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Roosevelt in South America on the expedition which explored and mapped the "River of Doubt," now the Rio Téodoro.-Roosevelt's books covering his explorations and his observations on animal life were written in the field, which in large measure accounts for their accuracy and vividness. (He is here shown protected from fever-carrying insects by gloves and a mosquito net helmet)

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The canoes of Roosevelt and Colonel Rondon on the "River of Doubt" at the junction of

a large tributary, the Bandeira

Theodore Roosevelt, Naturalist




OOSEVELT spent the first years of his life and the last years as a naturalist, and it chanced that he was in close touch with the American Museum at both ends of his wonderful career. In the range of his life as a naturalist, as an observer, traveler, explorer, writer, and last but not least, a biological philosopher, as in the range of his work over the vast fields of history, of government, and of international relations, his service was stupendous; and now that we are able to look at his life as a whole, we realize that he was not one man, but many great men, many personalities, combined and harmonized into one, -all impelled by indomitable will and determination, all inspired by idealism, all warmed and humanized by the most loving and sympathetic temperament.

This manifold ability and multiple nature came out in the course of his plans for a great expedition to South America, projected in the spring of 1913 and executed between October, 1913, and June, 1914. He had selected an unknown and particularly dangerous region, where the native tribes had never been thoroughly subdued by the Brazilian Government. He marked out this region as his first choice for a South American expedition, but I sent word to him through Dr. Frank M. Chapman, who was representing us in these plans, that I would never consent to his going to this particular region under the American Museum flag; that I would not even assume part of the responsibility for what might happen in case he did not return alive. With a smile he sent back a characteristic word: "I have already lived and en

joyed as much of life as any nine other men I know; I have had my full share, and if it is necessary for me to leave my remains in South America, I am quite ready to do so." Although more prudent plans prevailed, and we finally determined upon a route which resulted in the discovery of the Rio Roosevelt, yet the exposure, the excessively moist climate, and the dearth of food, clothing, and supplies, very nearly cost Theodore Roosevelt his life.

It was Roosevelt's warm sentiment for his native city and the survival of the memories of his boyhood education as an ornithologist, so delightfully described by himself in the pages of the JOURNAL,1 which brought him back into relation with the American Museum, after he had, by means of his two years in Africa, completed his magnificent service to our National Museum at Washington immediately on leaving the presidency.

In planning the South American journey, as in planning that to Africa, he prepared with the utmost intelligence and thoroughness for what he knew would be a hazardous trip, even after all precautions had been taken. With the trained assistance of his son Kermit Roosevelt, with the South American experience and stalwart courage of Mr. George K. Cherrie, and with the devoted and most intelligent companionship of Colonel Candido Mariano da Silva Rondon and Mr. Leo E. Miller, this expedition developed into the most important that has ever gone from North into South America. As a result of this expedition through Para

1 "My Life as a Naturalist," AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL, May, 1918.

guay and the wilderness of Brazil, more than 450 mammal and 1375 bird specimens were added to the American Museum's collections, in addition to the geographic results which aroused such a chorus of discussion and diversity of opinion. Roosevelt was so impressed with the importance of continuing this exploration, that on his return he personally contributed $2000 from his literary earnings, to send his companion naturalists back to the field. The Museum accordingly sent Messrs. Leo E. Miller and Howarth Boyle to Colombia and Bolivia, and Mr. Cherrie to the marshes of Paraguay, to continue the work of the first Roosevelt Expedition.

An American statesman, who should have known better, has recently characterized Roosevelt as "one who knew a little about more things than anyone else in this country." This gives an entirely false impression of Roosevelt's mind. His mind was quite of a contrary order; for what Roosevelt did know, he knew thoroughly; he went to the very bottom of things, if possible; and no one was more conscientious or modest than he where his knowledge was limited or merely that of the intelligent layman. His thorough research in preparing for the African and South American expeditions was not that of the amateur or of the sportsman, but of the trained naturalist who desires to learn as much as possible from previous students and explorers. During his preparation for the African expedition, I sent him from the rich stores of the American Museum and Osborn libraries all the books relating to the mammal life of Africa. These books went in installments, five or six a week; as each installment was returned, another lot was sent. Thus in the course of a few weeks he had read all that had been written about the great mammals of


Africa from Sclater to Selous. knew not only the genera and species, but the localities where particular species and subspecies were to be found. I remember at a conference with African great game hunters at Oyster Bay, where were assembled at luncheon all the Americans that he could muster who had actually explored in Africa, a question arose regarding the locality of a particular subspecies, Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi foai). Roosevelt went to the map, pointed out directly the particular and only spot where this subspecies could be found, and said that he did not think the expedition could possibly get down in that direction. This was but one instance among hundreds not only of his marvelous memory but also of his thoroughness of preparation.

We shall have a memorial of Theodore Roosevelt, the Naturalist, in the American Museum of Natural History. He honored the institution by his presence; he loved it and gave his inspiring touch to many branches of its activity. during the closing years of his life. In the intervals of politics, of pressing duties of every kind, he would repair here for keen and concentrated discussions on animal coloration, or geographic distribution, or the history of human races, or the evolution of some group of animals, or, perchance, the furtherance of some expedition. What the Roosevelt memorial shall be it is premature to say, except that it will certainly be a memorial to the beautiful and courageous aspect of his manifold. character and life as a naturalist. This memorial will be such as to remind the boys and girls of all future generations of Americans of the spirit of love, of zeal, and of intelligence with which they should approach nature in any of its wonderful aspects.



Roosevelt-The Friend of Man


Rear Admiral, United States Navy, Retired; President, Aerial League of America; Chairman, National Aerial Coast Patrol Commission

SORROWING nation pays meet tribute to the passing of the greatest American of his timeTheodore Roosevelt.

The one outstanding feature of the complex character of Roosevelt, the man of many parts, was his friendship for man in the abstract- and when this friendship took concrete form for the individual, it became, for its recipient, a tower of strength as fortifying and as impregnable as Gibraltar.

The friendship of Theodore Roosevelt was indeed a most precious possession. Whenever and wherever extended, it had the effect of a superlative superincentive to greater deeds-a step by step advancement, onward and upward, never permitting a retrogression.

I make the following statement without fear of successful contradiction, that no other single personality in this great world of ours today has gathered from such a multitude, from all quarters, kinds, and conditions of life, the utmost in spontaneous affection that has been accorded him during his years of contact with a world's people.

Thousands upon thousands, in all parts of the world, became his friend through the magnetic personality of his written words, which have reached to the uttermost extremes of enlightened civilization all over the globe.

Inestimable tribute should be paid to Colonel Roosevelt's memory for the advice and support, given when President of the United States, to the Peary Arc

tic Club Expedition to the North Polar Regions which resulted in reaching the Pole April 6, 1909.

In 1912, at the annual dinner of the Explorers' Club, I ventured the prophecy that in a few years the polar regions would be reconnoitered and explored through the air. That prophecy is about to be consummated.

The great war has forced the development of the science of aëronautics and aircraft to that point where no portion of the globe exists today that cannot be visited and explored by either plane or dirigible. It is indeed a fitting tribute to Colonel Roosevelt's earnest support of aëronautics, at all times, that the Bartlett Arctic Expedition, promulgated and organized through the efforts of the Aëro Club of America, should be known as "The Roosevelt Memorial Expedition."

Colonel Roosevelt was a veteran supporter of aëronautics. In 1897, when he was Assistant Secretary of the Navy, he used his influence to secure the necessary appropriation needed by Professor Langley to continue his plans for aviation. Colonel Roosevelt was also responsible for giving the United States Army an aeroplane before any other nation had one. In 1907 he approved the ordering of a biplane and a dirigible.

Scientific results of inestimable value to the United States and to the whole world are directly traceable to Roosevelt's friendship for man.

Theodore Roosevelt and Africa




ROM field naturalists who knew Roosevelt he always received profound and unstinted admiration; they knew that his greatest pleasure lay in seeing and learning; that he found infinite joy in studying wild animal life in its native haunts; that he had the observing eye and keen mind of the ideal naturalist.

His expedition to Africa had been definitely planned in his mind several years before it actually came about. I had returned from an expedition to Africa late in 1907, and recall the emphasis of his words at the White House one day as he said to me, "When I am through with this job, I am going to Africa."

I met him in Africa in 1912 on the Uasin Gishu Plateau. It was morning and our American Museum Expedition was marching toward the N'Zoia River, when one of the boys called my attention to a safari two miles or so to the south. With the thought that it might possibly be the Roosevelt Expedition, I sent a runner to make inquiry, while we proceeded to the banks of the river and made camp. The runner soon returned, stating that he had met a runner halfway, that it was the Roosevelt party, and that they were going into camp on the edge of the marsh not far from where we had seen them.

When our camp was made, we started out on our horses in the direction of the marsh, but when about halfway met the Colonel with Kermit, and two others of his party. We all returned to our camp and a good part of the afternoon was spent making arrangements for an elephant hunt for the next day.

Within an hour or two after leaving

camp in the morning, we picked up the trail of a small herd of elephants, and as they were easily tracked through the grass, we moved very rapidly. At about eleven o'clock, while we were following the trail quite casually, someone in advance heard a sound which resulted in our coming to a standstill. We made a short detour to the left, and a few minutes later were looking at a small band of cows and calves enjoying their midday siesta under a clump of bush. We advanced under cover of a large ant hill to within about fifty yards, from which point we looked them over carefully and decided which were valuable for our scientific purpose.

I indicated the particular cow that I wanted the Colonel to shoot for the American Museum group.

at this distance from the elephants we could speak only in lowest whispers and every move was guarded. I waited for the Colonel to take a shot, expecting him to do this from behind the ant hill where we were afforded a splendid protection against a charge, but he started forward toward the elephants and I, with Kermit, was obliged to follow closely. My impulse was to tell him that I wanted him to shoot the cow and not "take her alive!" He continued to go steadily forward, however, intending to get so close that there could be no doubt of the effectiveness of his shot; but the elephants suddenly began moving in our direction, at which he promptly fired. This did not stop their advance, but rather accelerated it instead, so that quick action was necesWhen we got through we had four dead elephants.


All of the party, except the Colonel

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