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Pickering was noted for his pioneer work in the field of astrophysics (the "new astronomy"). Great advances in photographic technique were made during the early years of his incumbency and he quickly appropriated photographic methods for his astronomical studies, founding the great Harvard photographic library. He also devised new methods of measuring the brilliancy of stars and of classifying stellar spectra. Professor Pickering was especially known for the great personal interest and assistance he was so anxious to extend to any astronomical enterprise, and in the Harvard Observatory many of our contemporary astronomers received the inspiration for their scientific labors.

Two small monographs1 on mahogany list the various species of woods that are commercially sold as mahogany and even attempt to redefine the name so as to include many other red timbers. True "mahogany" is the wood of two closely related species (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. and S. macrophylla King) the distribution of which is limited to tropical America. Mr. Mell, author of the American volume, gives a list of sixty-one other "mahoganies" from all parts of the world, and Professor Dixon, author of the British book, describes the microscopical character of forty-five species with 138 reproductions of microphotographs. Mahogany was the chief wood used in England and Spain for shipbuilding during the eighteenth century, but with the gradual diminution of accessible supplies and the introduction of substitutes it has gradually · disappeared from the trade except for use in the framework of small sailing vessels and the outer planking of yachts. The great mahogany-framed ships have been sold for enormous sums to be cut up for the manufacture of furniture. Today mahogany is a very high-priced lumber employed almost exclusively in joinery and cabinetmaking. Mr. Mell gives the selling price of the best grades in New York in 1917 as from $175 to $200 a thousand board feet.

FUSTIC Wood (Chlorophora tinctoria), the wood with which our khaki and olive drab uniforms are dyed, has experienced a period

1 H. H. Dixon, Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, vol. xv., p. 431, and C. D. Mell, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 474, February, 1917.

of intensive cutting during the last four years. It is said that fustic has been bringing $45 and $50 a ton in New York, whereas it formerly ranged from $20 to $25 a ton. The wood is imported as logs from Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies, and after grinding, is used in the form of a water infusion for producing various shades of yellow, brown, olive, and green, for use particularly upon silks and woolens. It can also be compounded with other dyes for drabs, fawns, and olives, and with logwood for black. The fustic tree grows best near the coast and well drained banks of rivers, but, of course, the most aecessible localities have already been cut off. One or two trees to the acre of forest is the average growth, a fact which makes getting out the fustic wood anything but profitable, and this is particularly true where it is necessary to employ land transportation through roadless country.

AN IMPORTANT series of descriptive works on the flora of the state of Florida has been issued during the last few years by Dr. John Kunkel Small, head curator of the Museums and Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. Dr. Small wrote in the JOURNAL of the American Museum for December of one of his several collecting trips to little explored sections of the Everglades and the islands off the Florida coast. The handbooks are based for the most part on material which he has collected on such expeditions and are much more complete than any survey hitherto published. They include Florida Trees, Flora of the Florida Keys, Shrubs of Florida, Flora of Miami (all 1913), Ferns of Royal Palm Hammock and Ferns of Tropical Florida (1918). The last two are extensively illustrated with drawings of the ferns and photographs of their habitats. Southern Florida constitutes a unique province in the United States, being the only point touched by a strictly tropical vegetation, so that these extensive studies by a distinguished botanist form not only an extremely valuable addition to systematic botany but also practical guides to the identification of the trees, flowers, and ferns of Florida by the interested sojourner there.

GUATEMALA, with every confidence in her natural wealth of field, forest, and pasture, has traveled far on the route to recovery

NOTES

after the great earthquake catastrophes of December, 1917, and January, 1918.1 New and earthquake-proof structures are being raised of reënforced concrete and galvanized iron. Quick reconstruction was planned for the schools, and President Cabrera seized the opportunity to improve the school system and to establish a National University, whose faculty, under a superior council, will govern the curriculum of the primary and secondary schools of Guatemala. Within six months after the destruction of the city more than a million dollars had been contributed by citizens and friends and the preliminary steps toward reconstruction had already been taken.

THE section of books on folklore in the Library of the American Museum of Natural History, which has hitherto been somewhat undeveloped, has acquired by purchase 1034 volumes dealing mainly with European and Asiatic folklore and related subjects. In

1 See description of the earthquake by an eyewitness, "The Guatemala Earthquake." By Sylvanus Griswold Morley, AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL, Vol. XVIII, March, 1918.

SINCE the last issue of NATURAL HISTORY the following persons have been elected members of the American Museum:

Associate Benefactor, GEORGE F. BAKER. Patron, WILLIAM AVERELL HARRIMAN. Fellow, FREDERICK POTTER. Honorary Fellow, HERBERT L. BRIDGMAN. Life Members, MAJOR NOEL BLEECKER Fox, DR. E. W. GUDGER, MESSRS. CHARLES B. CURTIS, GANO DUNN, HORACE F. HUTCHINSON, RICHARD B. KELLY, HUSTON WYETH, and GEO. A. ZABRISKIE.

Sustaining Members, Miss S. D. BLISS and MR. GEO. W. MANN.

Annual Members, MESDAMES FREDERICK FRELINGHUYSEN, ALBERT EDWARD HURST, WILLIAM LOEB, JR., WALTER WILLSON METCALF, WHEELER H. PECKHAM, ALICE B. TWEEDY, JOHN COLIN VAUGHAN, MISS M. R. CROSS, LIEUT. JOHN KING RECKFORD, THE RT. REV. MGR. M. J. LAVELLE, DOCTORS ROBERT ABRAHAMS, MILO HELLMAN, ALBERT R. LEDOUX, GEORGE GRANT MACCURDY, EDWARD H. SQUIBB, MESSRS. FREDERIC W. ALLEN, FRANK L. BABBOTT, ADOLPH D. BENHEIM, NATHAN I. BIJUR, CECIL BILLINGTON,

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the selection of these works the Library has been ably assisted by Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, who has made a special study of this branch of literature.

AT a February meeting of the trustees of the American Museum, Messrs. Horace F. Hutchinson, Richard B. Kelly, and Dr. E. W. Gudger were elected life members of the institution in recognition of services rendered. Mr. Frederick Potter was elected a Fellow, Mr. William Averell Harriman, a Patron, and Mr. George F. Baker, an Associate Benefactor in recognition of their generous contributions and interest in the Museum's work.

MR. G. K. NOBLE has been appointed assistant curator of herpetology in the American Museum and Mr. Karl P. Schmidt assistant in herpetology. Mr. Barrington Moore, formerly associate curator of woods and forestry, who has been in France with the forestry branch of the Engineering Corps, has been appointed research associate in forestry.

CHARLES M. BREDER, JR., FREDERICK G. CLAPP, GEORGE W. DAVISON, JOSEPH P. DAy, WILLIAM J. DOWNER, JOHN W. EVERITT, FRANK S. HACKETT, FRANK MORTON JONES, G. P. KLAAS, SAMUEL HOWELL KNIGHT, JOSEPH G. LIDDLE, DANIEL M. LORD, JUDSON LOUNSBERY, S. MALLET-PREVOST, ROBERT MARSHALL, Wм. M. MCBRIDE, TOMPKINS MCILVAINE, WM. MELZER, HARVEY MURDOCK, C. W. NICHOLS, WILLIAM C. PATE, JOSEPH READ PATTERSON, LIONELLO PERERA, ARTHUR C. ROUNDS, HOWARD A. SCHOLLE, H. S. STILES, JOHN TATLOCK, ELI S. WOLBARST, and ALL HALLOWS INSTITUTE.

Associate Members, THE REVEREND WALTER F. TUNKS, THE HON. WALLACE MCCAMANT, DOCTORS J. M. ARMSTRONG, JAMES S. GILFILLAN, OSCAR OWRE, M. ROBERT WEIDNER, PROFESSOR S. C. SCHMUCKER, MESSRS. C. F. ADAMS, J. D. ARMSTRONG, J. W. CLISE, A. A. CRANE, GAYLORD C. CUMMIN, R. I. FARRINGTON, JAMES A. GREEN, H. SHUMWAY LEE, ERNEST P. LENIHAN, WILLIAM COLHOUN MOTTER, WINTHROP G. NOYES, ROGER B. SHEPARD, A. T. SIMPSON, B. W. STEPHENSON, RALPH WHELAN, PHILIP T. WHITE, and WILLIAM O. WINSTON.

The American Museum of Natural History

Its Work, Membership, and Publications

The American Museum of Natural History was founded and incorporated in 1869 for the purpose of establishing a Museum and Library of Natural History; of encouraging and developing the study of Natural Science; of advancing the general knowledge of kindred subjects, and to that end, of furnishing popular instruction.

The Museum building is erected and largely maintained by New York City, funds derived from issues of corporate stock providing for the construction of sections from time to time and also for cases, while an annual appropriation is made for heating, lighting, the repair of the building and its general care and supervision.

The Museum is open free to the public every day in the year; on week days from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M., on Sundays from 1 to 5 P.M.

The Museum not only maintains exhibits in anthropology and natural history, including the famous habitat groups, designed especially to interest and instruct the public, but also its library of 70,000 volumes on natural history, ethnology and travel is used by the public as a reference library.

The educational work of the Museum is carried on also by numerous lectures to children, special series of lectures to the blind, provided for by the Thorne Memorial Fund, and the issue to public schools of collections and lantern slides illustrating various branches of nature study. There are in addition special series of evening lectures for Members in the fall and spring of each year, and on Saturday mornings lectures for the children of Members. Among those who have appeared in these lecture courses are Admiral Peary, Dean Worcester, Sir John Murray, Vilhjálmur Stefánsson, the Prince of Monaco, and Theodore Roosevelt. The following are the statistics for the year 1918:

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Membership

For the purchase or collection of specimens and their preparation, for research, publication, and additions to the library, the Museum is dependent on its endowment fund and its friends. The latter contribute either by direct subscriptions or through the fund derived from the dues of Members, and this Membership Fund is of particular importance from the fact that it may be devoted to such purposes as the Trustees may deem most important, including the publication of NATURAL HISTORY. There are now more than four thousand Members of the Museum who are contributing to this work. If you believe that the Museum is doing a useful service to science and to education, the Trustees invite you to lend your support by becoming a Member.

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their friends

Services of the Instructor for guidance through the Museum

Two course tickets to Spring Lectures

Two course tickets to Autumn Lectures

Current numbers of all Guide Leaflets on request
Current copies of NATURAL HISTORY

$3

10

25

100

500

1,000

10,000

They have the following privileges:

An Annual Pass admitting to the Members' Room
Complimentary tickets admitting to the Members' Room for distribution to

25,000

50,000

Associate Membership

In order that those not living in New York City may associate with the Museum and its work, the class of Associate Members was established in 1916. These Members have the following privileges:

Current issues of NATURAL HISTORY-a popular illustrated magazine of science, travel, exploration, and discovery, published monthly from October to May (eight numbers annually), the volume beginning in January

A complimentary copy of the President's Annual Report, giving a complete list of all Members

An Annual Pass admitting to the Members' Room. This large tower room on the third floor of the building, open every day in the year, is given over exclusively to Members, and is equipped with every comfort for rest, reading, and correspondence

Two complimentary tickets admitting to the Members' Room for distribution by Members to their friends

The services of an Instructor for guidance when visiting the Museum.

All classes of Members receive NATURAL HISTORY, which is a magazine issued primarily to keep members in touch with the activities of the Museum as depicted by pen and camera; also to furnish Members with reliable information of the most recent developments in the field of natural science. It takes the reader into every part of the world with great explorers; it contains authoritative and popular articles by men who are actually doing the work of exploration and research, and articles of current interest by men who are distinguished among scientists of the day. It takes the reader behind the scenes in the Museum to see sculptors and preparators modeling some jungle beast or creating a panorama of animal life. It shows how the results of these discoveries and labors are presented to the million public school children through the Museum Extension System. In brief it is a medium for the dissemination of the idea to

which the Museum itself is dedicated-namely, that without deepening appreciation of nature, no people can attain to the highest grades of knowledge and worth.

Publications of the Museum

The Scientific Publications of the Museum comprise the Memoirs, Bulletin and Anthropological Papers, the Memoirs and Bulletin edited by Frank E. Lutz, the Anthropological Papers by Clark Wissler. These publications cover the field and laboratory researches of the institution.

The Popular Scientific Publications of the Museum comprise the Handbooks, Leaflets, and General Guide, edited by Frederic A. Lucas, and NATURAL HISTORY, edited by Mary Cynthia Dickerson.

Publications Relating to the Exhibits or to the Work of the Museum

These are plainly written accounts of the exhibits or of the subjects illustrated by the exhibits and are intended to give much more information than could be put on labels. These publications are issued at or below cost, hence the prices are net; postage is extra, and there are no discounts either to dealers or when the leaflets are purchased in quantities. They may be purchased of the Attendants or from the Librarian. Leaflets not included in this list are out of print and in most cases probably will not be reprinted.

HANDBOOKS

These deal with subjects illustrated by the collections, rather than with the objects themselves.

No. 1. NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS OF THE PLAINS. BY CLARK WISSLER, Ph.D., Curator of Anthropology. October, 1912, 145 pages, maps and illustrations. Paper, 25 cents; cloth, 50 cents.

This gives an account of the Material Culture, Social Organization, Religion, Ceremonies, Arts and Languages of the Plains Indians of North America.

No. 2. INDIANS OF THE SOUTHWEST.

By PLINY EARLE GODDARD, Ph.D., Curator of Ethnology. March, 1913, 190 pages, maps and many illustrations. Paper, 50 cents; cloth, 75 cents.

A résumé of our present knowledge of these interesting Indians. Among the subjects treated are the Spanish Conquest, Cliff Dwellings, Native Weaving, the Potter's Art and the Hopi Snake-dance. A new edition in course of preparation.

No. 3. THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA. By HERBERT J. SPINDEN, Ph.D., Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology. August, 1917, 238 pages, 75 illustrations. Cloth, 75 cents.

Intended as a general commentary and explanation of the more important phases of the ancient life and history of the Indians of Mexico and Central America, popularly considered as Aztecs, but tually including a number of distinct though related races, notably

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