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WREATHS OF MOURNING The story of Roosevelt's life is told, and we realize that his spoken and written words have often stood concrete results of his own vivid experience as boy and man. Those who know the facts will recognize the following as autobiographical: "I would order them (young men] to work . . I would teach the young man that he who has not wealth owes his first duty to his family, but he who has means owes his to his State . . . I would preach the doctrine of work to all, and to the man of wealth the doctrine of unremunerative work."

“Of course, what we have a right to expect of the American boy is that he shall turn out to be a good American man. Now, the chances are strong that he won't be much of a man unless he is a good deal of a boy. He must not be a coward or a weakling, a bully, a shirk, or a prig. He must work hard and play hard. He must be clean-minded and clean-lived, and able to hold his own under all circumstances and against all comers."

“In life as in a football game, the principle to follow is : Hit the line hard; don't foul and don't shirk, but hit the line hard."-From "The American Boy," 1900.

In such plainly spoken words as these the spirit of Roosevelt will live for innumerable future generations of Americans.

Among all his messages perhaps none is more important in the light of the present speed at which civilization is having to settle difficult issues, than the following so often quoted from The Strenuous Life:

“In speaking to you, men who preëminently and distinctly embody all that is most American in the American character, I wish to preach, not the doctrine of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of the strenuous life, the life of toil and effort, of labor and strife; to preach the highest form of success which comes : : : to the man who does not shrink from danger, from hardship, or from bitter toil, and who out of these wins the splendid ultimate triumph. . As it is with the individual, so it is with the nation If we are to be a really great people, we must strive in good faith to play a great part in the world. We cannot avoid meeting great issues. All that we can determine for our. selves is whether we shall meet them well or ill. The twentieth century looms before us big with the fate of many nations. If we shrink from the hard contests where men must win at hazard of their lives and at the risk of all they hold dear, then the bolder and stronger peoples will pass us by, and will win for themselves the domination of the world. Let us shrink from no strife, moral or physical, within or without the nation, provided we are certain that the strife is justified, for it is only through hard and dangerous endeavor, that we shall ultimately win the goal of true national greatness."

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"The man who
works, the man
who does great
deeds, in the end
dies as surely as
the veriest idler
who cumbers the
earth's surface;
but he leaves be.
hind him the great
fact that he has
done his work
well. The Roman
passed away

actly as all the na.
tions of antiquity
which did not
their very mem.
ory has vanished,
while he himself
is still a living
force throughout
the wide world in
our entire civili.
zation of today.

-From Roose.
velt's address on
"National Duties.

There is good
evidence that no
human beings of
recent times have
surpassed in in-
tellectual powers
various person
ages of the old
Greek and Roman
civilizations ; it
may be that even
the distant future
will hold no greater
geniuses than the
world already has
known. On the
other hand, the
future promises to
bring rapid evo-
lution in human


ganization of
state: there is dis-
tinct prophecy in
Roosevelt's exam-
ple and urging to-
ward loyalty, mo-
rality and coöper.
ation, in social
and political rela-
tions, both na-
tional and inter-
national, Roose-
velt stood strongly
for the “League
of Nations'

Courtesy of Brown Bros.

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Has Progressive Evolution Come to an End?




Professor of Biology, Princeton University

HE term "evolution” is used in path had to be found if further ad

several senses. When considered vance in organization was to occur.

in its larger aspects, as for ex- This new path was found in the direcample with respect to the increasing tion of multicellularity. Multicellular complexity of organization in the suc- forms did not arise by the coming tocession of life forms upon the earth, we gether of separate cells, as is sometimes are dealing with what may be called assumed, but rather by the failure of progressive organization or organic cells to divide completely; when the progress. When considered from the original cell divided, the products no standpoint of increasing diversification, longer moved apart as separate and as shown in the appearance of varieties complete individuals but remained atand species which are no more complex tached to one another, and instead of in organization than the forms from restoring all missing parts as each cell which they sprung and which may be did when it became a separate and comeven less complex, we have a type of plete individual, the initial differences evolution which is not progressive and between cell products were preserved which may be called speciation or di- and increased at successive divisions. In versification. A third aspect of evolu- this way entire cells became new units tion is that which deals with increasing of differentiation and at the same time adaptation to conditions of life and all the cells remained bound together which may be called progressive adap into a unit of a higher order. tation; this may or may not be asso- A wholly similar process of differenciated with progressive organization or tiation by cell formation takes place with speciation.

in the development of the egg; if cell Organization, of whatever kind, formation is stopped in this case, differmeans differentiation and integration, entiations never go beyond a stage specialization and coöperation, diversity comparable with those of the uniceland harmony. Progressive evolution lular organism, and if the different invariably and inevitably means in- cells fail to stick together they generally creasing differentiation and integration. lose many of their differentiations and In the long history of life upon the revert to the simpler organization of earth, organisms have varied in every the egg. Whenever a complex protozoan possible way, they may be said to have divides, it goes back in organization to made millions and millions of experi- a more primitive condition, and after ments in finding the path of progressive division it starts to differentiate over evolution, and in every instance this again; and so successive generations of path has been in the direction of protozoans make little or no advance in greater specialization and coöperation. organization. But when the cells of a

Millions of years ago unicellular multicellular animal or plant divide organisms reached the utmost limits of they do not go back to the stage of the differentiations which were possible differentiation of the egg but preserve within a single cell. Thereafter a new the differentiations which they have already attained and continue to augment a new path of evolution and progress. them during the process of develop- But here also, as in the former instance, ment. In multicellular organisms this the principles of progressive evolution increasing differentiation of the cells is are increasing differentiation and intemade possible by the close union and gration. In this way biological colonies interdependence of the cells, whereas or societies are formed, and in various in the unicellular forms the very inde- animal societies one can trace the stages pendence of the cells prevents increas- of social evolution from a condition in ing differentiation.

which all the individuals are much In a manner wholly similar to the alike and the bond of union between case of the one-celled forms multicel- them is a very loose one, to such socilular organisms reach a stage of differ- eties as those of ants, bees, and termites entiation beyond which they cannot go in which the differentiations and intewithin the limits of a single body. grations of individuals have gone much The very nature of differentiation signi- further even than in human society. fies limitations in certain directions in We do not know whether progressive order to secure further development in evolution of such animal societies has other directions. If a creature have already reached its limits in colonies of wings it cannot also have hands (ex- ants and termites, but we do know that cept in the case of the angels); if it further evolution, if it occurs, must have limbs for running it cannot also involve a still greater degree of differhave limbs for swimming; if it have entiation and integration of individuals enormous strength it cannot also have or of colonies. great delicacy of movement. Thus while certain animals are differentiated

Path of Intellectual Evolution in one direction and others in another, Meanwhile man has entered upon a no one animal can be differentiated in new path of evolution, namely, the inall directions. In man differentiation tellectual and ethical, and just as there has gone farthest in the structures and was a great forward movement when functions of the brain. In many other the path of multicellularity was taken, respects man is relatively undifferen- and again when social organizations tiated; his limbs, hands and feet, his took the place of solitary individuals, teeth and alimentary tract are far less so human advances in the path of inhighly differentiated than are these telligence and morality are perhaps the organs in many other animals, but his most significant in the whole range of brain is much more highly differenti- organie evolution. Here, as in the cases ated. This very fact of a highly spe

of physical and social evolution, the cialized nervous system and a general- factors or elements out of which the ized condition of many other organs

new organization is builded are present has led to the wonderful intellectual in the lowest and simplest forms of life, and social evolution of man and has but it is only by the progressive differmade possible not only the rational con- entiation and integration of these factrol of his own evolution but also the tors that progress is achieved. control of his environment.

The elements out of which the psychic

faculties of man have been developed Path of Social Evolution

are present in all organisms, even in Just as the multicellular condition germ cells, in the form of sensitivity, permits a higher degree of organization tropisms, reflexes, organic memory, and than is possible in the unicellular, so a few other factors; in more complex the union of multicellular organisms animals these take the form of special into a unit of a higher order opens up senses, instincts, emotions and




sociative memory; and in the highest little since the beginnings of recorded animals, and especially in man, they history, but in social organization the blossom forth as intelligence, reason, most enormous advances have been will, and consciousness. All stages of made, and changes are still going on at this development may be seen in various a rate which is amazing if not alarmanimals below man and also in the de- ing. The chief causes for this differvelopment of the human personality ence in the rate of physical and social from the germ cells.

evolution are to be found in the fact No one knows whether human beings that individual experiences are more have already reached the limits of de- quickly and permanently impressed velopment of their intellectual, rational, upon the intellect than upon the body or and volitional powers. It is customary the instincts, and especially in the fact to assume that there is no limit to the that through intelligent society past expossibilities of development in this di- periences are transmitted to future genrection, and certainly in the knowledge erations, each generation, as it were, of and control over natural phenomena standing upon the shoulders of the the most striking progress is now being preceding one, whereas the physical made, chiefly, however, by coöperative man begins his development anew in effort. But this is not the question in- each generation from the germ cells, volved when we ask whether man has and if he inherits any bodily features already reached the highest possible de- due to the experiences of his ancestors, velopment of his intellectual and ra- a thing which seems most doubtful, tional powers. There is good evidence they are very few and rare. that no recent human beings have surpassed in such powers many men of the

Progress Ilas C'eased in Many Lines ancient Greek race or many other indi- There is no probability that future viduals who have appeared in the past. evolution will develop more complex Perhaps the intellectual evolution of animal or plant cells than those which man has already reached its climax in now exist or have existed in the past ;1 these greatest personages of history, so there is little likelihood that more comthat even in the distant future there plex multicellular forms than those may never appear greater geniuses than which have lived or are now living will Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, than ver be evolved, for apparently the Shakespeare, Newton and Darwin. limits of complexity within a single cell

or body have already been reached. Path of Rational Coöperation

Doubtless, both cells and bodies will Finally, a new path of evolution has continue to undergo changes which on been found by man in rational coopera- the whole will lead to better adaptations tion, that is in the further development to existing conditions, but such changes of human society on a basis of intelli- probably will be relatively slight as gence rather than of instinct. Certainly compared with the great evolutionary in this direction the limits of human

* Among animals no new phyla have appeared evolution have not been reached ; in

since the vertebrates in the Silurian, or perhaps

even earlier; no new classes since the mammals in deed, it may be said that the rational

the Triassic and the birds in the Jurassic. evolution of society has barely begun. evolution of animals only about fourteen times in

the whole history of life have new phyletic paths It is a notable fact that the social evolu

been found and several of these were blind alley's tion of man is going forward at a very

The climax of the progressive

evolution of fishes was probably reached in the much more rapid rate than his physical Devonian, of amphibians in the Permian, of rep. or intellectual evolution.

tiles in the Mesozoic.

mation of new species has been going on more or In bodily structure and in intel- less continuously, but progressive evolution in the

sense of increasing complexity of organization has lectual capacity man has changed but

reached or passed its climax.

In the

which led nowhere.

In all these classes the for

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