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THE PAPACY.

245

Miscellaneous.

EVENTS crowd each other in the history of the papal Church. The deepseated hatred felt towards the Catholic priesthood in some parts of France, has caused great alarm for their safety and led to the imprisonment of some of the clergy, by the political party now struggling to maintain its ascendancy in the city of Paris. The hope of the interference of other nations for the restoration of the temporal authority of the Pope seems doomed to bitter disappointment. Catholic countries are not in a position to interfere in the political affairs of Italy. France and Austria, Spain and Portugal, are fully occupied with the affairs of their own internal governments. They may sympathize with the Pope in his afflictions, but beyond that they can do nothing. In this constrained feebleness of the natural supporters of his throne, the friends of the papacy cast wistful eyes to the Protestant powers. Germany, which has risen to the highest place in military prowess, has been invoked to lend her mighty aid in this hopeless struggle. Attempts have also been made in our own country to induce the Government to interfere in this question. In the Berlin Chamber of Deputies, an amendment to the address in reply to the Emperor's speech, was moved by the Catholic deputies, proposing the intervention of Germany in favour of the Pope. This amendment was resisted with vehemence, and rejected by a majority of 243 against 63.

In the midst of his afflictions, some crumbs of comfort are offered his holiness in an address of condolence from the Catholics of England. This address was conveyed to Rome by a deputation of noblemen and gentlemen, who, reaching Rome on Saturday evening, April 1st, were invited to attend service the following day in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican. It was Palm-Sunday, and each received from the hands of the Pope palm-branches plaited and ornamented in the usual manner. On the 4th, the address, accompanied by a contribution of Peter's pence of 63,125 lire, was presented and acknowledged by an address and benediction. On the effect produced on the deputation by this address

and blessing the Observatore Romana says "It is easy to imagine with what sentiments were received the words of the revered Pontiff, and how lively was the emotion depicted on the faces of these severe islanders."

These proceedings on the part of devoted members of the papal community may soothe the troubles of the Pope, but they do nothing towards restoring his authority. Meantime a more formidable enemy than Victor Emanuel has appeared in the quarter where he was most anxiously looking for help. Dr. Döllinger, who has long held an eminent place in the Catholic Church in Germany, has refused to accept the new dogmas of the universal power and infallibility of the Pope; and has written a long and able letter to the Archbishop of Munich, asking that he may have an audience at an approaching meeting of German bishops at Fulda. Should such audience be granted, he is prepared to prove, firstly, "that the fathers of the Church have all, without exception, explained the texts upon which the new articles of faith are based in a totally different meaning to the new decrees; secondly, that the assertion that the new doctrine of the universal power of the pope over every single Christian, and of papal infallibility in decisions of the Church in matters of faith, has been generally, or at least nearly generally, believed and taught, is based upon an entire misconception of the traditions of the Church for the first thousand years, and upon an entire distortion of her history; and that it is in direct contradiction to the plainest facts and testimonies; thirdly, he is ready to prove that the bishops of the Latin Church, who formed the immense majority at Rome, were, with their clergy, already led astray by the classbooks from which they took their ideas during their seminary education, since the proofs given in these books are for the most part false, invented, or distorted. And he further engages to prove that these new decrees are in glaring contradiction to the decisions of other general councils and incompatible with the constitutions of the States of Europe. Of the reception of these decrees of the council, he says, "Up to

this day not a single one, even of those who have signed a declaration of submission, has said to me that he is really convinced of the truth of them. All my friends and acquaintances confirm me in this experience; 'not a single person believes in it,' is what I hear day by day from all lips."

And what is the answer to this declaration? "The Times corresponIdent at Vienna states that the Archbishop has published a pastoral letter, in which he asserts that there was no question at all at issue, for the question has been decided by an Ecumenical Council; and that historical criticism cannot be placed above the authority of the Church." The boasted unity of the Church is thus again broken. On the one side the Archbishop is urged by his imperious master at Rome to proceed with the utmost severity against Dr. Döllinger, on the other addresses of sympathy and evidences of deepest interest in the Doctor's proceedings are manifested by learned bodies, by the King of Bavaria, and by numbers of the people, who regard it as the signal for a great intellectual movement in Germany. The end of this movement it is impossible to foresee. With the example before them of the divisions, enmities, and contentions of Protestant communities, they may naturally shrink from attempting the establishment of another Christian community; but the love of truth and the liberty of its investigation which is dawning upon the mind cannot be extinguished. Spiritual freedom is the great law of the new order of things on which the Church has entered, and it cannot be entirely excluded from even the papacy itself."

MANCHESTER AND SALFORD MIS

SIONARY SOCIETY. - "The quarterly arrangement" of missionary services by this Society contains the usual amount of active labour by the several missionary preachers. Thirty-four societies are ministered to on the Sabbath by eight ministers, seven leaders, and nineteen missionary preachers and auxiliaries. In addition to these services, special services, chiefly Sunday school sermons, are announced during the quarter at Oswaldtwistle,

*Since the above was written, the papers have announced that sentence of excommunication has been pronounced by the Archbishop against Dr. Dollinger.

by Mr. Sutton; Burnley, Clayton-leMoors, and Embsay, by Rev. R. Storry; Wigan, Bolton, and Haslingden, by Rev. E. D. Rendell; Besses-o'-th-Barn, by Mr. Seddon; Rhodes and Failsworth, by the Rev. W. Westall; Liverpool and Oldham, by Rev. J. Hyde; Ramsbottom, by Mr. Gunton and Mr. Seddon; and Salford, by Rev. J. Presland. Social meetings are also announced at Oswaldtwistle, Bolton, Salford, Oldham, Blackburn, and Manchester. Announcements are also made of several annual meetings which will be held during the quarter. Of these one of the longest established is the annual meeting of the members and friends of the New Church in Lancashire. Of this meeting we have received the following account from a correspondent:- "The meeting was held this year at Oldham, on Easter Monday. The attendance was not so numerous as on some former occasions; the proceedings, however, did not appear to lack the usual interest of this assembly. The Rev. W. Westall was appointed to the chair. The speakers were the Revs. W. Westall, Boys, and J. Hyde, and Messrs. S. Henshall, J. Larkin, G. Wilson, W. Oxley, T. Robinson. The subject for consideration was Matt. xxv. 31, to the end of the chapter. The summary of the remarks was to the effect, that this parable, and those which precede it, treat of the Lord's coming and of the judgment to be then effected; that the judgment does not take place in this world, but in the world of spirits, or the intermediate state between heaven and hell; that it takes place upon those connected with the Church, and who are either in the internal love of goodness and truth, and thence in its outward practice, or merely in the persuasion of the truths of the Church, and the external profession of religion without its internal life. Those connected with the Church are they who have lamps and oil, illumination of intellect upon spiritual things, joined with love and charity; or they have lamps without oil, an understanding enlightened on religious subjects, but a will uninfluenced by love and charity of those who had talents of which they made use, and of those who had a talent of which they made no use: also of those who did the works of charity, and of those who did

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them not. The characteristics of sheep were described, and they were shown to be emblems of charity, or of those influenced by charity; especially they were types of those who were internally as well as externally charitable. Goats were shown to be the proper types of faith, or of those who were principled in faith. In the parable under consideration they represented those who had the knowledges of faith, and trusted in those alone for salvation, accounting the works of charity as of no avail. The setting of the sheep on the right hand and the goats on the left, denoted the separating of the good from the wicked, after their characters had been made manifest. In the world of spirits the right hand of the Lord signified Heaven, and the left hand Hell; but in the heavens His right hand denoted the celestial kingdom, and the left His spiritual kingdom, and that this signification was illustrated in the request of the mother of Zebedee's children." At the close of the meeting tea was provided, and some time spent in social intercourse and profitable conversation.

LONDON NEW CHURCH ASSOCIATION. The usual quarterly meeting of this association was held on the 29th March at Argyle Square, Mr. E. Austin, in the absence of Dr. Bayley, the president, being called to the chair. From the report of the executive committee for the past year, it appeared that the formidable obstacles to perfect union and combined operation which at first seemed to exist, have been found in experience to possess the slightest possible weight, and to effectually disappear before the warm and kindly spirit which has animated all subsequent proceedings. In reviewing the work actually accomplished, the first and most important part is that connected with the interchange of ministers-important, not as gratifying the curiosity of our societies, but as a means of building up a warm and appreciative friendship among us. This

has been the result with every society, and the visits have not only been cheering to them, but of essential use to the ministers who have engaged in them. The following is a detail of the interchanges:- Dr. Bayley has officiated at Islington and South London; Dr. Tafel also at Islington and South London; Rev. T. L. Marsden at

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Deptford, Hammersmith, South London, and Buttesland St.; Mr. Bateman at Argyle Square, Cross St., and South London (twice); Mr. Austin, Argyle Square, Cross St., Islington (twice), Deptford, Hammersmith, and Snodland; Mr. Rhodes, South London, Snodland, and Hammersmith (thrice); Mr. Madeley, Islington, South London, Snodland, and Deptford (thrice); Mr. Ramage, Snodland. Among the subjects discussed as opening the way for increased usefulness may be mentioned a recommendation to each minister or leader to forward handbills of all lectures to be delivered by him at his own place of worship to every minister or leader of the association. It was thought by some that a simultaneous course of lectures might possibly be useful, but no action in such line has yet been taken. The various styles and designations under which our places of worship have appeared in the Post Office Directory came under discussion, and one uniform title was adopted and recommended to each society: "New Jerusalem Church (Swedenborgian).' A complete list of our London churches, with ministers' names and addresses, was inserted in the Post Office Directory, and much fuller accounts appeared in the Protestant Dissenters' Almanac, and the Clerical Year Book. These latter articles were prepared at the express request of the respective editors, and cannot but be useful. The subject of the attacks on the New Church which have appeared from time to time in the columns of the newspaper press was also discussed at one of the meetings, together with the best means of counteracting them, when it was decided that all members of the different societies meeting any such in future be requested to forward a copy to the secretary of the association, who was charged either to reply or to forward for purpose of reply to one of the members of the executive committee. Another subject which has been brought before the association is the establishment of a weekly or bi-weekly newspaper. While there was the utmost unanimity as to the desirableness of possessing such an organ, very considerable difference of opinion existed as to the possibility of realizing it. Eventually a sub-committee of those most active in bringing forward the

subject, and most sanguine of its success, was appointed to consider and report thereon. The first general meeting of the association was held on the 16th January, at Argyle Square, and as stated in the March number of the Intellectual Repository, was a complete success. The names of the representatives for the ensuing year were announced, after which the following officers were elected: President, Mr. E. Austin, 45 Wiltshire Road, Brixton; Secretary, Mr E. Madeley, New Road, Shepherd's Bush; Treasurer, Mr. Elliott, 24 Calford Road, Islington; Executive Committee, the President, Dr. Bayley, Dr. Tafel, Mr. Bateman, and the secretary and treasurer. The newspaper question was again discussed at much length, and it was eventually decided to further consider it at the next meeting in June. Meanwhile additional information as to cost, &c., will be procured, and the secretary of the sub-committee, Mr. F. Skelton, 192 Blackfriar's Road, London, will be glad to receive suggestions from any friends interested in the dseign.

PUBLIC MEETINGS IN LONDON.

Missionary and Tract Society.-The annual meeting of this institution is appointed to be held in Argyle Square Church on Wednesday, the 10th of May. The report of the year's labours will be presented; and several friends of New Church missions will take part in the proceedings.

Swedenborg Society. The sixty-first anniversary of this society is fixed to be held at the Society's house, 36 Bloomsbury Street, on Tuesday, June 20th-the Rev. A. Clissold in the chair. The report will, as usual, contain much nteresting information, and will shew that the Committee have been actively engaged in extending the sphere of the Society's operations.

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earthly coming in the clouds, or a higher revelation of love and wisdom to the souls of men? and 4. The Resurrection and Judgment. On each occasion the hall was very well filled by a large and attentive audience who listened apparently with the greatest interest to four very clear and eloquent discourses. At the close of each lecture questions on the subject of the evening were permitted, a privilege which was at once taken advantage of by many present, to offer difficulties and receive explanations, which were given in a very satisfactory manner. There were several clergymen present, but only in one instance was exception taken to the views advanced. At the closing lecture a very hearty and unanimous vote of thanks was passed by acclamation to Dr. Bayley, and the hope expressed that he would ere long favour Shoreditch with another visit. A large number of tracts were distributed, and about four pounds worth of books were sold at the doors. Another good result from these lectures has been the publicity they have given to strangers of the existence of the Buttesland St. Church. The attendence there has largely increased, and we are also glad to state that this increase is owing, to a great extent, to the able and efficient manner in which Mr. Ramage officiates as leader. On the whole Dr. Bayley's visit to Shoreditch has been very welcome to the friends of the North-East of London, and the results equally satisfactory.

TESTIMONIAL TO MRS. PITMAN FROM THE ARGYLE SQUARE SOCIETY.-The usual social meeting of the Argyle Square Society was held on Good Friday the 7th of April. It was well attended by a large number of the members of the New Church in London. The subject for consideration was the 22d Psalm, which was spoken to by Dr. Bayley, the chairman, and other friends. On this occasion the Society presented to Mrs. Pitman a testimonial of their affectionate esteem and regard for her valuable services. Mr. Watson presented the testimonial, which consisted of a silver salver and a gold bracelet, with a short address, which was supported by the chairman and Mr. Gunton. Mr. Pitman returned thanks for his wife in a kind and appropriate speech. On the salver was the follow

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BOLTON. Our last number contained a notice of a lecture on Swedenborg given in the Unitarian Chapel in this town by a minister of that denomination. To keep alive the interest thus excited, and to enable the public to judge of the character and writings of our great author from the stand-point of the New Church, another lecture was given in the hall of the Mechanics Institution, by the Rev. Mr. Hyde, on the evening of March 30th. attendance at this lecture, notwithstanding charges of admission varying from a shilling to threepence, was good, amounting to not less than four hundred persons. The gentleman who presided was a member of another religious community, and in his opening remarks said that his object would be "not to see how many things he should disagree with, but to find out how many things he could agree with. It seemed to him the time had arrived for contention amongst the various sections of religionists to be as far as possible done away with. He thought it was not a seemly thing for individuals always to be finding fault with each other, and seeing how they could throw stones at each other's religion." The lecture was delivered with Mr. Hyde's well-known ability, and received by his audience with strong marks of approbation, breaking out at its close with loud applause. A vote of thanks was proposed by a member of the congregational body and cordially adopted by the meeting. On the evening of Easter Monday the society held a public teameeting in the school-room. The attendance, though not so numerous as expected, was encouraging, and the proceedings pleasant and useful. Mr. Deans, the leader of the society, who was in the chair, explained that the object of the meeting was to afford the members and friends of the society the opportunity of spending an evening together in a social manner, accompanied with religious conversation and

instruction. Social meetings of an attractive and popular kind were from time to time held in the society, chiefly by its younger members. It was felt that a Christian Church ought to have some social meetings of a more distinctively religious character, and it had been determined, therefore, to hold a meeting of this kind once every three months. At the close of the chairman's address, the Rev. R. Storry, who was present by invitation, addressed the meeting on the mission of the New Church as a separate Christian community. Thirty years ago the popular theology, and the current religious teaching, were so far removed from all correct apprehension of the true Christian religion, that there could be no hesitation as to the duty of instituting a worship and teaching in harmony with the truth made known for the restoration of the Church, and needed for the spiritual well-being of the world. Since that time a great change has taken place in the public teaching of all religious communities, and an approach made to the doctrines of the New Church. Where this is the case, however, the teaching of the pulpit is not in harmony with the doctrines embodied in the chapel deeds. So palpably was this case that the fact had been intimated in a leading article in one of our most influential local papers. There was no danger, however, of the preachers being brought into trouble on this account as, happily for them, the more intelligent of their flocks had kept pace with them, if they had not outstripped them in increased freedom of thought. Still the fact remained of this discrepancy between the standards of faith and the teaching ofthe preachers, causing disquiet and needing adjustment. It was one part of the mission of the New Church to make known the system of doctrine that by an enlightened exposition of the Word of God, should give assurance, strength, and consistency to Christian teaching, and bring it into harmony with the wisest thought and the most certain elements of human progress. From this point the speaker was led to remark on some of the features of what is regarded as the advanced teaching of the day, pointing out its frequent tendency to undermine all true conception of the divinity and divine inspiration of the Word, and of the Deity of the Saviour; and commenting on the de

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