.

THE death is announced of two of the country's distinguished botanists, George F. Atkinson, professor and head of the botany department at Cornell University, and Volney M. Spalding, formerly professor of botany at the University of Michigan.

S. A. S. ALBERT, Prince of Monaco, has contributed to the Académie des Sciences,1 of Paris, a paper on the "Route of floating mines in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans during and after the war." Prince Albert has for many years made extensive researches into oceanography and mapped the course of the Atlantic currents by dropping objects so constructed that they floated just below the surface and escaped action by the wind. Mines sown in the North Sea, he says, will wander along the northern European coasts until they are finally swept into the fjords of Norway. Those which break loose on the Atlantic coast of Europe, however, will fall into the general Atlantic currents dominated by the Gulf Stream. Barring accident on the Canary Islands or the Antilles, or protracted circulation in the great Atlantic whirl, the Sargasso Sea, these mines will travel down the coast of Europe and of northern Africa, across the ocean to the West Indies and back by way of the Gulf Stream current. After their return to European waters, the mines will either go by the west coast of Ireland to break

1 Comptes rendus hebdomadaires, Tome 167, No. 27 (30 Décembre 1918).

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in the Arctic ice or in the Norwegian fjords, or return a second time over the previous transatlantic circle. Prince Albert calculates the average speed as somewhere around five miles in twenty-four hours. A complete voyage from the vicinity of the Channel and return would accordingly require about four years.

"THE time has arrived when there should be a great awakening in the teaching of geography in America," writes Professor W. W. Atwood, in the Geographical Review for January, 1919, "and when teaching must go far beyond what most grown people remember as geography." The importance of both physical and economic geography has been strongly brought to our attention by the war and even to a greater extent by the parceling up of the world, contingent upon the signing of peace. Never again will the United States stand in isolation, either political or commercial, and, as our market is to be the world, so we must study the world's geography.

Geography has never been taught to any extent in America beyond the primary schools. Even the teachers of geography are not trained in any phases of the subject beyond the elements, for virtually no courses in geography are given in the colleges. All the higher institutions of learning should open departments of geography as fast as adequately trained instructors can be furnished. There are many students who would take up this field of work as a profession if America recognized it. Each of the large universities in France has a department of geography; there is a staff of eight specialists in geography at the University of Paris. Great English and German universities also are equipped; and similar progress has been made in other countries, as Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Denmark, and the Netherlands. The time has come when full consideration should be given to the relations between geography and the expansion of civiliza

tions.

SIR ARTHUR PEARSON, the blind founder and director of St. Dunstan's Hostel for blinded soldiers, London, addressed a large audience of blind and their friends at the American Museum on February 5. Sir Arthur spoke of the marvelous work accomplished at the hostel and of the new depar

over

tures inaugurated there. "Victory blindness," is St. Dunstan's motto. The hostel impresses upon its new arrivals that it is not an institution for the helpless, but a school where "normal people who cannot see" are reëducated. It is for the blind themselves, said Sir Arthur, to disabuse the public of the belief that blindness is associated with helplessness, and accordingly he believes that the coming of the blinded soldiers in the prime of life from stirring scenes has been the blind's best asset. Play is taken very seriously at the hostel and is considered of equal importance with work; all forms of amusement are encouraged, from boxing to checkers. Dancing is popular with the men. St. Dunstan's Dramatic Club has developed into a regular London institution. Sir Arthur considers outdoor athletics as of particular importance in giving the blind renewed control over their muscles. As they have access to the large lake in Regents Park, rowing is one of the favorite sports, and expert crews are sent to race on the Thames at Putney, while those who have had previous experience in boxing take up this exercise with successful results. Any activity which fosters the competitive spirit promotes rapid development and raises the morale of the men.

The average stay at St. Dunstan's is nine months, during which the men must acquire an occupation, or relearn an old one. They must also learn to read. This last is of the utmost importance, for the mere ability to read continually widens the blinded person's mental horizon and gives him added confidence. In learning an occupation, St. Dunstan's insists that its blind be as capable and stand as thorough examinations as more fortunate competitors in the same field who can see. Among occupations not hitherto thought of in connection with the blind, Sir Arthur Pearson has introduced massage with much success. This is a well-paying profession and is readily learned by those of the blind who are inclined toward the work. Many more trades and professions are suitable for the blind than is generally assumed. The government of the United Kingdom now appropriates an annual sum of two million dollars to be expended in work with the blind.

THE Roosevelt Permanent National Committee, appointed for the purpose of choice

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POINDEXTER

LYMAN ABBOTT
CARL E. AKELEY
Gov. H. J. ALLEN
JACOB L. BABLER
Gov. R. L. BEECKMAN
C. J. BONAPARTE
SETH BULLOCK
JOHN BURROUGHS
Gov. T. C. CAMPBELL
RUSSELL COLES
WILLIS C. Cook
G. B. CORTELYOU REP. C. F. REAVIS
WALTER DAMROSCH MRS. WHITELAW REID
COLEMAN DU PONT H. L. REMMEL
REP. SIMEON D. FESS RAYMOND ROBINS
LYMAN J. GAGE
ELIHU ROOT
JAMES R. GARFIELD JOHN SARGENT
CARDINAL GIBBONS CHARLES SCRIBNER
MRS. MARY A. GIBSON W. W. SEWELL
Gov. J. P. GOODRICH LESLIE M. SHAW
JOHN C. GREENWAY H. F. SINCLAIR
COL. GEORGE HARVEY PHILIP B. STEWART
WILLIAM D. HOWELLS OSCAR S. STRAUS
HAROLD L. ICKES PATRICK SULLIVAN
WILLIAM P. JACKSON J. O. THOMPSON
SENATOR F. B. KELLOGG MISS H. F. VITTUN
SENATOR W. S. KENYON AUGUSTUS H. VOGEL
EARLE S. KINSLEY HENRY C. WALLACE
IRVIN R. KIRKWOOD REP. WALLACE
SENATOR P. C. KNOX DAVID WARFIELD
ALBERT D. LASKER CHARLES B. WARREN
WILLIAM LOEB, JR. HENRY J. WHIGHAM
PRES. A. L. LOWELL JAMES WILSON
REP. C. N. MCARTHUR GEN. LEONARD WOOD
H. F. MCGREGOR
LUKE E. WRIGHT
REV. W. T. MANNING WILLIAM WRIGLEY
THOMAS A. MARLOW ROBERT J. WYNNE

VICTOR H. METCALF
ROBERT R. MOTON
SENATOR T. H.
NEWBERRY
REP. JOHN I. NOLAN
JOHN M. PARKER
ADMIRAL R. E. PEARY
GEORGE W. PERKINS
GIFFORD PINCHOT
SENATOR MILES

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NOTES

THAT man should not be omitted in the consideration of the Primates is the underlying motive in the installation in the hall of Primates of the American Museum (see page 222 of this issue of NATURAL HISTORY) of models of the Norwegian, Chinese, and African races. While there is some diversity of opinion as to whether there is more than one species of man, there are undeniable wellmarked races corresponding to the subspecies in zoölogy. Of these the white, yellow, and black races shown in the present exhibit are the principal types. The figures were made by the Washington sculptor, Mr. U. S. J. Dunbar, who has been very successful in reproducing the races of man; the coloring is the work of Mr. Frederick H. Stoll, of the preparation department of the American Museum; the garments worn are actual articles of apparel collected in the field. The white race is represented by a Hardanger peasant of Norway in the costume of a young married woman. This type is found in its purest form in Scandinavia, where fifty per cent of the population are tall, blue-eyed, fair-haired, and long-headed. The yellow type, depicted by the Cantonese farm laborer, has straight black hair, yellowish or copper-brown skin, oblique eyes, high cheek bones, and projecting ears. In securing a model for the coloring and hair of this figure Mr. Stoll had much difficulty in finding a Chinaman with a queue, this form of headdress being no longer popular with the Chinese. He finally discovered an old Chinese chemist who generously served as a study for this figure. The farm laborer of the exhibit, however, has a skin much darker than the Chinaman seen in the streets of New York.

Perhaps the most interesting figure of the group is the African, inasmuch as it is an actual portrait of Manziga, chief of the Azande. The Azande are famous warriors of Central Africa, having pushed their way by force of arms from the Sudan down into the Congo where they are firmly established. They are also known as Niam-Niam (meatmeat) because of former cannibalistic tendencies. Now, however, they are an agricultural people, living chiefly on millet, durra grain, manioc, sweet potatoes, and plantain. From the grains they also make intoxicating drinks. The women of the tribe are kept virtually in slavery. The shield carried by Manziga is covered with rattan fiber and is both beautifully designed and carefully made. In

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war this chief often carries five or six spears, and when these are exhausted his supply is replenished with others carried by men running behind him. The Azande make also peculiar iron throwing knives which have many points and act somewhat as a boomerang when thrown. The dress worn by this figure is made from strips of fig bark beaten with hammers, soaked in water until very flexible, and then woven into cloth. The designs are stamped on with a die-such a die often consisting of the dried section of some fruit.

THE Complete dress costume of an Indian chief, comprising a large feather war bonnet, fringed shirt and leggings, with moccasins, pipe bag, and feather-trimmed standard, has been presented to the American Museum by Mrs. Anna Sargeant of Jersey City. The costume was the property of Chief White-eagle, a Cheyenne Indian of mixed blood, who had left a request with Mrs. Sargeant that this costume be presented to the Museum in case of his death. Chief White-eagle passed under the name of Don White-eagle. Before entering the Army he had been for several years connected with Barnum and Bailey's Circus. When America entered the war he was moved with intense patriotism and offered his services in the Liberty Loan Drives, having at one time a tipi in front of the New York Public Library where he appeared in the costume just presented to the Museum, and addressed passers-by on their duty with respect to the loan. These appeals were so successful that he visited other parts of the country on a similar mission. Later, he took part with equal success in Red Cross and War Savings Stamp campaigns. He entered the United States Army in July, 1918, and died in France of pneumonia, October 21, 1918, but not until after he had received special commendation by the general of his division for bravery of action at the front.

As a small help in the work of reforesting woodland areas in France, Mr. Percival S. Ridsdale, secretary of the American Forestry Association and editor of American Forestry, in visiting that country recently, carried with him a large number of Douglas fir seeds "a small package with a big value," cabling after his arrival that the French government accepted the offer of aid tendered by the Association.

WE NOTE with satisfaction the great step forward taken by Governor Sleeper of Michigan, in urging the foundation of a system of connected public parks through the state. In Indian days the northern part of Michigan was closely covered with the heavy coniferous forest which extended across the Lake Region as far as Minnesota, and the southern section by the edge of the hardwood growth of the Ohio River Valley. Even today a large part of the state is wooded with a rich and varied forest, representing about a hundred native species. Sectors of woodland along many of the quiet streams and hidden lakes are ideal locations for forest parks. Heretofore, Michigan has given no attention to this form of conservation, so that her fields and woodlands have been rapidly restricted by private ownership. Governor Sleeper's project will involve not only the setting aside of ground, but also extensive work in forest preservation and reforestation.

IN connection with the discussion of scenic conservation by Dr. R. M. Harper in this number, we note the progress made in the state of New York as reported by the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. Since 1849 New York has bought, at one time and another, about thirty-five public parks and monuments. These are for the most part historical sites, associated with events and persons of importance in American history. Twenty-two of these monuments have been purchased since 1900. Among them is Stark's Knob near Schuylerville where, during the Revolution, Captain Stark built a redoubt to oppose General Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga. Temple Hill Monument at New Windsor was presented to the state in 1917. It is on the site of the famous "Temple of Virtue" erected in 1783 in honor of the anniversary of the French Alliance. Here Washington publicly spurned the suggestion that he become king of the Thirteen Colonies. New Windsor is also interesting to us today as the former site of a large military cantonment-the last of the Revolutionary War.

A Handbook of Travel has been prepared by members of the Harvard Travellers Club, under the editorship of Mr. Glover M. Allen, secretary of the Boston Society of Natural History. The first part of the book contains practical suggestions on methods of

travel in various climates, of observations on camp cooking, firearms, equipment, and of notes on different beasts of burden from Eskimo dogs to camels. Each heading is contributed by an expert in the given field; for instance, the late Oric Bates, famous archæologist and explorer of the Near East, tells how to ride and how not to ride a dromedary; and Langdon Warner, director of the proposed American School of Archæology in Peking, describes the food and disposition of a two-humped camel, and of its Mongol owner. A very fascinating chapter on "Hunting Dangerous Game" is contributed by Dr. William Lord Smith. Dr. Smith's danger order is "elephant, tiger, lion, leopard, grizzly bear, rhinoceros, buffalo, gaur, banteng, other bear." Not the least valuable sections of the handbook are nine chapters, for the most part by members of the Harvard Faculty, on hygiene, astronomical observations, route surveying, photography, geology, meteorology, natural history collecting, anthropology, and "Notes on Traverse Surveys in Tropical South America." The expert here describes for the nonexpert the kinds of observations that may be made by the latter and gives directions how to take and record the facts. The chapter on "Hygiene, Medicine, and Surgery" is particularly complete, embodying not only a treatment of ordinary hygiene but also the diagnosis of common diseases, diseases peculiar to the Arctic and the medical tropies, surgical practice, and methods and equipment. In discussing geology and geography Professor William M. Davis gives considerable advice as to how to record interesting and valuable facts, writing on the assumption that "the traveller proposes eventually to publish an article or a book concerning his travels."

EDWARD CHARLES PICKERING, Paine professor of practical astronomy and director of the observatory at Harvard, died on the third of February at the age of seventythree. Before his selection by President Eliot for the Harvard Observatory, Professor Pickering was instructor in mathematics and subsequently professor of physics in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he inaugurated the first physical laboratory in the United States for purposes of instruction.

At the Harvard Observatory Professor

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TIMBER WOLVES OF THE ROCKIES

Timber wolves on a deer trail at the foot of the Arapahoe Peaks, Colorado, as displayed in a panoramic habitat group recently mounted in the American Museum.
The timber or gray wolf (Canis nubilis) is widely known for its predacious habits. Even today it is a scourge to game and stock, and in sparsely populated districts
has easily held its own against dogs, traps, and rifles. All the wolf-infested states offer generous bounties and the United States Forest Service undertakes to destroy
wolves on the forest ranges. The group in the American Museum attempts to reproduce through effects of lighting the coldness and brilliancy of a winter night in the
mountains. It was planned by Mr. Hobart Nichols, of New York City, who also painted the view of the Arapahoe Peaks of the Silver Lake Region which forms the back-
ground. The wolves were mounted by Mr. Coloman Jonas, of Denver; the foreground of snowdrifts and trees was executed by Messrs. A. E. Butler and W. B. Peters

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