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Four American bison of heroic size were modeled and cast in bronze by A. Phimister Proctor in 1915 for the terminals of the Q Street Bridge, Washington. In these Mr. Proctor does not let what is natural in form and pose be overruled by the principles of conventionalism in art. It is easy to understand that in the case of animal forms used as a motive in architecture even the lines of nature may be drawn away from their realistic course for the sake of harmony with the whole, but such deviation from the naturalistic could never be valid in an isolated statue



Bengal tiger on the Sixteenth Street Bridge, Washington (see front view of the same figure, page 470).-This great cat, ten feet long in the bronze, by Proctor, 1911, has been given a pose characteristically feline, and the anatomical detail, where indicated, is perfect, giving a result altogether pleasing both to the zoologist and the artist


The Sixteenth Street Bridge is an object of admiration in the eyes of all visitors to Washington, and the bronze tigers of heroic size lend an appreciable dignity and elegance to the highway. It is suggested that at the entrances of the National Zoological Park the addition of life-size statues of American big game, especially of elk and moose, would fill a great present need


though evidence of an ease in forgetting our country's great among the warriors she has produced in her history and civilization.

Apart from their glorifying representatives of the mammalian fauna of certain parts of India, the four bronze Bengal tigers on the Sixteenth Street Bridge, crossing Piney Branch, are superb pieces of work. The pose, which is the same in each animal, is full of dignity, natural, and with a certain subtle meaning that is not only characteristically feline, but especially appropriate for pieces of this character, occupying, as they do, a prominent position in one of the best known avenues of a modern city. Washington is to be congratulated upon this achievement; and Proctor's great, tigerine cats will be objects of admiration for all who view them in the ages to come.

does not allow the just principles of conventionalism in sculpture and modeling to overrule what we recognize to be natural. His conception of how the American buffalo should be represented for the purpose for which he employed it, most emphatically stands for this. These four splendid bisons are sculptured or cast so close to nature that their grandeur and naturalness impress all beholders favorably. Their very presence at the entrances to the above-named bridge at once stamps the latter as one of a series of famous spans in the history of American enterprises of that character. And it is to be fervently hoped when Washington comes to repeat such work in other parts of the city, that each achievement will bear the stamp of a similar knowledge of requirements; that it will prove to be an exposition of all that constitutes a correct conception of zoological and anatomical facts as we know them, and that this knowledge will be employed, in any particular instance, to perpetuate the normal and the real in such of our big mammals as we may select for the purpose, especially as these creatures are being as rapidly exterminated upon this continent as they are in the wilds of other parts of the world.

Proctor was also given the opportunity to model and erect four bronze American bisons at the terminals of the Q Street Bridge (crossing Rock Creek in line of Q Street, between Twenty-third and Twenty-fifth streets) a work which was finished July 22, 1915, or four years after his bronze tigers were completed.

It will be at once observed that in his idealization of animal poses, Mr. Proctor



Few instances of fish or reptiles in statuary can be found. There are hawksbill turtles and frogs on the base, at the feet of Neptune, in the famous Hinton Perry fountain of the Congressional Library, Washington. As shown in the photograph a very young specimen of the hawksbill must have been used as model, indicated by the great length and slenderness of the foreflippers

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A biological survey of Oneida Lake, New York, illustrates the relation of physical environment to plant and animal life. Six general types of lake bottom could be definitely distinguished: bowlder, gravel, sand, sandy clay, clay, and mud. These different soils support varied types of vegetation, which in turn serve as food for different animal groups, which in their turn serve as food for various species of fish. Although the invertebrates and plants of the lake are not directly of economic interest to man, they are, in their capacity of food supply for the edible fish, of great and hitherto largely unrecognized importance.

In the above photograph are assembled the invertebrate animals collected on 768 square inches of mud bottom under eleven feet of water. The animal life here is principally molluscan, snails and finger-nail clams. Caddis fly cases, mostly empty, a few midge larvæ (Chironomus) and a dragon fly larva (Tetragoneuria) are also present. [The last-named, unfortunately for the attractiveness of its portrait, has lost four of its legs]

Studies in Aquiculture or Fresh-water Farming


Curator, Museum of Natural History, University of Illinois


HE great war that has but recently come to a close has shown in a most forceful manner the intimate relationship between the food supply and the well-being of the human race. Food shortage has caused our people more or less willingly to economize food supplies and to increase food production, and to submit almost without a murmur to restrictions that in peace times would not have been tolerated. Perhaps nothing other than this world tragedy could have turned the attention of the nation so intensively to the study of increased crops. Yields of wheat and of corn have risen to unthought-of proportions and the vast number of home gardens attest the magnificent spirit of the American people in meeting the problems of decreased food supply.

And while the land is being made to give up an ever increasing share of its products, the waters are being studied and experiments carried on to demonstrate the possibilities of water culture. But the water has received no such careful study as the land; yet there are immense, almost unknown possibilities in the way of food crop productions in our inland lakes and rivers. These possibilities are being realized in some places and extensive and far-reaching studies have been made, principally in the states of Illinois, New York, and Wisconsin. From these studies, and from others carried on by the Federal Bureau of Fisheries, it has been shown that crops of fish and aquatic food animals can be raised in ponds and streams, artificial and natural, that rival or surpass in value the land crops produced from the same area. Much has been done for agriculture through the various agencies organized for the solution of its problems. Aquiculture, or the study of the conditions governing the production of animals and plants living in fresh water, has received no such extended investigation and we are still ignorant of many important facts which are necessary before aquiculture is on the same sound basis as agriculture. Professor S. A. Forbes, whose early stud

ies of the food of fishes in Illinois waters have been epoch-making, likens a pond or lake to a microcosm or miniature world. In it all of the processes of life go on almost independently of the land around it. But within this microcosm all are interdependent, the large fish feeding upon the smaller organisms, and these in turn upon those still smaller, and agencies that affect any one group of animals or plants influence in a more or less marked degree the whole life of the pond. Furthermore, in studying any one organism in this microcosm it is necessary to include all organisms, as well as all physical agencies, that are related to it or that come in contact with it. For example, if we wish to understand the life history of our black bass, one of our most valued food and game fishes, we must not only learn what we can concerning this fish, but also what it feeds upon, what the food supply feeds upon, and finally the general character of the environment, whether favorable or unfavorable. In other words, a complete natural history survey of the pond life is necessary to understand fully the history and value of this beautiful fish, or of any fish.

Realizing the poverty of our knowledge on the subject of fish life as it relates to the food supply and to general ecological conditions, the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University sought to remedy this defect, in a measure, by carrying on studies in Oneida Lake, New York's largest inland lake. Accordingly, Dr. C. C. Adams, of the Department of Forest Zoölogy, College of Forestry, established laboratories on the lake, and the writer was privileged to conduct studies bearing on these problems during 1915, 1916, and 1917. These studies included examinations of the stomach contents of fish to ascertain the kind and quantity of food eaten; an intensive study of the animal and plant life of the lake to ascertain the relation of the biota to the fish fauna; and quantitative studies to find out, if possible, the size of the fish fauna that the lake was able to

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