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advances of the past; protozoa will still be hoped for by the scientist is that the remain protozoa and man will still be standards of races as a whole may more
nearly approach the best individual There is no evidence and little proba- standards which now exist, and under a bility that a higher animal than man wise system of eugenics and education will ever appear on this planet. To a this improvement can be effected. larger extent than in the case of any
Paths of Future Progress other creature man controls his destiny, and even if the human race should be
On the other hand, there is good evicome extinct, from what other existing dence that in social organization and in group of organisms is it conceivable coöperative efforts the limits of human that a higher type could arise? There evolution have not been reached. The are other animals which in certain re- future may produce no super-men but spects are more highly developed physi- it is likely to produce a super-state and cally, there are social insects which in a super-civilization. some regards are more highly developed Progressive evolution, then, has prosocially, but no other animal approaches ceeded along several lines and not along man in intellect and probably none will
a single one; it may be represented, not ever surpass him in the combination of by a ladder, but by a branching tree in physical, intellectual, and social ca- which growth has ceased in certain pacity.
branches but is still going on in others. Furthermore, there is no present In man there have been three main reason for supposing that in the future lines or branches of evolution,-physiman will be more highly organized cal, intellectual, and social,- but in physically or will be endowed with all lines progress has meant increasgreater intellectual capacity than have ing differentiation and integration. been many individual men of the past Furthermore, the directing and reguor present, though in both body and lating principles may be the same in all mind he will probably become better
of these lines; it may be, for example, adjusted to conditions of life. It is the survival of the fittest, but there are conceivable that further evolution of many kinds of fitness. Physically, the the brain of man may occur, just as it is fittest is the most viable; intellectually, possible to conceive of a further evolu- is the most rational; socially, it is tion of the neck of the giraffe or of the the most ethical. These three lines are trunk of the elephant, but there is a not necessarily antagonistic, as Huxley limit to increasing specialization beyond supposed, but all three may and do which it is not practicable to go. It is cooperate in such a way that each doubtful whether the brain of man strengthens the other. Least of all is could undergo much further differentia- there any justification for the views of tion without introducing disharmonies
Bernhardi and other biological miliwithin the organism or with the en- tarists that the most powerful, comvironment, and the facts that since the bative, and dominating are the fittest beginnings of human records there does socially. Darwin himself long ago pronot appear to have been any appre- tested against this mistaken conception ciable growth of the brain in size or of natural selection and showed that in complexity, and that since the ancient social evolution the most ethical is the Greeks there has been no appreciable most fit. increase in the intellectual capacity of But while these different lines of man, plainly indicate that the possible evolution are not necessarily antagolimits of evolution in this direction nistic, it is important to remember that have been reached. The most that can all life processes, including evolution,
HAS PROGRESSIVE EVOLUTION COME TO AN END?
are balanced as it were between con- finally include the whole human species, tending forces. Life itself as well as and that it will at the same time lead evolution, is a continual adjustment of to greater specialization and more intiinternal conditions to external condi- mate coöperation of all its members ? tions, a balance between constructive As the union of many cells into one and destructive processes, a combina- body, the union of many persons into tion of differentiation and integration, one colony, the union of many colonies of variation and inheritance, of the into one nation have marked great adneeds of the individual and of those of vances in evolution, so, let us hope, the the species. And in addition to these union of many nations into one league conflicting relations we find in man the may mark the next great step in human opposition of instinct and intelligence, progress. of emotion and reason, of selfishness Finally, with the development of inand altruism, of individual freedom telligence and of rational society we and social coöperation.
reach in human evolution the highest The past evolution of man has oc- stage of organization which has ever curred almost entirely without con- been attained and, so far as we can now scious human guidance; but with the see, the highest attainable, for we have appearance of intellect and the capacity here not merely the differentiations of of profiting by experience, a new and the human body and the countless differgreat opportunity and responsibility entiations of human society but much have been given man of directing more we have the control over environrationally and ethically his own evo- ment and the forces of nature which lution. More than anything else, that makes man the most powerful and which distinguishes human society from speedy of all living things whether on that of other animals is just this ability land, in water, or in the air; which to control instincts and emotions by gives him a keenness and range intelligence and reason. Those who sation that are unparalleled elsewhere, maintain that racial, national, and and which practically extends his nerve class antagonisms are inevitable because connections to all parts of the earth. they are instinctive, and that wars can Man has indeed by means of intellinever cease because man is a fighting gence added to his own personal powers animal, really deny that mankind can the powers of nature. His evolution is ever learn by experience; they look no longer limited to his body but takes backward to the instinctive origins and in the whole of his environment. not forward to the rational organiza- This new path of progressive evolution of society. We shall never cease tion is in all respects the most imto have instincts, but unless these are portant which has ever yet been disbalanced and controlled by reason, covered by organisms. The course of human society will revert to the level progress has led from smaller and of the pack, or herd, or hive. The simpler units to larger and more comfoundations of human society are laid plex ones until now, by means of in gregarious instincts, but upon these rational cooperation, we have governfoundations human intelligence has mental units which include as much as erected that enormous structure which one fourth of the entire human species, we call civilization.
we are on the eve of bringing together Can there be any doubt that, if the into some form of league or federation evolution of human society continues all the nations of the world, and we are in the future, it will bring into one in process of annexing to our own perorganization larger and ever larger sonal powers the illimitable forces of numbers of men until perhaps it may
of senPhotograph by Alfred N. Bailey THEIR INTERESTS ARE SAFEGUARDED BY UNCLE SAM Now and then a cry is heard that birds are injurious to man's interests and should be killed. For example, this last summer great pressure was brought to bear on the United States Food Administration to destroy all the pelicans in the Gulf Coast region, especially those on the coasts of Florida and Texas, because of the claim that they "existed by millions" and were daily eating hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of food fish.” The Food Administration asked the writer to investigate this. With the kind cooperation of State Fish Commissioner Woods, of Texas, Conservation Commissioner Alexander, of Louisiana, and Shellfish Commissioner Williams, of Florida, I was able to cruise the coasts of these states and visit all the breeding colonies of pelicans. We counted and estimated their numbers, and gathered quantities of the food which the adult and young alike disgorged in the writer's presence. At the conclusion of the investigation it was found that only about 65,000 adult pelicans were inhabiting the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 1918, and that more than 95 per cent of their food during the month of June consisted of menhaden-fish never used for human consumption
Photograph by Alfred M. Bailey Brown pelican flying above its home colony on the United States Bird Reservation locally known as "Mud Lumps," at the mouth of the Mississippi River
Wild Life Conservation Along the Gulf Coast
FLORIDA, ALABAMA. MISSISSIPPI, LOUISIANA, AND TEXAS IN BIRD PROTECTION, THE FIRST WITH MISSISSIPPI A NATIONAL
SHAME, LOUISIANA A NATIONAL PRIDE
O area of like extent in the
went on elsewhere along the Gulf Coast United States is so memorable at that time. The egging business
from the standpoint of wild also flourished in those and even later life conservation as that region which days. we may designate as the Gulf Coast.
In 1904, Mr. Frank M. Miller, of Beginning with the mouth of the New Orleans, reported that five thouRio Grande, this area sweeps north- sand eggs had just been broken on one ward, eastward, and then southward of the Louisiana islands inhabited by for fourteen hundred miles until we sea birds, in order that all the eggs reach the far-famed bird islands of gathered the next morning might be the Dry Tortugas off the south end of fresh ones. For years cargoes of eggs Florida. This region, with its shallow taken in this manner were supplied to seas, islands, sand beaches, and extensive the markets of New Orleans. He marshes, has for ages been the abode of stated further that at least fifty thouinnumerable water birds that have long sand eggs were that year taken and attracted the avarice of mankind. used in the manufacture of glue.
Thirty years ago, when bird killing Along the Louisiana coast from the for the feather trade was at its height, Mississippi River westward to Texas, one could have found a dozen vessels there extend vast salt marshes varying at once cruising the Florida coast in in width from five to thirty miles. quest of the vast assemblages of gulls, This extensive domain, which the land terns, egrets, and shore birds which at has as yet only partly reclaimed fronı that time inhabited the mangrove is- the sea, is the winter home of myriads lands and coral reefs. Similar killing of ducks and geese.
of ducks and geese. To this region were attracted thousands of hunters, done much to conserve the bird life for who, until recent years, shot unre- his state. stricted the wild fowl that gathered Passing on to Mississippi, we find here in winter to feed and rest. The the only state in the Union, aside from markets of the Louisiana cities were Florida, that makes no declared effort open to the sale of the bodies of these through state oificers to enforce its birds, and enormous numbers were laws for the protection of wild life. shipped to northern markets.
Two years ago the legislature passed The first serious attempts to protect a bill to establish a game commission, the wild life of the Gulf Coast were but the courts declared it unconstitumade by the National Association of tional, and Mississippi hunters kept Audubon Societies. As far back as merrily on as heretofore, killing very 1902 these societies were conducting much when and where they pleased. campaigns of education and seeking In regard to Louisiana the story is to arouse among the people of that a long one, if one should undertake to region an interest in conserving their tell it all. Mr. Frank Miller, backed wild bird life. These efforts have by the National Association of Auducontinued through the years, hut have bon Societies, secured the establishproduced little effect in much of the ment of a number of Federal bird territory, and pronounced hostility has reservations off the coast, and in July, been encountered in many regions. 1908, induced the legislature to create Thus on July 14, 1905, Guy Bradley, a "Board of Commissioners for ihe the Association's warden near Cape Protection of Birds, Game and Fish.” Sable, Florida, was shot by plume He was appointed chairman of the hunters and the birds in the colony board, and undertook the great work he guarded were destroyed. Later, up of conserving the wild life of his state. in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, on No- In due time his political life came to vember 30, 1908, Columbus G. Mc- an end. Under the leadership of the Leod, another Audubon warden, was present game commissioner, the Honkilled and the boat in which his body orable L. M. Alexander, Louisiana has fell was sunk with sandbags.
made notable strides in the protection The Association has worked system
of its wild life, and considering the atically for the establishment of state
conditions which he found when engame warden systems in the various tering office, about six years ago, no states bordering on the Gulf, but with state in the Union can equal his record. only moderate success. In 1913 the During the winter Louisiana conlegislature of Florida finally enacted tains more wild waterfowl than any a law providing for a state game war
other two states in the Union, and den and deputies. Two years later the here also there are surely as many gunlaw was repealed. Florida stands today ners to the square foot as can be found as the Rip Van Winkle state in the anywhere on this continent. Yet Mr. matter of wild life conservation. The Alexander has secured the enactment of state's efforts to protect its wild life reasonable and necessary conservation have been practically nil.
laws and he enforces them with a tact To the westward lies Alabama with and wisdom that are most stimulating. a short coastline, and inhabited by Aside from the Government bird rescomparatively few shore birds. The
The ervations, the Audubon Societies' issubject of bird and game protection lands, and the work of the Louisiana was taken up by the Honorable John Game Commission, mention should be H. Wallace, in February, 1907, and made of the three large tracts of marshsince that date this active officer has land set aside as bird refuges. One of