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CINEMA-MICROSCOPY

scope used is a Zeiss No. 1. This instrument is of excellent construction and is supplied with an Abbé condenser, a dark-field illuminator, and a special rotating and centering mechanical stage with very slow movements for micro-cinematography; but the ordinary stage is preferable for most of the work. Here the vertical movement is built into the stage and the bar carrying the lateral movement. is removable. The substage is focused by rack and pinion, but does not carry centering screw. The Berger fine adjustment is a very practical arrangement fitted with lateral milled heads. The body tube is 50 mm. wide. The diameter of the body tube is quite important for cinematographic purposes, for in working without eyepiece it governs the area of the projected disk and, within the covering power of the objective, the size of the specimen that is to be photographed. The ordinary microscopes generally carry a tube 37 mm. in diameter, but for the reasons just mentioned, a 50 mm. tube is much to be preferred. To utilize the wide tube to full advantage arrangements must be made for the removal of the

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draw tube. The interior of the tubes must be dead black, so as not to cause reflections.

The most difficult problem in cinema-microscopy is the illumination. Sunlight would be ideal for the purpose, but because of the uncertainties of its availability recourse must be had to artificial lights, of which the electric. arc lamp is the most useful.

Arc lamps are made to work with almost any current, direct or alternating, from 4 to 60 amperes or upward, giving a light that varies correspondingly from 300 to 10,000 candle power. The most useful lamps for the purpose under consideration are the smaller types taking 10 amperes or less.

The Bausch and Lomb 10-ampere lamp is very well adapted for cinemamicroscopy. It is a hand-fed are rendering about 1500 candle power; the carbons are regulated by milled heads which work very smoothly, and despite constant attention necessary to keep the arc in reliable working condition, this lamp has proved perfectly satisfactory. The arc is adjustable to different heights on a suitable pillar, and can be tilted if required.

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Microphotograph of a hydroid, Gonothyra (enlargement about 100 diameters), showing growth in branching colonies, also two kinds of members of the colony, feeding polyps (flower-like in appearance) and reproduction polyps

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A MASTERPIECE OF ASSYRIAN LOW RELIEF

This and the examples of Assyrian sculpture following, from copyrighted photographs of the originals in the British Museum, are reproduced through the courtesy of W. A. Mansell & Co., of London

The foundation for low relief was laid from twenty to thirty thousand years or more ago, before historic times, in southern France, by the Cro-Magnon race. Their sculptures on the walls of caves, in low or in high relief, or in drawings incised or painted, challenge our admiration today by firmness of touch and sureness of line, and by what some of us in this twentieth century A.D. should take to heart--the restraint which cautions against unnecessary detail.

Low relief in relation to architecture had its foundation in early historic times as a develop ment in Egyptian art. Egyptians discovered that conventionalism and simplicity even to the extent of stiffness of the lines and figures brought harmony of the sculpture with the building. They, however, did not use animal sculpture to a great extent, whereas the Assyrians did; there fore, the direct line of tradition of architectonic principles in animal sculpture comes to us by way of the Assyrians-for instance, through the beautiful sculptured friezes of Nineveh. The above low relief of the head of a horse is a masterpiece in which accuracy of drawing is combined with simplicity of modeling

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With expecial reference to development from the Cro-Magnons through Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome, and France. Whether in high or low relief or in the round, the posture as well as the planes, the lights and the shades, should carry the lines of the architecture.-A rast future for modern architecture lies in the lessons of the past on animal sculpture

By S. BRECK PARKMAN TROWBRIDGE1

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HE recent discovery of animal paintings and sculptures on the walls of the caverns in southwestern France and the Pyrenees writes the prologue of the history of art and at the same time makes an important contribution to the science of zoology.

These works of art, executed in the Aurignacian and Magdalenian periods, that is, about twenty or thirty thousand years ago, give striking evidence of the high state of intellectual development of the Cro-Magnon race to whom their creation is attributed. Their value to science consists in the truthful and accurate representation of a great number of animals, some of them long since

extinct in Europe, such as the mammoth, the horse, the cave bear, the wolf, the reindeer, the rhinoceros, and especially the bison, whose majestic and imposing form seems particularly to have appealed to the fancy of the artists. Their artistic qualities challenge unqualified admiration. Paintings, incised drawings, sculptures in low or in high relief abound, and all are characterized by firmness of touch, sureness of line, and by admirable restraint in the omission of unnecessary detail.

Prehistoric sculpture had for its background the bold and rugged rock walls of the caverns and shelters, and never erred in too great refinement of

'Appointed by Roosevelt when he was President, as chairman of the National Council of Fine Arts; incorporator, vice president, and trustee American Academy in Rome; member Trowbridge and Livingston, Architects, New York City.

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Part of a frieze of six horses, each horse relief seven feet long. found sculptured in the limestone under the sheltering cliff at Cap-Blanc (in Dordogne, France). Cro-Magnon artists invented low reliefa conventional method of representation of the round in a series of very flat planes by a proportionate reduction of thickness. Their subjects were many European animals now extinct, especial predilection being shown for mammoth, bison, reindeer, and wild horse. To view their work today, in comparison with modern sculpture, is to recognize the "unity of purpose, the sincerity, the restraint, the appreciation of plane and shadow combined with truthful and accurate delineation," which place it not as an effort of savages but as a work of true art by a highly developed human race

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From the Cro-Magnon painting of the Celtic horse from the ceiling of Altamira, in northern Spain.. This ceiling of ancient paintings, now so famous throughout the world, was discovered in 1879 by the little daughter of the Spanish archaeologist, Sautuola, who was hunting flints on the cavern floor. The paintings are polychromes, ochreous brown in color, the outlines etched in the stone, given strong contour lines in black, and often a second series in red. On the Altamira ceiling the paintings are placed in groups, often on bosses of the limestone, the Cro-Magnon artist having had sufficient creative genius thus. to adapt his work to the surface of the rock. (This painting of the Celtic horse may be seen in color as a mural in the American Museum and is reproduced in color in the American Museum Journal for De-cember, 1912, in connection with articles by Professor H. F. Osborn and Dr. Clark Wissler)

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(Above) The Wounded Lioness from Nineveh -This Assyrian relief is remarkable not only for truthful drawing and modeling but for the suppression of every unnecessary detail and the emphasis of every part necessary to the impression of unbeaten courage which the artist wished to convey

(Below) A beautifully composed group of wild asses from the frieze of Nineveh. Compare the drawing of the heads of these animals with the sculptured Cro-Magnon horse on the opposite page

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