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tures presented for checking were not so familiar to the colored men as they were to the white men in the North. For example, a house without a chimney would possibly not be recognized as quickly by a Southerner as by a person in the North. It is also quite possible that northern white men, even though illiterate, are accustomed to seeing papers with pictures and diagrams much more frequently than the colored men of the South. Nevertheless, it is quite evident from the above tabulations, and still more so from the performances of the two races with blocks, guns, beds, tent rolls, squad formations, and the like, that the white race is tremendously more capable in mat

TABLE II

FREQUENCY OF SCORES MADE BY ILLITERATE RECRUITS, CAMP GRANT, ILLINOIS

Weighted Beta Scores

210-219

200-209

190-199

180-189

170-179

160-169

150-159

140-149

130-139

120-129

110-119

100-109

90-99

80-89

70-79

60-69

50-59

40-49

30-39

20-29

10-19

1-9

White Northern Southern Recruits Negroes Negroes

13

27

73

153

269

384

541

630

691

775

694

697

618

566

578

514

380

356

240

126

57

5

No. of Beta

Tests ..... Percentage of Total No. Examined. 23.9% Median Score 100.8

8387

128

15

34

46

77

87

88

141

133

180

188

177

157

115

75

32

683

1556

44.1% 61.9

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ters requiring ability to learn and to think than is the black race.

It is also quite clear that those Negroes who live in the North are a highly selected group. It seems probable that the Negro may not have the ambition to leave his southern environment unless he has somewhat more intelligence and ability than his fellows, and that, after arriving in the North, he is not able to compete with the white laborer and to make a living for himself and his family, unless he has a degree of intelligence which is fairly comparable with that of the whites among whom he is living.

Just how this fresh and more exact information, which was the result of

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

20

15

10

5

Northern Negro Recruits
Northern White Recruits

20

40

100

120

160

180

0 1 200 Literate Negroes and Whites compared: scores in test Alpha (first trial).-These curves show the percentages (indicated by the numbers at the left) of certain groups of recruits which received in intelligence test Alpha the scores indicated on the bottom line. This test was designed for men who could read and write English. (See page 683)

40

60

60

80

80

140

140

160

0 1

20

100

120

180

200

Illiterate Negroes and Whites compared: scores in test Beta (first trial).-Curves similar to the above but for test Beta designed for illiterates, show that about 9 per cent of white recruits made a grade of 110, while only 5 per cent of northern and 1 per cent of southern Negroes received this rating. (See page 683)

THE INTELLIGENCE OF NEGRO RECRUITS

mental testing in the Army, is going to affect the social problem of adjusting the two races, is not clear. The information presented above will be included with that obtained in many other camps when the Division of Psychology of the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army publishes its official report. The facts will be tremendously interesting and worth while as an indication of what the situation really is, but they will not, of course, in themselves indicate just what should be done about it. Each student of sociology will interpret them in his own way. The writer, being a member of the educational profession, has the following suggestions to make regarding the education of the Negro.

It would seem utter folly to try to transplant the system of schools which now exists for white people, and which has been developed for many generations with the learned professions as its ultimate goal, to the Negro race. The average northern Negro has ability to learn new things which is about equivalent to that possessed by the average eleven-year-old white school boy, while the average southern Negro is about as capable in his intellectual capacities as the average nine-year-old white school boy. Of course, there are a few Negroes of "superior" and "very superior" intelligence, but with our modern facilities for testing the intelligence of children and adults, this small percentage of the colored race might easily be selected out of the mass of their fellows and given opportunity to study the learned professions, if they so desire, without condemning the millions of ordinary Negroes to a system of education in which they are absolutely certain to fail of success.

It is just as respectable and necessary in this world of ours to till the land, to care for animals, clothing, Jawns, shrubbery, and personal comfort, to serve the public as waiters, porters, scavengers, and the like, as it is

685

to preach the gospel, explain the law, or teach mathematics. Inventive minds are cramped and become ineffective if they have to be turned constantly toward things other than the fields in which they are interested, just as dull minds are made discontented and dangerous if required or encouraged to undertake work in which they are certain to fail. We must all serve one another according to our particular capacities. The proper social ideal and educational program would provide for those Negroes and whites who will never be able to learn to read and write, effective training in some field in which they can be successful and happy. At present, about the only thing we offer is an academic education, leading nowhere in particular and impossible of mastery by more than a very small percentage of the colored race.

Such training as is suggested above should be a fundamental part of the public school system in localities where the intelligence of the citizens, white or black, is such as to demand that type of education. These courses should not be considered "inferior" or less "respectable" than the present public school curriculum. It is no disgrace for a child who is blind to have to attend a course which is prepared especially for those with his limited abilities, and it should not be any less respectable for a "dull" child, white or black, to attend that section of the public school system which is best fitted to train him in fields where he can take training and in which he will be content and successful. Contentment adds to efficiency and success leads to contentment. Our present school program is not fitted for the large mass of the Negro race, and for a considerable portion of our white race. Fundamental changes need to be made for the sake of those whose ability runs along the lines of personal service and bodily toil rather than to the juggling of words and ideas.

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Central African Pygmy

South African Bushman

SKULLS OF THE THREE TYPES OF NEGROID PYGMIES

These skulls may be taken as fairly typical of the three groups which they represent. They are all small and rather infantile in general appearance. In the top view the skulls present a rhomboidal contour, with prominent parietal eminences and a narrow frontal region. The brain cases overhang the face and cheek bones so that these are not visible in this view. The proportion of the breadth to length of brain case is greater than it is in most Negro skulls. In the front view the low, broad, nasal openings are conspicuous. In the Andamanese skull the nasal opening is somewhat higher and narrower than in the other two. The African Pygmy and Andamanese skulls have very high orbits and the width and height are nearly equal. In the Bushman skull the orbits are slightly lower. The faces are very small in comparison with the size of the brain case. In profile the skulls show more individuality. The face

Andamanese Negrito

of the African Pygmy is projecting or prognathous. In this it agrees with the
skulls of Negroes in general. In the Andamanese skull the projection of

the face is not so marked, while the Bushman face is nearly vertical.

All three of the skulls have vertical foreheads but the Bushman
shows an extreme development of this characteristic. The

occipital regions are projecting and the mastoid
processes are small in all three skulls

The Pygmy Races of Man

By LOUIS R. SULLIVAN Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, American Museum

P

ROBABLY no other groups of mankind have inspired so many theories and so much speculation as have the Pygmy races of man. From the very earliest times up to the present, travelers, geographers, philosophers, anthropologists, and others including myself have written of them at the slightest provocation. In spite of this fact a survey of the literature impresses one with the sparsity of concrete facts upon which all the theories and speculations are based.1

Before detailing their geographical distribution, let us come to an understanding as to just what we mean by Pygmy. A hard and fast rule has been set by some anthropologists which admits to the classification as Pygmies, any group of mankind whose average stature does not exceed 150 centimeters or 4 feet, 11 inches, in the male sex. As we shall see later, such a definition has certain advantages, inasmuch as 150 centimeters is the starting point for a normal frequency curve of the stature of the bulk of mankind. But a too strict adherence to the rule will exclude some true Pygmy groups. At the same time it will include only a very few groups.

Many racial groups who have for years been considered and described as Pygmies and who are undoubtedly related to other tribes considered as Pygmies cannot qualify at 150 centimeters. One reason for this is that enthusiastic travelers, disregarding accurate measurements, have almost invariably underestimated the average stature of various groups by from two to four inches, as later measurements have proved.

An observer, be he ever so careful, is usu

1 Eliminating the mere verbal descriptions of travelers and the more accurate descriptions of very small groups of individuals, the bulk of the data on the living Pygmies has been contributed by Man, Montano, Martin, Skeat, Annandale, Sarasin brothers, Barrows, Reed, Wollaston, Williamson, Neuhauss, Schlaginhaufen, Van den Broek, Poutrin, Czekanowski, Seiner, Werner, and Johnston. The most important studies on the skulls and skeletons have been made by Flower, Turner, Duckworth, Martin, Sarasin brothers, Shrubsall, Koeze, Van den Broek, Poutrin, and Schlaginhaufen. I shall not attempt to add to the existing theories, but shall merely note the main points of interest presented by the Pygmies.

ally impressed by the extremes in a group and will accordingly underestimate the average stature of a tribe containing many short individuals and overestimate that of a tribe containing many tall individuals. Still others have no use for averages and will designate certain tribes as being composed of both Pygmies and tall individuals. Such tribes undoubtedly exist but are rare and one type or the other predominates by a large majority.

Normally there should be a few individuals of average stature in the shortest group of Pygmies. Likewise there should be individuals of very short stature in a group having a high average stature. To make the matter clear, let us examine the distribution of stature in a few groups having different averages.

Our comparison will be less confusing if our groups contain the same number of individuals. Since this is impossible, we can obtain nearly the same result by reducing the series to a percentage basis and assuming that each group contains 100 individuals. For the sake of variety, let us choose 100 Andamanese Negritos, 100 Kung Bushmen, 100 Italians from Sicily, and 100 Scotchmen. In the figure on page 688 I have placed in column I the range of stature in mankind in 2-centimeter intervals. The shortest stature, 136 centimeters, I have placed at the bottom of the column, and the tallest, 186 centimeters, at the top. Individuals with a stature from 136 to 159.9 centimeters, we shall call short, from 160 to 169.9 centimeters, medium, and from 170 to 186 centimeters, tall. Opposite this scale we shall distribute the men according to their stature.

Each short vertical line represents one man and is placed opposite the figure in the scale which represents his stature. In column II I have placed the Andamanese, in column III the Bushmen, in column IV the Italians, and in column V the Scotchmen. A cross indicates the approximate average of each group. It will be noted that the rows near the average contain the larger number of individuals.

As we proceed in either direction from

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